Eine Frau geht an einer Weltkarte, die aus Kinderporträts besteht, am Freitag (18.06.2010) im JuniorMuseum in Köln vorbei.

Italy

The transformation of the role of Italy from a country of emigration par excellence to a country of immigration took place somewhat suddenly from the late 1970s onwards. Especially in the last twenty years, Italy has experienced stronger immigration than many other European countries and currently the annual growth rate of the immigrant population is one of the highest in the European Union. Despite its young history of immigration, the country has significant experience regarding migration movements: apart from being one of the world’s largest exporters of manpower in the past, Italy, from the end of the 19th century onwards, also experienced sizable movements of internal migration from the agricultural South to the more industrialized North.

Italien - Karte

Dr. Giorgia Di Muzio

Introduction

The transformation of the role of Italy from a country of emigration par excellence to a country of immigration took place somewhat suddenly from the late 1970s onwards. Especially in the last twenty years, Italy has experienced stronger immigration than many other European countries and currently the annual growth rate of the immigrant population is one of the highest in the European Union.

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Dr. Giorgia Di Muzio

Historical Development of Immigration

In the second half of the 19th century and in the early 20th century, Italy contributed greatly to intra-European migration flows and registered sizable emigration to North and South America and Australia.

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Dr. Giorgia Di Muzio

Recent Developments

In 1991, Italy was, for the first time, confronted with "mass immigration". On only two days, that is March 7th and August 8th, around 50,000 Albanian refugees landed on the coasts of Apulia after the collapse of the Albanian communist regime.

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Dr. Giorgia Di Muzio

Migration Policies

Until the late 1980s, Italy - still lacking the experience of having to deal with large numbers of immigrants – did not limit immigration. Yet, the transformation from being a country of emigration to becoming a receiving country led to the need to adopt specific and targeted political measures.

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Ausländische Staatsangehörige in Italien nach Herkunftsregion am 1. Januar 2011

Dr. Giorgia Di Muzio

The Immigrant Population

On the 1st of January 2012 more than 4,850,000 foreigners were estimated to live in Italy, that is 8% of the total population. Compared to the previous years, Italy's foreign population has significantly increased not only in total numbers but also with regard to their proportional share in the total population.

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Acquisition of Italian citizenship and percentage of total foreign population 2005-20140

Dr. Giorgia Di Muzio

Citizenship

The first law on citizenship was passed in 1912 (Act 555). It established the jus sanguinis principle whereby only descendants of Italians had the right to obtain Italian citizenship, and predominantly the male line of descent.

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Dr. Giorgia Di Muzio

Immigrant Integration and Integration Policy

The inclusion of non-Italian students into the education system is at the centre of social policy debate in recent years, mainly due to the fact that the number of foreign students in compulsory education is steadily increasing. Data on education shows that in the School Year (S.Y.) 2010/2011 in the Italian School System there were 711,064 students without Italian citizenship.

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Number of landings on Italian shores compared with numbr of requests for internal protection

Dr. Giorgia Di Muzio

Irregular Migration

Irregular Migration has always been a crucial problem in the debate on immigration in Italy, because the issue of and thus the discourse on immigration is strongly influenced by a strong presence of irregular migrants on Italian territory.

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Dr. Giorgia Di Muzio

Refuge and Asylum

The "Bossi-Fini" law (Law 189/2002) considerably modified previous legislation on refugees and asylum. As a result, the "Commissione centrale per il riconoscimento dello 'status di rifugiato'" was replaced by the "Commissione nazionale per il diritto di asilo"

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Dr. Giorgia Di Muzio

Future Challenges

The future scenario of migration in Italy depends on how three main issues will be addressed in the near future. At the level of policies the question how the management of immigration flows as well as the inclusion of the immigrant population into the Italian (mainstream) society can be improved is at the centre of attention.

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Country Profile 23

Literature and Internet Resources

Here you can find Literature and Internet Resources for the Country Profile 23: "Italy" by Dr. Giorgia Di Muzio.

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Kurzdossiers

Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl: Aktuelle Themen

Ein Kurzdossier legt komplexe Zusammenhänge aus den Bereichen Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl sowie Integration auf einfache und klare Art und Weise dar. Es bietet einen fundierten Einstieg in eine bestimmte Thematik, in dem es den Hintergrund näher beleuchtet und verschiedene Standpunkte wissenschaftlich und kritisch abwägt. Darüber hinaus enthält es Hinweise auf weiterführende Literatur und Internet-Verweise. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, sich eingehender mit der Thematik zu befassen. Unsere Kurzdossiers erscheinen bis zu 6-mal jährlich.

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