Eine Frau geht an einer Weltkarte, die aus Kinderporträts besteht, am Freitag (18.06.2010) im JuniorMuseum in Köln vorbei.

Argentina

Map of Argentina (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/
Immigration has a long tradition in Argentina. In the years of the great transatlantic migrations Argentina developed into one of the most important immigration destinations in the New World, second only to the United States. Immigrants from Europe were regarded as agents of change who were expected to lead the country towards a path to civilization and modernity. Nowadays, immigrants from other Latin American states prevail. Their immigration challenges the dominant and popular image of a "white" society, a position shared by many Argentines.

Italienisches Viertel in Buenos Aires.

Thomas Maier

Introduction

Arguably, no other country in the New World was transformed by the great cycle of migration of the 19th and 20th centuries as profoundly as Argentina. In a relatively short period of time - from roughly 1870 to 1930 - with the arrival of approximately six million people, the dynamics of migration contributed significantly to the creation of a modern, predominantly urban and industrial society.

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Einfaches Haus einer Einwandererfamilie im ländlichen Argentinien. Zwischen 1880 und 1930 wurde Argentinien durch die rasche Entwicklung der Landwirtschaft und ausländische Investitionen zu einem der reichsten Länder der Welt

Thomas Maier

Historical Developments of Immigration and Emigration

Arguably, no other country in the New World was transformed by the great cycle of migration of the 19th and 20th centuries as profoundly as Argentina. From roughly 1870 to 1930 approximately six million Europeans arrived in the country importing the notion of a “white” society, still dominant today, despite the fact that currently most immigrants come from the neighboring Latin American countries. European immigrants were actively recruited since they were reputed to be the main drivers of civilization and modernity.

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Bewohner eines paraguayischen Slums in Buenos Aires warten auf eine Prozession zu Ehren der "Blauen Jungfrau", der Nationalheiligen von Paraguay.

Thomas Maier

Recent Developments of Immigration and Emigration

Since the founding of the republic in the early 19th century, Argentina has been a magnet for immigrants from neighboring countries. Their immigration did, however, challenge the dominant image of a society made up of European immigrants and their descendants. To date, non-European immigrants find themselves in a position of social marginality and relative exclusion.

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Frauen aus der bolivianischen Gemeinde bei einem Straßenfest zur Zweihundertjahrfeier von Buenos Aires.

Thomas Maier

The Immigrant Population

Ever since, Argentina has been an important destination for immigrants from Europe, neighboring Latin American countries and other parts of the world. As a result, the country's population is very heterogeneous.

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Dezember 2011: Argentinier stehen vor dem spanischen Konsulat in Buenos Aires Schlange, um sich um die spanische Staatsbürgerschaft zu bewerben.

Thomas Maier

Argentines Abroad

Argentina has a long history of immigration. The country does, however, also witness emigration flows. Many Argentines left the country during the aftermath of the financial crisis in 2001, seeking better prospects for their future abroad, especially in Spain and the USA. With the worsening economic outlook in light of the financial crisis in Southern Europe, many of them have, however, decided to return to Argentina.

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Eröffnung  der Casa Patria Grande Nestor Kirchner in Buenos Aires - 25. Februar 2011

Thomas Maier

Changing Legal Frameworks of Immigration and Regularization

Once the republic was established in the 19th century, Argentina actively recruited immigrants from Europe. In the time of the great transatlantic migrations the country became the second most important destination in the New World after the United States. It was only under the rule of military juntas at different periods of time during the 20th century when immigration policy became more restrictive. Reforms since the beginning of the 21st century have strengthened immigrants' rights and have once again led to a more liberal approach towards immigration.

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Mitglieder einer bolivianischen Tanzgruppe in Argentinien in traditionellen Kostümen.

Thomas Maier

Citizenship

In Argentina, there has been a long tradition of immigration. Between roughly 1870 and 1930 about six million Europeans arrived in the country. Today, it is especially people from neighboring Latin American countries who immigrate to Argentina. Immigrants can acquire Argentine citizenship through birth on Argentine soil or naturalization. A reform in 2004 has eased the prerequisites for naturalization.

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Ein russisches lesbisches Paar heiratet auf dem zentralen Standesamt von Buenos Aires um danach einen Asylantrag auf Anerkennung als politische Flüchtlinge zu stellen.

Thomas Maier

Refuge and Asylum - Refugee Policy

Throughout its history, immigration has had a significant impact on Argentina. Not all of them came to the country voluntarily. In 1985, the country started to grant refugee status. It was, however, only in 2006 that the country passed a genuine refugee law. Yet, to date, the number of asylum claims remains fairly low, at least in comparison to many European states.

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Mädchen aus einer Gruppe von Einwandererfamilien, die im März 2013 in Buenos Aires in Zelten auf der Straße leben.

Thomas Maier

Challenges and Outlook

Argentina is a country with a long-standing history of immigration. The Constitution of 1854 already emphasized the importance of immigration for the country's development. Especially European migrants were regarded as drivers of social modernization and were actively recruited. It was only under the rule of military juntas at different periods of time during the 20th century when immigration policy became more restrictive. Reforms since the beginning of the 21st century have strengthened immigrants' rights and have once again led to a more open approach towards immigration.

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Coutry Profile 32: Argentina

References and Further Reading

Here you can find literature and further reading for Country Profile 32 "Argentina" by Thomas Maier.

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Kurzdossiers

Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl: Aktuelle Themen

Ein Kurzdossier legt komplexe Zusammenhänge aus den Bereichen Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl sowie Integration auf einfache und klare Art und Weise dar. Es bietet einen fundierten Einstieg in eine bestimmte Thematik, in dem es den Hintergrund näher beleuchtet und verschiedene Standpunkte wissenschaftlich und kritisch abwägt. Darüber hinaus enthält es Hinweise auf weiterführende Literatur und Internet-Verweise. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, sich eingehender mit der Thematik zu befassen. Unsere Kurzdossiers erscheinen bis zu 6-mal jährlich.

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