Eine Frau geht an einer Weltkarte, die aus Kinderporträts besteht, am Freitag (18.06.2010) im JuniorMuseum in Köln vorbei.

Brazil

Brazil, the fifth biggest country in the world in terms of area and population, is primarily known in Europe as an attractive holiday destination and former immigration country. Between the first Portuguese settlement in the 16th century and the Second World War, more than four million people migrated to the country, most of them Europeans. In the 1980s the situation reversed. An estimated three million Brazilians have left their country to date; initially their primary destination was the USA, but increasingly they also aim for Europe and Japan.
Due to the stabilised economic situation of the past decade, Brazil has now become a rewarding destination for migrant workers and refugees. Much of this immigration takes the form of irregular immigration.
From the mid 1990s, Brazil's extreme socio-structural division initially slowed down, but since then has picked up pace again. For this reason, many well-educated young Brazilians can see no professional opportunities in their homeland in the immediate future and are leaving the country for the USA, Japan and Europe. (Version from 11/2008)

Brazil

Sabina Stelzig

Background information

Brazil, the fifth biggest country in the world in terms of area and population, is primarily known in Europe as an attractive holiday destination and former immigration country. Between the first Portuguese settlement in the 16th century and the Second World War, more than four million people migrated to the country.

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Sabina Stelzig

Historical development

Brazil is characterised by centuries of immigration from all parts of the world: the systematic settlement of European invaders, in particular the Portuguese, but also Spaniards, the Dutch, the English and the French, began more than three hundred years ago.

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Sabina Stelzig

Political and legal development

The Brazilian government does not pursue an active immigration policy; although entry into Brazil is made easier for the highly qualified once they have been assessed by the National Immigration Council. The higher the school or university qualification, the more often a work or residence permit is granted.

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Figure 1: The ten largest groups of foreigners by country of origin (2000)

Sabina Stelzig

Foreign population and current immigration

Comparison of data from the population censuses since 1940 shows a drop in the percentage of foreign population from 3.42% (1940) to 0.52% (1991). Until the end of the 1960s, the reduction in the percentage of foreigners is attributable initially to the strong growth of the Brazilian population.

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Population by skin color or race, 2006 (in per cent)

Sabina Stelzig

Ethnic origin and multiculturalism

Brazil is known for the fact that its population consists of people of all colours. As a result of centuries of international immigration, cities in particular, such as São Paulo, have developed into multicultural and multiethnic areas.

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Sabina Stelzig

Citizenship

Brazilian citizenship is regulated by the 1988 constitution (Article 12). It is obtained through birth on Brazilian soil (ius soli) regardless of the parents' citizenship. A person also, however, acquires a right to Brazilian citizenship through descent from Brazilian parents.

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The ten most common destination countries of Brazilians abroad, 2000

Sabina Stelzig

Emigration

Since the 1990s emigration has been one of the most important social phenomena in Brazil – as it has throughout Latin America. Streams of emigrants took their leave of Brazil as a result of the economic developments of the 1980s.

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Sabina Stelzig

Irregular migration

Since opportunities for entering the USA were tightened up in the 1990s, many Brazilians try to enter the country illegally. Initially they travel to Mexico as tourists and then cross the border into Texas in buses or on foot with the help of people smugglers.

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Sabina Stelzig

Refugeeism and asylum

According to the "National Committee for Refugees" (Comitê Nacional para os Refugiados, CONARE), in March 2008 there were 3,857 refugees living in Brazil. They originate from nearly 70 countries, with more than 250 refugees.

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Sabina Stelzig

Conclusion and future challenges

For Brazil it is particularly painful that the best educated leave the country. The fact that it is the two biggest national economies, the USA and Japan, that profit most from the brain drain from Brazil is regarded by critics as an unmistakeable indication of the reversal of the development process.

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Country Profile 15: Brazil

References and Further Reading

Here you can find a list of references as well as further reading for the Country Profile "Brazil" by Sabina Stelzig.

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Kurzdossiers

Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl: Aktuelle Themen

Ein Kurzdossier legt komplexe Zusammenhänge aus den Bereichen Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl sowie Integration auf einfache und klare Art und Weise dar. Es bietet einen fundierten Einstieg in eine bestimmte Thematik, in dem es den Hintergrund näher beleuchtet und verschiedene Standpunkte wissenschaftlich und kritisch abwägt. Darüber hinaus enthält es Hinweise auf weiterführende Literatur und Internet-Verweise. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, sich eingehender mit der Thematik zu befassen. Unsere Kurzdossiers erscheinen bis zu 6-mal jährlich.

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