Eine Frau geht an einer Weltkarte, die aus Kinderporträts besteht, am Freitag (18.06.2010) im JuniorMuseum in Köln vorbei.

Romania

During the past one hundred years Romania was predominantly a country of emigration, with a rather impressive record regarding the number of persons involved, the outcomes and the varieties of migratory arrangements. Political violence and deprivation generated by a largely ineffective and authoritarian administration were significant causes for flight and emigration for a large number of Romanians during and immediately after the demise of the Communist era. The slow and socially burdensome transition from a centrally planned economy to an effectively functioning market economy (over the past one and a half decades) has provided another impetus for Romanians to search for employment abroad. Emigration, combined with an ageing population, will likely make Romania turn to labour immigration in the future. Here the country will face considerable challenges, from finding a way of managing – and perhaps reversing – the outflow of workers to developing policies for managing the reception and integration of large numbers of immigrants, an area in which it has little experience. (Version from 9/2007)

Romania

István Horváth

Background Information

During the past one hundred years Romania was predominantly a country of emigration, with a rather impressive record regarding the number of persons involved, the outcomes and the varieties of migratory arrangements.

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Romanian emigrants, 1957-1989

István Horváth

Historical Trends in Emigration and Immigration

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Romania was predominantly a country of emigration. In the wake of territorial changes in the course of the First and Second World Wars, Romania experienced large-scale population transfers.

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Total number of immigrants and immigrants from the Republic of Moldova, 1991-2005

István Horváth

Immigration and Emigration since 1990

Immediately after the fall of the Communist regime, passport administration and international travel were liberalised. Although some measures to curb the international travel were taken during the 1990s and at the beginning of the new millennium. However, none of these measures drastically reduced the international mobility of Romanian citizens.

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Number of applications for naturalisation, submitted and approved, 2001-2006

István Horváth

Citizenship

For foreigners who wish to obtain Romanian citizenship by naturalising, sustained residence is a key requirement. Persons married to Romanian citizens must have resided in Romania continuously for five years; for all others must have eight years of uninterrupted residency.

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Figure 1: Asylum applications by Romanian citizens in OECD countries, 1980-1989

István Horváth

Refuge and Asylum

Throughout the Communist era Romania was a major source of asylum-seekers. This continued in the early 1990s. Romanians represented the second largest group (after citizens of the former Yugoslavia) applying for asylum in Europe. The number of asylum applications might increase in the near future, due to EU regulations.

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István Horváth

Irregular Migration

Romania has been, and still is, mainly a source country for irregular migration. During the 1990s, Romania became both a source and a transit country of human trafficking, with victims (including children) being trafficked to various places in the Balkan states as well as Italy, Spain, France and beyond.

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István Horváth

Current Issues

The economic impact of labour migration on Romania has not yet been assessed in comprehensive terms. Beyond the positive economic aspects for households, widespread engagement of Romanians in labour migration has several negative consequences, particularly on the lives of affected families.

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István Horváth

Future Challenges

In the 1990s, Romanian authorities tolerated labour emigration because it functioned as a safety valve, defusing the increasing social tensions generated by the collapse of Communism and the rather difficult transition to a market economy.

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Country Profile 9: Romania

References and Further Reading

Here you can find references and further reading for Country Profile 9: "Romania" by István Horváth.

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Kurzdossiers

Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl: Aktuelle Themen

Ein Kurzdossier legt komplexe Zusammenhänge aus den Bereichen Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl sowie Integration auf einfache und klare Art und Weise dar. Es bietet einen fundierten Einstieg in eine bestimmte Thematik, in dem es den Hintergrund näher beleuchtet und verschiedene Standpunkte wissenschaftlich und kritisch abwägt. Darüber hinaus enthält es Hinweise auf weiterführende Literatur und Internet-Verweise. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, sich eingehender mit der Thematik zu befassen. Unsere Kurzdossiers erscheinen bis zu 6-mal jährlich.

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