US-Soldaten in Afghanistan

2.2. USA

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USA Today vom 16.04.2019

"'An unnecessary, dangerous attempt': Trump vetoes resolution to end US support in Yemen"

US-Präsident Trump hat gegen den überparteilichen Kongressbeschluss zur Beendigung der amerikanischen Unterstützung Saudi-Arabiens im Jemen-Krieg wie erwartet sein Veto eingelegt. "The resolution served as a rebuke to Trump and Saudi leaders and highlighted a growing unease with America's role in the grisly conflict, which has left thousands of civilians dead and millions of Yemenis on the brink of starvation. Currently, the U.S. provides billions of dollars of arms to the Saudi-led coalition fighting against Iranian-backed rebels in Yemen. (...) Trump defended the U.S. role in the war, highlighting that no Americans were physically in Yemen fighting the conflict and U.S. citizens live in the surrounding countries that have been targeted by attacks from Yemen rebels. He wrote abandoning the conflict would allow an 'inexpensive way for Iran to cause trouble for the United States and for our ally, Saudi Arabia.'"

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The New Yorker vom 13.04.2019

"Bernie Sanders Imagines a Progressive New Approach to Foreign Policy"

Der demokratische Präsidentschaftskandidat Bernie Sanders plant Benjamin Wallace-Wells zufolge, in seinem kommenden Wahlkampf die Außenpolitik stärker ins Zentrum zu rücken. Unter demokratischen Experten in Washington habe Sanders dabei neue Anhänger gefunden. "'Out of frustration with some aspects of Obama’s foreign policy and anger with most aspects of Trump’s, many leaders in the Party have concluded that the challenge was not to build bridges between centrist Democrats and centrist Republicans but, rather, between centrist and progressive Democrats. That means breaking away from the so-called Blob' — a term for the foreign-policy establishment, from the Obama adviser Ben Rhodes. [Suzanne DiMaggio, a specialist in negotiations with adversaries at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,] said, 'The case for restraint seems to be gaining ground, particularly in its rejection of preventive wars and efforts to change the regimes of countries that do not directly threaten the United States.' She and others now see in Sanders something that they didn’t in 2016: a clear progressive theory of what the U.S. is after in the world."

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Foreign Policy vom 10.04.2019

"Nostalgia Is a National Security Threat"

Micah Zenko meint, dass die US-Außenpolitik von einer gefährlichen Nostalgie geprägt sei. Die Idealisierung einer vermeintlich stabilen Vergangenheit habe dazu geführt, dass aktuelle Krisen und Bedrohungen regelmäßig überschätzt werden. "The practical consequences of misremembering a supposedly stable global past, and misrepresenting the allegedly threatening present (and future), are many. The first is the habitual practice of foreign threat inflation, which we detail exhaustively in our new book, that results in over-reactionary policies best represented by the staggering $4 trillion spent overseas in post-9/11 wars. Second, and relatedly, perpetual threat escalation leads to disproportionately spending finite taxpayer resources on the military, as there is nothing more responsive to counter purported threats than troop deployments or uses of force. Third, it enables a strategic misdiagnosis about what actually threatens the American people — threats that are almost exclusively domestic, including guns, drugs, and noncommunicable diseases — and where to apportion the greatest attention and resources to mitigate and prevent such threats. Fourth, and most importantly, when leaders believe the world is only getting worse and worse, it reduces America’s sense of agency and urgency to use its vast wealth and influence to improve things, both within the United States and abroad."

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Reuters vom 09.04.2019

"USA stufen Irans Revolutionsgarden als Terrorgruppe ein"

Reuters bezeichnet die Entscheidung der USA, die Islamischen Revolutionstruppen des Irans als Terrorgruppe einzustufen, als "beispiellosen Schritt". "Die Islamischen Revolutionsgarden (IRGC) seien das wichtigste Mittel, 'um die weltweite Terror-Kampagne der iranischen Regierung zu leiten und umzusetzen', sagte US-Präsident Donald Trump am Montag. Die Regierung in Teheran verurteilte das Vorgehen scharf. Es gefährde den Frieden und die Stabilität im Nahen Osten und weltweit, hieß es im staatlichen Fernsehen. Im Vorfeld hatten Kritiker die USA gewarnt, dass verfeindete Länder nun auch Vertreter des US-Militärs und -Agenten als Terroristen klassifizieren könnten. Einem Bericht des Staatsfernsehens im Iran zufolge hat der dortige Sicherheitsrat dies bereits getan."

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Lobelog vom 08.04.2019

"IRGC Designation: More From The War-With-Iran Playbook"

Daniel R. DePetris und Richard Sokolsky sind sicher, dass die Entscheidung des US-Präsidenten, die Iranische Revolutionsgarde zur "Terrororganisation" zu erklären, auf Drängen von Außenminister Pompeo und Sicherheitsberater Bolton zustande gekommen sei, die einen militärische Konflikt und einen Regimewechsel in Teheran herbeiführen wollen. "Their success will depend on whether they can manipulate a distracted, ill-informed, impulsive, and erratic president into acting against his own instincts to avoid another regime-change campaign in the Middle East that could drag the United States into a messy and open-ended conflict. They have been able to get the president to dance to their tune on other issues, but can they do it again on an issue with much higher stakes for the country? (...) The intent of Pompeo and Bolton is clear: provoke Iran into bolting from the JCPOA, re-starting its nuclear program, and escalating its regional behavior, thereby providing the United States or its regional partners with a pretext to use military force against the regime. They understand that the clock on the Trump administration is ticking and that their chance of overthrowing the Iranian regime will slip away in 18 months if the president isn’t re-elected."

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Monkey Cage vom 08.04.2019

"Designating Iranian military unit a ‘terrorist organization’ will make U.S. relations with Iran more difficult. Here’s how."

Die US-Regierung hat die Iranische Revolutionsgarde wie angekündigt formell zu einer "Terrororganisation" erklärt. Afshon Ostovar schreibt, dass Iran im Gegenzug das US-Militär als Terrorbedrohung einstufen könnte. "That might sound silly, but it could also cause real problems. Should Iran officially consider U.S. forces to be terrorists, then any personnel connected to the U.S. military could be subject to attacks by Iranian proxies or Iranian agents. This would make U.S. operations in Iraq much more dangerous. The potential for escalation between the United States and Iran would increase, with any attacks on U.S. troops by Iranian proxies or tense encounters at sea between the United States and IRGC navies carrying the greater potential for military escalation. More broadly, designating the IRGC an FTO will be difficult for any future administration to walk back from. Any administration that seeks to engage Iran diplomatically will have a difficult time getting around the IRGC’s central position in the Islamic Republic. In effect, designating the IRGC is designating the Islamic Republic by proxy."

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CNN vom 07.04.2019

"US expected to designate Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps as a foreign terrorist organization"

Die US-Regierung könnte ihren Druck auf den Iran weiter erhöhen und die Revolutionsgarde in den kommenden Tagen formell als "Terrorgruppe" einstufen, berichtet Ryan Browne. "Defense officials have told CNN that US troops in Syria and Iraq often find themselves operating in close proximity to members of the IRGC. Last year, CNN reported that Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats cautioned the administration that designating the IRGC could pose dangers to US forces, according to one source familiar with the matter. 'Under the cover of the Syrian war, the IRGC is now trying to plant military roots in Syria and establish a new strategic base to threaten Syria's neighbors such as Israel,' Brian Hook, the State Department's special representative for Iran, told reporters Tuesday. 'In Iraq, I can announce today, based on declassified US military reports, that Iran is responsible for the deaths of at least 608 American service members. This accounts for 17 percent of all deaths of US personnel in Iraq from 2003 to 2011. This death toll is in addition to the many thousands of Iraqis killed by the IRGC's proxies,' he added."

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Foreign Policy vom 04.04.2019

"Congress Is Finally Done With the War in Yemen"

Die Bestätigung der Resolution des US-Senats zur Beendigung der amerikanischen Kriegsbeteiligung in Jemen im Repräsentantenhaus kann nach Ansicht von Robbie Gramer und Amy Mackinnon als historisch betrachtet werden. "It marks the first time in history that legislation invoking the 1970s-era War Powers Resolution, aimed at reasserting Congress’s role in U.S. wars abroad, passed both the House and Senate. It now heads to President Donald Trump’s desk, where most officials expect the president to veto the measure. (...) The Trump administration has strongly pushed back on congressional efforts to curb its involvement in the conflict, which includes arms sales to the Saudi-led coalition as well as intelligence and surveillance support. It argues that the civilian death toll from Saudi airstrikes would be much higher without U.S. input and precision-guided munitions, and that the United States cannot ignore the threat from terrorist groups and Iran’s influence in the country. 'If you truly care about Yemeni lives, you’d support the Saudi-led effort to prevent Yemen from turning into a puppet state of the corrupt, brutish Islamic Republic of Iran,' Secretary of State Mike Pompeo told reporters in March, addressing lawmakers who opposed U.S. involvement in the war."

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Die Presse vom 01.04.2019

"Weißes Haus: Schließung der Grenze zu Mexiko realistisch"

US-Präsident Trump könnte es mit seiner Drohung, die Grenze zu Mexiko zu schließen, Signalen aus dem Umfeld des Weißen Hauses zufolge tatsächlich ernst meinen. "Sein Stabschef Mick Mulvaney sagte am Sonntag (Ortszeit) beim Sender ABC, es müsse etwas 'Dramatisches' passieren, damit Trump seine Androhung nicht wahr machen sollte. In diesem Monat würden 100.000 Menschen illegal die Grenze passieren. Dies sei eine humanitäre Krise und eine Sicherheitskrise, betonte Mulvaney. Trump selbst hatte davon gesprochen, dass die Wahrscheinlichkeit der Grenzschließung 'sehr hoch' sei."

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New York Times vom 30.03.2019

"Trump Turns U.S. Policy in Central America on Its Head"

US-Präsident Trump hat angekündigt, die amerikanische Unterstützung für Honduras, Guatemala und Mexiko einzustellen, da diese Länder zu wenig täten, um den Strom der Migranten in die USA zu stoppen. Elisabeth Malkin schreibt, dass Trump damit die bisherige US-Politik in Zentralamerika "auf den Kopf gestellt" habe. "Cutting off aid is 'shooting yourself in the foot,' said Adriana Beltrán, the director of citizen security at the Washington Office on Latin America, a human rights research group that tracks aid closely. But the president has become incensed at the growing numbers of families arriving at the southern border asking for asylum. His administration notified Congress late Friday that it intends to reprogram $450 million in aid to Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador and has already sent instructions to embassies in the region. (...) The decision turns American policy in the region on its head. Not only will it cut development and humanitarian assistance, but it will also halt joint law enforcement efforts, such as anti-gang units vetted by the United States, that had been supported by Republicans and the Trump administration until now, said Juan S. Gonzalez, a former deputy assistant secretary of state in the Obama administration."

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New York Times vom 29.03.2019

"Russians Always Knew There Was No Collusion"

In Russland sei die amerikanische Debatte über die Russiagate-Verschwörung von Putin-Anhängern wie Putin-Gegnern von Beginn an mit ungläubigem Staunen verfolgt worden, schreibt der russische Journalist Alexey Kovalev. "It’s not just the state media that has rejected the idea that Mr. Trump colluded with Russia. Even liberals and opponents of President Vladimir Putin have been deeply skeptical, pointing out that Russia’s ruling circles are barely competent enough to prop themselves up, let alone manipulate a superpower. (...) while government officials and state media tell one-sided stories and revel in 'I-told-you-sos,' liberal Russians like myself and many of the people I know are less joyous. Online and in private conversations, it becomes clear that whatever the outcome of the Mueller investigation, our relationship with America has changed. We’ve seen anti-Russian xenophobia spread into the American mainstream. (...) This climate hasn’t just offended us; it’s making our ability to communicate and share experiences with Americans more difficult. (...) my perception of the United States’ politics and media might have suffered irreparable damage as a result of #Russiagate, and I’m afraid that’s the case for many people like me. Robert Mueller can’t fix that."

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New Republic vom 27.03.2019

"U.S. Counterterrorism’s Big Blindspot: Women"

Der US-Kongress könnte demnächst über eine Gesetzesvorlage abstimmen, die ein bisheriges Versäumnis der US-amerikanischen Antiterrorstrategie zumindest teilweise korrigieren würde, berichten Jamille Bigio und Rebecca Turkington vom Council on Foreign Relations. Die Vorlage würde US-Behörden verpflichten, die aktive Rolle von Frauen als Terroristinnen, als Terror-Verhinderer und als potentielle Verbündete im Antiterrorkampf stärker zu beachten. "Specifically, it would authorize assistance to women-focused civil society organizations working to counter violent extremism, require State and Defense Department officials to train for incorporating women in counterterrorism initiatives, and require the State Department to double the number of female security officials from around the world receiving U.S. counterterrorism training. (...) When counterterrorism efforts overlook women, terrorist groups can use gender roles to their advantage. Around the world, women represent just 15 percent of police forces; in South Asia, women serve as less than 2 percent of Pakistan’s police and less than 7 percent of Bangladesh’s. The dearth of female officers has been readily exploited by female extremists throughout history (...). Women can play other roles in radicalization and support as well. Women have provided the Islamic State a strategic advantage since its start, acting as recruiters, and fundraisers. (...) While extremist groups use women to their strategic advantage, governments fail to enlist women in counterterrorism efforts, even though women are already on the front lines of reducing extremist violence."

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Foreign Affairs vom 27.03.2019

"The Lost Art of American Diplomacy - Can the State Department Be Saved?"

William J. Burns, früherer US-Diplomat und aktueller Präsident der Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, schreibt in seinem Essay über die "verlorene Kunst" der amerikanischen Diplomatie, dass die Vernachlässigung des US-Außenministeriums nicht erst mit Präsident Trump begonnen habe. "It has been an episodic feature of the United States’ approach to the world since the end of the Cold War. The Trump administration, however, has made the problem infinitely worse. There is never a good time for diplomatic malpractice, but the administration’s unilateral diplomatic disarmament is spectacularly mistimed, unfolding precisely at a moment when American diplomacy matters more than ever to American interests. The United States is no longer the only big kid on the geopolitical block, and no longer able get everything it wants on its own, or by force alone. (...) What I learned time and again throughout my long career is that diplomacy is one of the United States’ biggest assets and best-kept secrets. However battered and belittled in the age of Trump, it has never been a more necessary tool of first resort for American influence. It will take a generation to reverse the underinvestment, overreach, and flailing that have beset American diplomacy in recent decades, not to mention the active sabotage of recent years."

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Politico vom 27.03.2019

"Mike Pompeo Is Not Making Diplomacy Great Again"

Aaron David Miller und Richard Sokolsky ziehen ein kritisches Zwischenfazit der Amtszeit von US-Außenminister Pompeo. "Unlike Tillerson, who was all but invisible, Pompeo has raised the public profile of U.S. diplomacy, even if he has not, as he promised, restored the 'swagger' of a State Department where morale is still low and many senior appointments and positions have yet to be filled. Also unlike Tillerson, Pompeo is at the helm on some important issues, from Iran to North Korea. But his unrealistic approach to these problems — hard line and ideological — hasn’t brought them any closer to resolution. In contrast with his predecessor, he hasn’t managed to alienate his boss and has emerged as a cautious and savvy Trump whisperer. The problem is that what he’s whispering neither advances American interests and values nor the nation’s foreign policy."

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