US-Soldaten in Afghanistan

4. Militär und bewaffnete Konflikte

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Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung vom 13.12.2019

"Amerikas Militär setzt auf künstliche Intelligenz"

https://www.faz.net/aktuell/politik/sicherheitskonferenz/strategiepapier-amerikas-militaer-setzt-auf-kuen
stliche-intelligenz-16038946.html

Ein aktuelles Strategiepapier des amerikanischen Verteidigungsministeriums setzt verstärkt auf den Einsatz künstlicher Intelligenz in der US-Armee, berichtet die Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. "Andere Länder, insbesondere China und Russland, investierten in beachtlichem Maße in Künstliche Intelligenz zu militärischen Zwecken, heißt es darin. Dies gelte auch für Anwendungen, die Fragen über die Achtung internationaler Normen sowie der Menschenrechte aufwürfen. Zudem gefährdeten diese Investitionen die technologischen und operativen Vorteile der Vereinigten Staaten und drohten die freie Weltordnung zu destabilisieren. Amerika und seine Verbündeten müssten Künstliche Intelligenz einsetzen, um ihre strategische Position zu halten und sich auf künftigen Schlachtfeldern durchzusetzen, sagte Pentagon-Sprecher Dana Deasy."

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Reuters vom 21.09.2019

"Iran says it will destroy any aggressor"

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-saudi-aramco-iran/iran-says-it-will-destroy-any-aggressor-idUSKBN1W603
G

Die US-Regierung hat nach den Angriffen auf Ölanlagen in Saudi-Arabien die Entsendung zusätzlicher Truppen in den Nahen Osten angekündigt. Iran will eine mögliche "Aggression" nach eigenen Worten mit voller Härte beantworten. "'Be careful, a limited aggression will not remain limited. We will pursue any aggressor,' the head of the Guards, Major General Hossein Salami, said in remarks broadcast on state TV. 'We are after punishment and we will continue until the full destruction of any aggressor.' U.S. President Donald Trump on Friday approved sending American troops to bolster Saudi Arabia’s air and missile defences after the Sept. 14 attacks. (...) Amirali Hajizadeh, who heads the Revolutionary Guards’ aerospace branch, said any attacks on Iran would receive 'a crushing response', the official news agency IRNA reported."

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Al Jazeera English vom 20.09.2019

"Yemen's Houthis say will stop all attacks on Saudi Arabia"

https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/09/houthis-stop-attacks-saudi-arabia-190920183802126.html

Die schiitischen Huthi-Rebellen in Jemen haben angekündigt, vorerst auf Angriffe gegen Ziele in Saudi-Arabien verzichten zu wollen. "The announcement was made on Friday night by Mahdi al-Mashat, head of the Houthi's supreme political council, which controls the rebel-held areas in Yemen. 'We declare ceasing to target the Saudi Arabian territory with military drones, ballistic missiles and all other forms of weapons, and we wait for a reciprocal move from them,' Mashat said on the Houthi-run Al Masirah TV. 'We reserve the right to respond if they fail to reciprocate positively to this initiative,' he said, adding that the continuation of the Yemen war 'will not benefit any side'. The announcement by the Houthis came nearly a week after they claimed a major attack on Saudi oil facilities."

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The National Interest vom 20.09.2019

"5 Reasons Why the Saudi Oil Attacks Won’t Lead to War with Iran"

https://nationalinterest.org/feature/5-reasons-why-saudi-oil-attacks-won’t-lead-war-iran-82096

David M. Allison und Stephen Herzog erklären, warum sie einen Krieg zwischen den USA und dem Iran weiterhin für unwahrscheinlich halten. "1. Americans don’t want war with Iran. (...) 2. Trump has shown his hand. He prefers negotiation to conflict with Iran. (...) 3.  The 'devil incarnate' has left the building. Until last week, John Bolton — who former Secretary of Defense James Mattis joked was the 'devil incarnate' — was Trump’s National Security Advisor. Bolton’s dismissal has significantly weakened the influence of the so-called 'B-Team' consisting of Bolton, Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman of Saudi Arabia, and Abu Dhabi’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed. (...) 4. The U.S. military is opposed to fighting Iran. In July of this year, U.S. Army Gen. Mark Milley expressed skepticism to the Senate about the likelihood of a major war with Iran. (...) he explained that the military is focused on a strategy of great-power competition, and conflict with a recalcitrant state like Iran would be disruptive to these plans. Reporters for the Wall Street Journal have since confirmed that these views remain the dominant narrative at the Pentagon. (...) 5. Iran doesn’t really want a war with the United States. Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei has publicly stated that Iran does not seek war with the United States. Iranian officials know that while the United States might not be able to conclusively win, Iran would bear the majority of the human costs."

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Augen Geradeaus! vom 19.09.2019

"Alternde Gesellschaft, Konkurrenz zur Wirtschaft – und wo sollen die Soldaten herkommen?"

https://augengeradeaus.net/2018/09/alternde-gesellschaft-konkurrenz-zur-wirtschaft-und-wo-sollen-die-sold
aten-herkommen/

Thomas Wiegold rezensiert einen Reuters-Artikel über die japanischen Streitkräfte und zieht einen Vergleich zu den deutschen Streitkräften. "Eine alternde Gesellschaft, in der die Zahl der jungen Frauen und Männer stetig abnimmt. Eine brummende Wirtschaft, die den Arbeitsmarkt leerfegt. Eine pazifistische Grundströmung nach einem verloren Krieg. Eine politisch unsichere außenpolitische Lage. Und Streitkräfte, die in dieser Situation große Probleme haben, ihren Nachwuchs zu finden: Was fast schon wie eine Beschreibung Deutschlands klingen könnte, ist in einem anderen Industrieland praktisch Realität. Die Folgen für die Streitkräfte, oder genauer (noch) die Selbstverteidigungskräfte in Japan, beschreiben Reuters-Kollegen in dieser lesenswerten Geschichte"

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Antiwar.com vom 18.09.2019

"Saudis Say Iran’s Blame ‘Undeniable,’ But Doubts Persist"

https://news.antiwar.com/2019/09/18/saudis-say-irans-blame-undeniable-but-doubts-persist/

Jason Ditz weist darauf hin, dass die bisher vorgelegten Beweise für eine iranische Verwicklung in die Angriffe auf saudi-arabische Ölanlagen nicht von allen Regierungen umstandslos anerkannt worden sind. "Saudi officials offered pieces of drones they claimed were from Iran, and pieces of missiles that they similarly said were from Iran. They say that in having said that, there was no longer any way to claim that anyone else had done it. Many nations haven’t bought in to this, and aren’t likely to do so. French officials say they don’t intend to comment at all until they see some evidence and have all the facts. That’s not the position the US nor the Saudis are taking. Japan’s Defense Minister was even more doubtful about the matter, saying he wasn’t aware of anything that actually pointed to Iranian involvement. Moreover, he noted that Yemen’s Houthi movement had claimed the attack, and that Japan is inclined to believe them."

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Guardian vom 18.09.2019

"Saudi offers 'proof' of Iran's role in oil attack and urges US response"

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/sep/18/saudi-oil-attack-rouhani-dismisses-us-claims-of-iran-role-a
s-slander

Saudi-Arabien hat Überreste von Raketen und Drohnen präsentiert, die belegen sollen, dass der Iran für die Angriffe auf zwei saudi-arabische Ölanlagen verantwortlich gewesen sei. "At a press conference in Riyadh a Saudi defence spokesman claimed that 25 drones and cruise missiles were used in the attack on the Aramco facilities on Saturday, saying repeatedly they had been fired from the north, the direction of Iran. Asked for his response, Trump said 'We know very much what happened' but argued that it was 'a sign of strength' that he has thus far taken no military action against Iran. 'How did going into Iraq work out?' Trump asked, then added: 'There’s plenty of time to do some dastardly things. It’s very easy to start. And we’ll see what happens.' The UN secretary general, António Guterres, confirmed on Wednesday that an international team of experts was on the way to Saudi Arabia to investigate."

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Zeit Online vom 18.09.2019

"Kabinett beschließt Verlängerung des Anti-IS-Mandats"

https://www.zeit.de/politik/deutschland/2019-09/bundeswehr-einsatz-anti-is-mandat-irak

Die Regierungskoalition hat eine Verlängerung des Bundeswehreinsatzes im Irak beschlossen, berichtet Zeit Online. "Nach den Plänen des Bundeskabinetts soll der Einsatz von Soldatinnen und Soldaten gegen die Terrormiliz 'Islamischer Staat' (IS) im Irak fortgesetzt werden. Die Ministerrunde beschloss eine Verlängerung des Irak-Mandats und den weiteren Einsatz der Bundeswehr als Teil der internationalen Anti-IS-Koalition."

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The Intercept vom 17.09.2019

"The Military Has Done Little to Prepare As Climate Change Threatens Guantánamo"

https://theintercept.com/2019/09/17/guantanamo-bay-hurricanes/

Der Klimawandel bedrohe auch die US-Militärbasis Guantanamo Bay auf Kuba, schreibt Miriam Pensack. "Whether they acknowledge it or not, military commanders thus face a conundrum: spend enormous amounts of money to revamp the deteriorating detention camp to make it hurricane-proof, or put detainees lives in danger. The military has proposed a series of improvements to the base, some of which would address the threat of storms, but for the most part, work has proceeded piecemeal. As extensive research demonstrates, human-caused climate change is 'supercharging' hurricanes in the Caribbean basin and “exacerbating the risk of major damage” from the storms. In recent weeks, Hurricane Dorian’s 185 miles-per-hour winds razed parts of the Bahamas — less than 250 miles north of Guantánamo."

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Political Violence @ a Glance vom 16.09.2019

"The Art of Winning a Peace Agreement: The Case of the FARC"

http://politicalviolenceataglance.org/2019/09/16/the-art-of-winning-a-peace-agreement-the-case-of-the-far
c/

Trotz der aktuellen Probleme bei der Umsetzung des Friedensabkommens in Kolumbien sind Sally Sharif und Dayron Yegrail der Ansicht, dass die FARC-Guerilla im Kontext ihrer eigentlichen Zielsetzungen von der Vereinbarung profitiert habe. "The peace agreement is not fraying for the FARC: it has managed to keep most of its former combatants united in the twenty-four demobilization and reintegration camps (...), forced the government to sign the transitional justice system (...) into law, and highlighted the government’s impotency in addressing the country’s social and economic grievances. Meanwhile, the FARC is continuing its political struggle in the countryside. The peace agreement has changed Colombian society, its expectations of the government, and the nature of its democracy. (...) FARC senators, who were present at the negotiations in Havana, told us the FARC never considered the Colombian government capable of implementing all the provisions mapped out in the peace agreement. (...) But by compelling the government to admit to these existing problems and promising to find solutions to them, the FARC has ingeniously managed to present to struggling Colombians an image of a failing government. (...) The FARC has won through the peace deal. Almost 90% of FARC ex-combatants we interviewed do not think of the FARC as a potent political force on the national level — almost 85% say they would be content simply if the mayor of a municipality or a member of the municipality council is a FARC member."

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BBC vom 16.09.2019

"Saudi oil attacks: US says intelligence shows Iran involved"

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-49712417

Der Angriff auf zwei saudi-arabische Ölanlagen hat die schwelende Krise zwischen den USA und dem Iran wieder angefacht. US-Präsident Trump hat den Verantwortlichen implizit mit militärischer Vergeltung gedroht. "The United States has issued satellite images and cited intelligence to back its claim that Iran was behind attacks on Saudi oil facilities. Iran denies involvement in Saturday's air attacks, which were claimed by Iran-aligned Houthi rebels in Yemen. But unnamed US officials speaking to US and international media say the direction and extent of the attacks cast doubt on Houthi involvement. (...) Unnamed US officials have been speaking to the New York Times, ABC and Reuters. One official said there were 19 points of impact on the targets and the attacks had come from the west and north-west - not Houthi-controlled territory in Yemen, which lies to the south-west of the Saudi oil facilities. The officials said that could suggest launch sites in the northern Gulf, Iran or Iraq."

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The Intercept vom 15.09.2019

"War on the World"

https://theintercept.com/2019/09/15/climate-change-us-military-war/

Murtaza Hussain weist darauf hin, dass "industrialisierte Militärstreitkräfte" weltweit einiges zur Entstehung des aktuellen "Klimanotstands" beigetragen hätten. Dies gelte insbesondere für das mächtigste Militär der Welt: "It may not come as a surprise that the largest industrial military in the history of the world is also the single biggest polluter on the planet. A recent study from Brown University’s Costs of War project surfaced this startling fact: The U.S. Department of Defense has a larger annual carbon footprint than most countries on earth. With a sprawling network of bases and logistics networks, the U.S. military is the single biggest emitter of carbon dioxide in the world aside from whole nation-states themselves. (...) That massive additional burden on the planet might be justifiable were it all being done in the name of vital national security interests, but the biggest components of the U.S. military’s carbon dioxide footprint have been in wars and occupations that were almost entirely unnecessary. To put it crudely: The U.S. poisoned the planet for vanity projects."

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Asia Times vom 15.09.2019

"Saudi oil facility attacks may have come from Iraq"

https://www.asiatimes.com/2019/09/article/saudi-oil-facility-attacks-may-have-come-from-iraq/

Stephen Bryen zufolge deutet einiges darauf hin, dass der Angriff auf die beiden saudi-arabischen Ölanlagen durch Iran-treue schiitische Milizen im Irak durchgeführt worden sei. "The leading Iraqi analyst based in the United States is Entifadh Qanbar, President and Founder of the Future Foundation. He previously served as Iraq’s deputy military attaché and as the spokesman and adviser for Iraq’s Deputy Prime Minister. He closely follows developments in his home country and has many associates feeding him information that has more than once proved to be accurate. His information about the attack coming from Iraq is backed by prior history and by Pompeo’s clear declaration. As Qanbar knows, this attack would not be the first time Iran has used Iraq to hit Saudi oil facilities. At least one major previous attack was launched by Iraqi militias and the Iranians from Iraqi territory. Last June the Wall Street Journal carried an important report, based on conclusions reached by US officials, that a May 14 drone attack on Saudi Arabia’s oil industry originated in southern Iraq."

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BBC vom 14.09.2019

"Saudi Arabia oil facilities ablaze after drone strikes"

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-49699429

Die Huthi-Rebellen in Jemen haben eigenen Angaben zufolge erfolgreiche Drohnenangriffe auf zwei wichtige saudi-arabische Öl-Anlagen durchgeführt. "Footage showed a huge blaze at Abqaiq, site of Aramco's largest oil processing plant, while a second drone attack started fires in the Khurais oilfield. The fires are now under control at both facilities, state media said. A spokesman for the Iran-aligned Houthi group in Yemen said it had deployed 10 drones in the attacks. The military spokesman, Yahya Sarea, told al-Masirah TV, which is owned by the Houthi movement and is based in Beirut, that further attacks could be expected in the future. He said Saturday's attack was one of the biggest operations the Houthi forces had undertaken inside Saudi Arabia and was carried out in 'co-operation with the honourable people inside the kingdom'. Saudi Arabia is said to be shutting down around half of its oil output, the Wall Street Journal reports."

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Business Insider vom 13.09.2019

"As the US military prepares for a potential showdown with Russia, the Navy's explosive experts are clearing a path north"

https://www.businessinsider.de/navy-eod-training-adak-alaska-bering-amid-russia-tensions-2019-9?r=US&IR=T

Christopher Woody berichtet über die Vorbereitungen der U.S. Navy auf eine mögliche Konfrontation mit Russland im hohen Norden. "After two decades of fighting smaller, less capable enemies in the Middle East, the US military is switching its focus to near-peer adversaries — namely, China and Russia. Concern about Russia has drawn the US's attention to the high north. The US Navy has already revisited places it hasn't been since the Cold War, and this month in Alaska, the service's explosive ordnance disposal personnel helped clear a path into the strategically valuable region. (...) The Navy has made other moves to reassert its presence in the Arctic around Alaska. The aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt joined training operations during exercise Northern Edge in the Gulf of Alaska earlier this year — the first time a carrier group has taken part the biennial Arctic exercise in a decade."

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