US-Soldaten in Afghanistan

Council on Foreign Relations


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"Trump’s Cuts to Central America Aid Will Lead to More Caravans"

Die USA stehen gegenwärtig angesichts einer neuen "Karawane" von Migranten aus Mittelamerika vor ihrer eigenen "Flüchtlingskrise". Shannon K. O'Neil schreibt, dass die US-Regierung bei der Bekämpfung der Migrationsursachen bisher auf finanzielle Hilfsprogramme gesetzt habe. US-Präsident Trump habe den betroffenen Ländern nun allerdings mit Kürzungen gedroht. "As several thousand Central American migrants moved through Honduras, Guatemala and into Mexico on their way toward the United States, President Trump tweeted that he would begin cutting off foreign aid to these countries. Given Congress’s power of the purse, acting on these threats is likely illegal. More importantly, however, it would be counterproductive. Not only would such a pullback swell this human tide, it would squander the hard-earned gains and lessons of a decade-long effort to make Central American nations better places to live than to leave."

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"NATO’s Trident Juncture Exercises: What to Know"

Die NATO wird mit dem Manöver "Trident Juncture" in Norwegen ihre größte Truppenübung seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges durchführen. Jonathan Masters schreibt, dass es sich bei dem Manöver auch um eine "Demonstration der Stärke" handeln soll. "The aggressor in the simulation is fictitious, but the setting and the scale of the exercises point clearly in one direction. Tensions between NATO and Russia, which shares an Arctic border with Norway, are running high. In the last five years, Russia has annexed Crimea, destabilized eastern Ukraine, provided military aid to a brutal regime in Syria, meddled in Western elections, and either walked away from or allegedly violated major multilateral security treaties. 'This exercise is part of NATO’s ongoing effort since the 2014 Russian invasion of Ukraine to reassure member states bordering Russia that the Alliance will defend them against Russian aggression,' says CFR’s James M. Goldgeier, an expert on Eurasian security."

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"U.S. Must Shed Its Illusions About Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince"

Richard N. Haass meint, dass die USA sich nach der Tötung des saudi-arabischen Journalisten Jamal Khashoggi nicht unbedingt von Saudi-Arabien, in jedem Fall aber von Kronprinz Mohammad bin Salman distanzieren sollten. "The president claims the US must stand by MbS because his country is an important and valuable ally that buys significant amounts of arms, is helpful in Syria and in the fight against terrorism, and is a partner versus Iran. Saudi Arabia still produces about one out of every 10 barrels of oil in the world. Its investments are large and important to a number of businesses and projects. This is all true, but it overlooks the fact that the impulsive and reckless crown prince often does things that harm or fail to help US interests. (...) There are, however, some lessons from these experiences that suggest what could and should be done. First, it would be wise to distinguish between Saudi Arabia and MbS. This would argue for holding off anything that smacks of an unconditional embrace of MbS. There should be no invites to the White House or Downing Street. (...) MbS has placed his own future in jeopardy, and other members of the royal family will come to understand that US and western support for him cannot be taken for granted. It is up to the Saudis to sort out their succession. It would be ironic if an action apparently carried out to strengthen his control over his country had just the opposite effect. But it is possible all the same."

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"Disinformation on Steroids"

Die beiden Rechtsexperten Robert Chesney und Danielle K. Citron erläutern in diesem "Cyber Brief" für den Council on Foreign Relations, warum sie Bildfälschungen durch sogenannte "Deep Fakes" für ein ernstes Problem für demokratische Regierungen und für die internationale Ordnung halten. Sie empfehlen einige konkrete Gegenmaßnahmen. "As this technology spreads, the ability to produce bogus yet credible video and audio content will come within the reach of an ever-larger array of governments, nonstate actors, and individuals. As a result, the ability to advance lies using hyperrealistic, fake evidence is poised for a great leap forward. (...) Enhancing current efforts by the National Science Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency (IARPA) could spur breakthroughs that lead to scalable and robust detection capacities and digital provenance solutions. In the meantime, the current wave of interest in improving the extent to which social media companies seek to prevent or remove fraudulent content has pushed companies to take advantage of available detection technologies — flagging suspect content for further scrutiny, providing clear warnings to users, removing known deep fakes, and sharing such content in an effort to help prevent it from being reposted elsewhere (following a model used to limit the spread of child pornography). While by no means a complete solution, all of this would be a useful step forward."

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"President Trump Embraces Foreign Aid After Trying to Gut It"

US-Präsident Trump hat seine bisherige Ablehnung von amerikanischer Entwicklungshilfe für ärmere Länder offenbar überdacht und John Campbell zufolge ein entsprechendes Gesetz unterzeichnet, das vor allem Afrika zugutekommen wird. "In its early days, the Trump administration’s rhetoric was hostile to the United States funding overseas economic development and skeptical of the benefits of soft power. (...) Now the Trump administration has created a development assistance entity, the U.S. International Development Finance Corporation (IDFC), with a budget of $60 billion. Unlike OPIC, IDFC will have the ability to make equity investments and to make loans in local currency, reducing investor currency exchange risk. (...) The IDFC has bipartisan Congressional support, reflecting the long-standing tradition of working across the aisle when it comes to development and humanitarian assistance. It is also supported by USAID and OPIC. It looks as though concern about China's growing influence in developing countries has been the driver of the administration’s new embrace of development assistance and soft power."

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"Ethiopia: East Africa’s Emerging Giant"

Äthiopien ist nach Nigeria das bevölkerungsreichste Land in Afrika und hat sich in den vergangenen Jahren als regionaler Stabilitätsgarant mit hohem Wirtschaftswachstum und zunehmender strategischer Bedeutung erwiesen, erklärt Claire Felter in diesem Länderporträt. Nach 2015 hätten politische Unruhen den Fortschritt allerdings gefährdet. Der seit April 2018 amtierende Premierminister Abiy Ahmed habe darauf mit einer ambitionierten Reformagenda reagiert. "Since taking office in April 2018, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed has responded with promises of dramatic political and economic reforms and has shepherded a historic peace deal with neighboring Eritrea. The new leader’s aggressive approach to change has been met with exuberance among many Ethiopians, but experts warn that Abiy’s challenge to a decades-old political order faces major obstacles, and it is yet unclear whether he can follow through on his agenda."

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"A Blue Wave Won’t Rescue China"

Die Kongresswahlen in den USA am 6. November könnten den Demokraten neue Mehrheiten und entsprechenden Einfluss auf die amerikanische Außenpolitik verschaffen. An der China-Politik der USA dürfte sich in diesem Fall allerdings nur wenig ändern, so die Prognose von Ivo H. Daalder und James M. Lindsay. "Odds are that Trump won’t abandon his get-tough policy with Beijing even in the face of a Republican defeat, and that Democrats will be neither able nor inclined to make him, even as they complain loudly about his tactics. (...) Congress can, of course, try to reclaim its trade authority. That, however, requires passing legislation. And that’s the rub. Lawmakers gridlocked by partisanship aren’t likely to come together suddenly on trade policy. Even if Congress could agree on a legislative fix, Trump would almost certainly veto it. (...) The difficulty that congressional Democrats would face in compelling Trump to soften his China trade policy is compounded by a political reality: many of them agree with what he is trying to do, if not necessarily how he is doing it. The optimism of the Clinton-Bush years that China would embrace open markets and rule of law has faded on Capitol Hill."

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"America's Dilemma in Cameroon: Supporting an Abusive Military"

Die veröffentlichten Videos der Exekutionen von Zivilisten durch Regierungssoldaten haben die Aufmerksamkeit auf Kamerun in Westafrika gelenkt, das seit 36 Jahren durch Präsident Paul Biya autoritär gelenkt wird. John Campbell schreibt, dass das US-Militär bei der Bekämpfung der Boko Haram eng mit Kamerun kooperiere und nun vor einem Dilemma stehe. "The regime and the Cameroonian security services are actively involved in the struggle against Boko Haram. The Departments of Defense and State apparently judge that it is in the interests of the United States that Cameroonian involvement continue and be strengthened. So, while the Department of Defense has issued a statement calling on Cameroon to conduct a full investigation into the human rights violations captured on the videos, it has not taken steps to terminate its military relationship. America’s dilemma is how to balance U.S. security interests with human rights concerns. This is an old song. After all, the United States partnered with Stalin’s Soviet Union against Nazi Germany during World War II. On the other hand, the increased use of videos and the rise of social media means that human rights abuses are harder to ignore now than then."

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"Narcissistic Nationalism: Trump’s Second UN General Assembly Address"

Stewart M. Patrick meint, dass US-Präsident Trump in seiner Rede vor der UN-Vollversammlung sein "engstirniges transaktionales" Verständnis der internationalen Diplomatie demonstriert habe. "The president was speaking to the United Nations, but his emphasis was less on uniting the world behind common purposes than demanding respect for the independence and uniqueness of each assembled nation — not least his own. Entirely absent was any discussion of U.S. global leadership or the common purposes of the world body. (...) Trump’s promise that America would finally stand up for itself should play well with his domestic supporters — his intended audience, of course. But his description of current global realities is off base, and his browbeating style is counterproductive, promising to accelerate U.S. diplomatic isolation."

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"As Germany Moves Toward a More Offensive Posture in Cyberspace, It Will Need a Vulnerability Equities Process"

Sven Herpig von der Stiftung Neue Verantwortung in Berlin schreibt, dass Deutschland mit der Gründung des Bundeswehrkommandos Cyber- und Informationsraum neben defensiven Aufgaben auch offensive Reaktionen auf Cyberangriffe verfolgt. Dafür müssten in vielen Fällen Sicherheitslücken im Netz genutzt werden, deren schnelle Schließung eigentlich im öffentlichen Interesse liege. "This puts governments, like Germany’s, in a bind. The vulnerabilities it seeks to exploit for its offensive purposes could also be used by state actors, criminals, and others against it as well as domestic companies, utilities and its citizens. (...) To address this challenge, Germany needs a regulatory framework, one which is proposed in a new report supported by the Transatlantic Cyber Forum. The report proposes that a German vulnerabilities equities process (VEP) be weighed towards immediate vulnerability disclosure, with retention being authorized under specific circumstances and only for limited periods of time."

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"The Return of U.S. Sanctions on Iran: What to Know"

Die USA haben ihre vor zwei Jahren aufgehobenen Sanktionen gegen den Iran wie angekündigt wieder eingesetzt. Der Council on Foreign Relations hat Informationen über die umstrittene Maßnahme zusammengetragen. "The Trump administration’s withdrawal from the JCPOA on May 8 reinstates two sets of sanctions. The first, coming into effect August 7, includes restrictions on: Iran’s purchase of U.S. currency; Iran’s trade in gold and other precious metals; and the sale to Iran of auto parts, commercial passenger aircraft, and related parts and services. The second set of sanctions, which comes back into force on November 4, restricts sales of oil and petrochemical products from Iran. The Trump administration has so far rejected requests by foreign governments and companies that would allow them to continue to conduct business with Iran."

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"A Glimpse of Pakistan’s Foreign Policy Under Imran Khan?"

Der Oppositionspolitiker Imran Khan könnte nach dem Wahlsieg seiner Partei neuer Premierminister Pakistans werden. Alyssa Ayres verweist auf eine Rede, in der der frühere Cricket-Spieler seine außenpolitischen Ziele erläutert hat. "For U.S. leaders, improvement in U.S.-Pakistan ties will be possible once a clear commitment to tackling terrorism becomes more apparent. This will surely also rank as priority number one for Indian interlocutors as well; and for Afghans, too. Unfortunately for all three countries, it’s also the issue that Khan, a civilian politician widely described as the military’s 'favored' candidate this time around, would be least likely to confront. So despite the positive signals from this speech, Khan will have a hard time delivering better ties with Afghanistan, India, and the United States without addressing the terrorism issue writ large. And while Khan struck a positive, forward-looking tone in the speech, it’s important to remember that this is the same politician who has been highly critical of the United States and U.S. counterterrorism priorities in particular. It looks like a rocky road ahead."

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"North Korea’s Power Structure"

Eleanor Albert wirft einen genaueren Blick auf die Machtstrukturen des Regimes in Nordkorea, das seit Jahrzehnten von der Kim-Familie beherrscht wird. "Experts say Kim Jong-un has deftly navigated his rise to power. While drawing on nostalgia for his grandfather’s era and grandiose persona, 'Kim Jong-un is also determined to be seen as a 'modern leader' of a 'modern North Korea,' writes the Brookings Institution’s Jung H. Pak. Economic development is fashioned as the vehicle for this modernization. (...) CNA’s Gause says 'the economy is Kim Jong-un’s strategy,' adding that all of his recent efforts at diplomacy are 'designed to hook into the South Korean economic engine' and solidify his legacy. Experts say North Korea is entering a critical period of change under a regime that has by and large resisted rapid change and outside influence. Even as the ultimate authority, they say, Kim will need to cultivate the support of enough elites and successfully manage the pace of change to meet his goal of making North Korea a strong and prosperous nation."

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"Could European Populism Go Nuclear on NATO?"

Der Aufstieg populistischer Parteien und eine zunehmend antiamerikanische Stimmung in Europa könnten bald zu ernsten Forderungen nach einem Abzug der dort stationierten US-Atomwaffen führen, meint Stewart M. Patrick. "The surge of populism in Germany, the backbone of the European project, can do the most damage to the shared nuclear deterrent. (...) In its platform, AfD explicitly calls for the withdrawal of all NATO troops and nuclear weapons from German territory. With the near collapse of the current German government over immigration, the possibility of a rise to power by AfD or a party with similar views is no longer far-fetched. Like in Germany, the specter of populism has become very real in Italy, with the anti-establishment coalition formed by the League and 5-Star parties taking power. This could spell trouble for the NATO shared deterrent, given the broad unpopularity of nuclear weapons in the country. (...) If the Pentagon truly wants to adhere to its designs to expand its arsenal of tactical nuclear weapons deployed in Europe as part of the NATO shared nuclear deterrent, it needs to start coming up with contingency plans. At the very least, President Trump should stop antagonizing NATO allies and try to preserve what little good will remains toward the U.S. agenda."

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"Global Peacekeeping Operations Overwhelmingly African and in Africa"

In einer neuen Auflistung internationaler UN-Einsätze durch das Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) wird John Campbell zufolge deutlich, dass die meisten UN-Friedensmissionen in Afrika stattfinden. "Africa hosts the largest number, with twenty-five missions. For perspective, there were eighteen in Europe, nine in the Middle East, six in Asia, and five in the Western Hemisphere. African peacekeeping missions accounted for some 75 percent of all peacekeeping personnel, with African countries accounting for the majority of those troops. Either immediately or over time, almost all peacekeeping missions involve the UN Security Council. Furthermore, over 60 percent of all Security Council resolutions, beyond just peacekeeping, concerned Africa at one point. The predominance of African peacekeeping operations and Africa in general is a central argument among those who advocate for a permanent African seat on the Security Council."

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"The Global Implications of Justice Kennedy’s Retirement"

Der angekündigte Rücktritt von Richter Anthony Kennedy aus dem Obersten Gerichtshof in Washington hat in den USA eine heftige innenpolitische Debatte ausgelöst. Stewart M. Patrick macht darauf aufmerksam, dass der Rücktritt auch internationale Folgen habe könnte, da sich Kennedy im Gegensatz zu seinen konservativen Kollegen immer für ein "produktives Verhältnis" der USA zum Völkerrecht eingesetzt habe. "Whoever succeeds him will likely take a more conservative approach, setting up a potential confrontation between a sovereignty-obsessed America and the international rule of law. The proper place of international law in U.S. law and jurisprudence — the subject of the legal field known as 'foreign relations law' — is a political minefield. It generates vigorous, sometimes vituperative debate among constitutional scholars, including sitting Supreme Court justices. (...) Those conservatives are now ascendant in the Trump administration, and they are determined that Kennedy’s successor not repeat the latter’s apostasy. Jay Sekulow, a member of Trump’s legal team who is helping the president screen potential picks to replace Kennedy, made that clear Wednesday evening. Speaking on Sean Hannity’s Fox News show, he declared that any successful candidate for the Supreme Court must reject any reference to foreign courts."

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"U.S. Military Presence in Sub-Saharan Africa Will Likely Decline"

Zahl und Umfang der Antiterroroperationen amerikanischer Spezialeinheiten in Subsahara-Afrika sollen nach dem Willen des US-Verteidigungsministeriums in den kommenden Monaten offenbar deutlich reduziert werden. Auslöser dieser Entscheidung ist eine offizielle Untersuchung, die nach dem Tod von vier US-Soldaten bei einem Überfall in Niger im vergangenen Oktober eingeleitet wurde. "At the time, especially in Congress, there was concern about the U.S. presence in Niger and personnel's involvement with fighting rather than exclusively with training and advising. The Department of Defense subsequently conducted a thorough investigation, which, according to the New York Times, will likely result in a reduction of the number of Special Forces in Africa. AFRICOM has reportedly been asked to develop scenarios for counterterrorism operations in Africa if Special Forces were reduced by 25 percent over 18 months and 50 percent over 36 months. Citing Defense Department sources, the Times also reports that there is concern that Special Forces, numbering about 7,300 in 92 countries around the world, are over-stretched. There are about 1,200 Special Forces personnel currently in Africa."

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"Thirty Years of U.S. Arms Sales to Middle East Endogenous to Unstable Oil Prices, Research Shows"

Amy Myers Jaffe hat in einer Studie für das Magazin Economics of Energy and Environmental Policy (EEEP) zusammen mit Mahmoud El-Gamal untersucht, ob es zwischen den amerikanischen Waffenexporten in die Region, instabilen Ölpreisen und ausbrechenden Konflikten einen Zusammenhang gibt. Ihr Fazit lautet: "In our EEEP article, we argue that geopolitical events that are often considered exogenous to the debt-driven financial boom and bust global economic cycle are part of an endogenous and self-perpetuating meta-cycle, linked by high petrodollar recycling during periods of high oil prices that typically accompany high economic growth periods, like the one seen in the early 2010s. Petrodollar recycling takes many forms, including rising military spending and buildups. (...) A significant part of Arab countries’ military equipment (and Russia’s) used in recent conflicts was accumulated during oil boom years following the Iraqi invasion (2003-2007) and during the Arab Spring uprising (2011-2013). Last year escalations in conflict across the Middle East from Yemen to Northern Iraq helped raise the price of oil on the heels of the major down cycle of 2014-2015. (...) Forty years of military buildups have failed to bring peace and economic prosperity to the Middle East. While it is unlikely that the Middle East oil exporters will intentionally escalate regional proxy wars in a manner that leads to the destruction of oil facilities, the nature of war can be irrational and unpredictable, hence explaining the return of the geopolitical risk premium to the price of oil."

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"Are Cold War Spy-Craft Norms Fading?"

Der frühere CIA-Mitarbeiter Jack Devine wirft Russland vor, bisherige Gepflogenheiten der internationalen Geheimdienstarbeit immer häufiger zu missachten. "American and Russian intelligence services since roughly the Stalin era held a gentlemen’s agreement, often referred to as Moscow rules, that limited how we engaged with each other. Under these rules, and the prevailing threat of mutually assured destruction, we agreed not to attack each other physically and not to engage in certain types of activities, such as counterfeiting each other’s currency and meddling in each other’s political internal affairs. (...) Russia seems unconstrained by any norms, whether they be Moscow rules, risk aversion, or rule of law and tenets of common decency. The list of Russia’s alleged transgressions keeps mounting: unrestrained bombings of civilians in Syria, meddling in elections in Eastern and Western Europe and United States, a systemic doping program for Olympic athletes, and assassination campaigns against domestic dissidents, whistle-blowers, human rights activists, independent journalists, and defectors from its intelligence services; Sergei Skripal certainly fits the profile. The methods, too; slow, cruel deaths by exposure to carefully crafted toxins are alarming to many."

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"Al-Qaeda’s Resurrection"

Nach Ansicht von Bruce Hoffman ist es an der Zeit, die Al-Qaida erneut als weltweit größte Terrorbedrohung einzustufen. Die Terrororganisation sei der große Gewinner der Umwälzungen des Arabischen Frühlings im Nahen Osten. "While the self-proclaimed Islamic State has dominated the headlines and preoccupied national security officials for the past four years, al-Qaeda has been quietly rebuilding. Its announcement last summer of another affiliate — this one dedicated to the liberation of Kashmir — coupled with the resurrection of its presence in Afghanistan and the solidification of its influence in Syria, Yemen, and Somalia, underscores the resiliency and continued vitality of the United States’ preeminent terrorist enemy. (...) ISIS can no longer compete with al-Qaeda in terms of influence, reach, manpower, or cohesion. In only two domains is ISIS currently stronger than its rival: the power of its brand and its presumed ability to mount spectacular terrorist strikes in Europe. But the latter is a product of Zawahiri’s strategic decision to prohibit external operations in the West so that al-Qaeda’s rebuilding can continue without interference."

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"Trump’s Middle East Strategy Is Totally Boring"

Steven A. Cook erkennt in der Nahostpolitik Donald Trumps bei näherem Hinsehen eine Strategie, die auch von früheren US-Präsidenten verfolgt worden sei. "(...) upon closer inspection, Secretary of State Rex Tillerson’s recent trip to the region reveals a coherent underlying plan. And in contrast to the policies that have destabilized domestic politics or raised questions in Europe, North America, and Asia about U.S. commitments to mutual defense and free trade — hallmarks of the post–World War II and post–Cold War orders — there is a certain familiarity to the Trump administration’s approach to the Middle East. In fact, it restores a regional strategy that has long had broad bipartisan support and was once the standard for U.S. presidents — just not the most recent ones. (...) So, what are these policies? There are three basic components: fighting terrorism, containing Iran, and supporting Israel. That’s why Tillerson’s meetings in Cairo with Sisi and Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry were the easiest of the trip. That is because the Trump team is reviving a policy of supporting 'our bastards' so long as they share American interests."

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"The Rise of Islamist Groups in Malaysia and Indonesia"

In Malaysia und Indonesien gewinnen islamistische Gruppen Joshua Kurlantzick zufolge immer größeren politischen Einfluss. Beide Länder gelten bisher als multiethnische und multireligiöse Modellbeispiele der friedlichen Koexistenz eines bürgerlichen Rechtswesens mit islamischen Traditionen. "But since the beginning of this decade, conservative and often Islamist groups, which slowly amassed power in the late 2000s, have gained greater influence in the two countries over the law and politics. They have done so by organizing within democratic politics in Indonesia, and to some extent Malaysia, through grassroots campaigns and local electoral victories. Still, their goals — such as implementing laws based on sharia and rolling back protections for religious minorities — are often at odds with secularism and democracy. Now, in the run-up to Malaysia’s 2018 national elections and Indonesia’s 2019 presidential election, these groups could play central roles in determining the countries’ paths and could possibly undermine hard-won political and legal gains, making the two states less reliable U.S. security and economic partners."

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"Mapping Islamist Terrorist Incidents in Africa for 2017"

Das Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) hat eine neue Karte mit den Aktivitäten militanter islamistischer Gruppen in Afrika veröffentlicht. "According to its review, the number of fatalities dropped in 2017, but the number of events associated with Islamist groups increased. The decline in total fatalities owes much to the decline in fatalities caused by Boko Haram, which nevertheless remains the most deadly terrorist operation in sub-Saharan Africa, and, as the ACSS concludes, shows the groups continuing resiliency. (...) The ACSS map also illustrates an important reality. Though Islamist terrorism often dominates the headlines, there are really only three centers of it in sub-Saharan Africa: Somalia (with spill-over into Kenya), Mali (with spill-over into Burkina Faso), and the Lake Chad Basin (chiefly in Nigeria, but also in Niger, Cameroon, and Chad). The rest of sub-Saharan Africa — geographically an enormous region — is almost entirely free of it."

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"Modern Slavery - An exploration of its root causes and the human toll."!/section1/item-1

Der Council on Foreign Relations hat sich in diesem interaktiven Überblick mit dem Phänomen der modernen Sklaverei beschäftigt. Weltweit werden demnach über 40 Millionen Menschen auf diese Weise missbraucht. "Slavery occurs in the gulags of North Korea, on the battlefields of Iraq and Syria, and in the brothels of Eastern Europe. Its victims are children forced into military action in the Democratic Republic of Congo or born into debt bondage at brick kilns in India, young men laboring on rickety fishing boats in Thailand, and children and women pressed into domestic servitude in Haiti. (...) Slavery is most prevalent in impoverished countries and those with vulnerable minority communities, though it also exists in developed countries. Tens of thousands toil in slave-like conditions in industries such as mining, farming, and factories, producing goods for domestic consumption or export to more prosperous nations. Profiteers prey on vulnerable people and operate with relative impunity. Slavery today usually takes one of the following forms: bonded labor, domestic servitude, sexual exploitation, or forced marriage."

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"Year in Review"

Der Council on Foreign Relations hat ein Dossier mit Beiträgen zu den vorherrschenden außen- und sicherheitspolitischen Themen von 2017 und zu möglichen Schwerpunkten des Jahres 2018 zusammengestellt.

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"Trump Security Strategy a Study in Contrasts"

Max Boot schreibt in seiner Analyse, dass die praktische Bedeutung der neuen Nationalen Sicherheitsstrategie des US-Präsidenten nicht überschätzt werden sollte. "No senior decision-maker has ever confronted a crisis by looking at a copy of the NSS to find out what to do. NSSs are not even important in guiding spending and procurement decisions; they make no attempt, as real strategy documents should, to reconcile ends and means — to suggest which programs should be funded and which defunded to achieve the results desired. NSSs are really wish lists of capabilities and laundry lists of threats. They are worth paying attention to mainly because they represent an attempt by an administration to bring some intellectual coherence to the day-to-day press of decisions on myriad matters."

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"Why the Time Is Right to Talk to the Taliban"

Eine Mehrheit der Experten und militärischen Entscheidungsträger in den USA und bei der NATO ist Courtney Cooper zufolge zu der Überzeugung gelangt, dass der seit Jahren andauernde Konflikt in Afghanistan nicht militärisch gewonnen werden könne. Deshalb sollte ein neuer Versuch unternommen werden, echte Friedensgespräche unter Beteiligung der Taliban in die Wege zu leiten. "Successive U.S. administrations have held mixed positions on peace talks with the Taliban, but none of them prioritized efforts to conclude the conflict through a political process. The George W. Bush administration reportedly refused a Taliban offer of surrender in 2002. The Obama administration, following its 2009 decision to surge U.S. troops to fight the Taliban, publicly signaled its openness to supporting talks between Kabul and the Taliban, promoted confidence-building measures, and facilitated the establishment of a short-lived Taliban political office in Qatar. In his August speech, President Donald J. Trump appeared open to a political settlement, but only if it followed U.S. military gains against the group. (...) There are several arguments for delaying efforts to set the foundation for an Afghan peace process, but they all overlook the larger costs of extending — or even escalating — the conflict."

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"Tracking State-Sponsored Cyber Operations"

Adam Segal stellt eine neue Datenbank des Council on Foreign Relations vor, in der Informationen über weltweite staatliche Cyberspace-Operationen erfasst werden. "We’re launching a Cyber Operations Tracker, a database of the publicly known state-sponsored cyber incidents that have occurred since 2005. The database, which draws on previous work done by CSIS, Florian Roth, and, contains almost two hundred entries of state-sponsored cyber incidents or threat actors for which data is publicly available. Want to know who is spying on whom? Looking for the number of times North Korea has been publicly denounced for its cyber operations? Heard of Equation Group but would like to know more about it? The tracker can help answer all of these questions."

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"New Interactive Report Traces the Role of Women in Global Peacemaking"

Der Council on Foreign Relations hat eine interaktive Webseite zusammengestellt, auf der die positive Rolle von Frauen in internationalen Friedensprozessen hervorgehoben wird. "'Women’s Participation in Peace Processes' explores women’s roles in major peace agreements from 1990 to the present. 'From Kabul to Kinshasa, women continue to be marginalized and excluded from peace and security processes, despite facing unique threats to their safety and well-being,' says Rachel Vogelstein, CFR’s Douglas Dillon senior fellow and director of the Women and Foreign Policy program. The interactive feature includes case studies, data visualizations, personal stories, and policy analysis."

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"VICE Special Report: A World in Disarray"

Vice hat ausgehend vom Buch "A World in Disarray" von Richard Haass ein 80-minütiges Video veröffentlicht, in dem die internationale Sicherheitslage anhand einiger Fallstudien analysiert wird. Der Council on Foreign Relations hat als Ergänzung einen Text mit begleitenden Anmerkungen des Autors ins Netz gestellt. "A World in Disarray, a VICE special report, is a feature-length documentary that draws on the book of the same name by CFR President Richard N. Haass. The film explores the disorder in today’s international landscape, how it arose, and how it plays out in four areas of conflict and tension: Syria, Ukraine, the South China Sea, and North Korea."

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Europa, Asien, Afrika, Amerika und weltweite Phänomene und Institutionen. Die bpb bietet ein breites Angebot zu internationalen Themen.

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Informationsportal Krieg und Frieden

Wo gibt es Kriege und Gewaltkonflikte? Und wo herrscht am längsten Frieden? Welches Land gibt am meisten für Rüstung aus? liefert wichtige Daten und Fakten zu Krieg und Frieden.

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Innerstaatliche Konflikte

Vom Kosovo nach Kolumbien, von Somalia nach Süd-Thailand: Weltweit schwelen über 280 politische Konflikte. Und immer wieder droht die Lage gewaltsam zu eskalieren.

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Zahlen und Fakten


Kaum ein Thema wird so intensiv und kontrovers diskutiert wie die Globalisierung. "Zahlen und Fakten" liefert Grafiken, Texte und Tabellen zu einem der wichtigsten und vielschichtigsten Prozesse der Gegenwart.

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Coverbild Internationale Sicherheit im 21. Jahrhundert

Internationale Sicherheit im 21. Jahrhundert

Die internationale Sicherheit ist fragil und bedroht. Wie können und müssen demokratische Systeme ...

Internationale Sicherheitspolitik Cover

Internationale Sicherheitspolitik

Seit Ende des Ost-West-Konflikts hat sich die internationale Sicherheitspolitik deutlich verändert....

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