US-Soldaten in Afghanistan

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"Red Lines And Relief: Mixed Feelings In Ukraine After Zelenskiy-Putin Talks"

In der Ukraine seien die Ergebnisse des Pariser Gipfeltreffens mit gemischten Gefühlen aufgenommen worden, berichtet Tony Wesolowsky. "Many Ukrainians feared Zelenskiy would make major concessions to Putin, particularly with European leaders eager for progress toward peace looking on. But the modest agreements reached seemed to leave little room for concerns of 'capitulation' to Moscow, making for a mix of relief at that result and disappointment about the obstacles that still loom large in a country torn by a five-year war in its east."

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"Six New European Nations Join Iran Barter System Opposed By U.S."

Sechs weitere Staaten haben sich dem von Deutschland, Frankreich und Großbritannien geschaffenen INSTEX-Mechanismus angeschlossen, der europäischen Unternehmen ermöglichen soll, bei Geschäften mit dem Iran drohende US-Sanktionen zu umgehen. "In a joint statement on November 30, the three said they 'warmly welcome the decision taken by the governments of Belgium, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden to join INSTEX as shareholders.' The United States has vehemently opposed the plan, with Vice President Mike Pence saying earlier this year that 'the time has come for our European partners to stop undermining U.S. sanctions against this murderous revolutionary regime.' The Paris-based INSTEX - or Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges - is a special-purpose financial vehicle that allows Iran to continue to sell oil and in return import other products and services, using a barter system rather than the U.S. dollar."

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"Ukraine's FM Ready To Accept 'Reasonable Compromise' In Upcoming Peace Talks"

Vor den geplanten Verhandlungen im Normandy-Format hat der ukrainische Außenminister grundsätzliche Kompromissbereitschaft angedeutet. "Ukrainian Foreign Minister Vadym Prystayko says Kyiv is ready to accept a 'reasonable compromise' next month during the so-called Normandy format talks on ending the bloody five-year conflict in eastern Ukraine. 'We are going to the Normandy meeting with open ideas, an open mind, ready to accept a reasonable compromise,' Prystayko told reporters on November 19 in Kyiv during a joint news conference with German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas. The leaders of Ukraine, Russia, Germany, and France are scheduled to meet in December in an effort to end the conflict between Ukrainian government forces and Russia-backed separatists in parts of the Donbas and Luhansk regions that has killed more than 13,000 people since 2014."

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"Kyiv Plans To Boost Defense Spending To $9 Billion As Peace Talks Remain Elusive"

Die ukrainische Regierung will ihren Verteidigungshaushalt im nächsten Jahr um 16% auf mehr als neun Milliarden US-Dollar erhöhen. "About 5.5 percent of economic output will go toward defense and security – nearly three times higher than NATO’s recommended spending target of 2 percent of gross domestic product. (…) Ukraine has one of the European continent’s most formidable standing armies, which is battle hardened after more than five years of fighting against Russia-backed separatists in the easternmost regions of Luhansk and Donetsk. The conflict has killed more than 13,000 people."

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"Hungary Vetoes NATO Statement On Ukraine Over Kyiv’s Education, Language Laws"

Ungarn hat eine NATO-Erklärung zur Ukraine aufgrund des 2017 verabschiedeten ukrainischen Sprachengesetzes blockiert. "Hungarian officials have vetoed a joint NATO statement about Ukraine because it didn’t contain language criticizing Kyiv for its education and language laws that Budapest says deprive the rights of the Hungarian minority in the neighboring country. Hungary, in particular, believes the country's education law restricts the right of Ukraine's ethnic Hungarian minority of approximately 125,000 people to be educated in their native language. Kyiv passed the law in 2017, which emphasizes the teaching of Ukrainian in publicly-funded schools and curtails the teaching of Russian and other minority languages, such as Romanian and Hungarian."

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"Putin To Visit Hungary As Russian Presence Grows"

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty berichtet über den Besuch von Russlands Präsident Putin in Ungarn. Bei der Visite gehe es vor allem um Energiepolitik. "Both reject Western liberal values and since Russia annexed Ukraine’s Crimean Peninsula in 2014, Orban has met at least once a year with Putin - twice in 2017 - while being a strong advocate for the EU to ease sanctions on Russia. (…) As the Putin-Orban special relationship has endured, Hungary has relied mostly on Russia for natural gas and a 10 billion-euro ($11.1-billion) credit line to upgrade the country’s only nuclear power station with Rosatom’s help. A source familiar with the agenda of Putin’s visit told Reuters that TurkStream will also be discussed. The pipeline project will run under the Black Sea to Turkey and envisions a branch to serve Hungary, but Putin needs all the countries involved to avoid setbacks."

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"Explainer: What Is The Steinmeier Formula -- And Did Zelenskiy Just Capitulate To Moscow?"

Christopher Miller erklärt, was es mit der "Steinmeier-Formel" auf sich hat und warum das Zugeständnis des ukrainischen Präsidenten von einigen Kritikern als "Kapitulation" gebrandmarkt wird. "Specifically, Steinmeier's formula calls for elections to be held in the separatist-held territories under Ukrainian legislation and the supervision of the OSCE. If the OSCE judges the balloting to be free and fair, then a special self-governing status for the territories will be initiated and Ukraine will be returned control of its easternmost border. (...) supporting the Steinmeier Formula could be risky for Zelenskiy. A recent poll by the Kyiv-based Rating Group said two-thirds of respondents were unable to rate the Steinmeier Formula, while 23 percent opposed the idea and 18 percent supported it. Some Ukrainian veterans and opposition political parties, as well as some civil-society groups and Ukrainian ultranationalists, have stood against the Steinmeier Formula or any peace deal that may benefit Russia."

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"'We Were Dragged Into This': What Ukrainians Think About The Trump Scandal"

Christopher Miller berichtet aus Kiew, wie der neue "Trump-Skandal" in der ukrainischen Bevölkerung wahrgenommen wird. "Ukrainians who spoke to RFE/RL for this story said that conversations around their dinner tables and workplace water coolers - or the equivalent - have continued to center mostly on everyday life and domestic issues. (...) Olha Ivanova, a charity worker in the capital, said she knows about the news but has not followed it closely. 'I know the essence of it and I am curious [about] what will happen now,' she said. 'It looks like a very American scandal, where we are just unfortunate victims due to the will of the U.S. establishment and mistakes or certain political interests of a few Ukrainian officials.' (...) But some say they do understand the stakes. Odnoroh said now that Ukraine has been thrust into the middle of a major political drama, 'we need to try to get the most out of it.' 'Attention is always good,' she said. 'The more [people in the West] talk about Ukraine, the greater the chance of people seeing how Russia is violating us.' Still, others would have preferred to stay out of the spotlight altogether."

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"Report: Putin Sends NATO Proposal For Moratorium On Missile Deployment To Europe"

Die russische Regierung hat der NATO einem Bericht der Zeitung Kommersant zufolge vorgeschlagen, einen drohenden Rüstungswettlauf zur Stationierung neuer atomarer Mittelstreckenraketen durch ein gemeinsames Moratorium zu verhindern. "Putin's letter, which Kommersant said on September 25 was also sent to China and European Union officials, called for a moratorium on deploying such weapons, and it also suggested a new verification system -- something that was at the crux of the INF dispute. (...) Earlier, Putin announced that Russia would deploy INF-violating missiles to Europe only if the United States did first. Western officials, however, have dismissed that, saying that the Russian missile in question -- known as the 9M729 -- has already been deployed to units positioned in parts of Russia's European territories. 'Russian officials are proposing a moratorium on deploying [such missiles], while at the same time they're already deploying such weapons. This is nonsense,' an unnamed NATO diplomat was quoted by Kommersant as saying."

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"Amid Trump-Biden Tug-Of-War, Anxious Ukraine Ponders How To Proceed"

Im Streit der USA über das Telefongespräch Präsident Trumps mit dem ukrainischen Präsidenten Zelenskiy sehe sich die Ukraine zwischen den Fronten, schreibt Christopher Miller. "Trump has denied he did anything inappropriate in the phone call, which he described as 'perfectly fine and routine.' 'Nothing was said that was in any way wrong,' Trump tweeted on September 21. What Zelenskiy chooses to do about it may have serious implications. Ukraine depends heavily on U.S. support that has helped to prop up its economy, implement anti-corruption reforms, and fight a war against Russia-backed separatists in the eastern Donbas region that has killed more than 13,000 people since 2014. The Ukrainian leader could investigate Hunter Biden. But doing that means risking being seen by Democrats as helping Republicans to meddle in the 2020 U.S. election, analysts say. On the other hand, experts say that opting to not open a probe may anger Trump, who has spoken openly about a rapprochement with Russia and been lukewarm on Ukraine for years, even reportedly saying of Ukrainians, 'They're all corrupt and they tried to take me down,' a reference to unproven accusations from the Trump camp that Kyiv tried to undermine his candidacy in 2016."

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"Trump Says Ready To Join Normandy Talks On East Ukraine Conflict"

US-Präsident Trump hat sich grundsätzlich dazu bereit erklärt, an den Verhandlungen des sogenannten Normandie-Quartetts zur Lösung des Konflikts in der Ostukraine teilzunehmen. "U.S. President Donald Trump has said he isn't averse to joining talks with Germany, France, Ukraine, and Russia aimed at ending the conflict in eastern Ukraine. Known as the Normandy format, Trump told Voice of America on September 9 in Washington that he'd join the talks if the participants needed him. 'I believe the fact that the exchange of prisoners between Russia and Ukraine took place…is a very big step, and a very positive step. If they need me to join, I would join [the Normandy format],' Trump said. France, Germany, and Ukraine have called for talks to take place by the end of this month. Russia has said it is ready to meet once 'concrete steps' are taken before the meeting. The last round of Normandy talks took place in 2016."

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"Why Did Trump Call Off The Taliban Talks: A Negotiating Tactic, Washington Worries About The Deal, Or Showmanship?"

Einige Experten glauben, dass der plötzliche Abbruch der US-Gespräche mit den Taliban Teil der amerikanischen Verhandlungstaktik sei. "U.S.-Taliban talks are likely to resume at some point because many say there is no military solution to the conflict as no side is able to break the current military stalemate in its favor. Pompeo said Washington is still interested in agreeing to a deal, while the Taliban said it was hopeful negotiations could resume. Analysts said Trump’s abrupt end to talks could be a negotiating tactic to get more concessions from the Taliban. Jonathan Schroden, a security expert at CNA, a U.S.-based nonprofit research and analysis organization, said it would be 'typical Trump brinksmanship to angle for a better deal.' (...) 'If U.S. negotiations resume with the Taliban, the U.S. will certainly want to pursue a deal that obliges the insurgents to lay down arms before any U.S. troops leave the country,' said [Michael Kugelman, South Asia associate at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington]. 'The question will be what the U.S. does to give the Taliban an incentive to agree to such a concession.'"

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"Putin, Macron Say Ukraine-Russia Prisoner Swap Gives Momentum For Peace Talks"

Die Präsidenten Macron und Putin wollen den erfolgreich absolvierten Gefangenenaustausch Russlands mit der Ukraine als Impuls für neue Verhandlungen zur Lösung des Konflikts in der Ostukraine nutzen. "Russia and Ukraine exchanged a total of 70 prisoners on September 7 in a move praised by the West as an opportunity to improve tense relations between Kyiv and Moscow. 'The two presidents confirmed that the current momentum will allow for the holding, in the next few weeks, of a summit under the Normandy format in Paris,' the French presidency said in a statement. The Kremlin added: 'The sides discussed prospects for the resolution of the Ukrainian conflict and stressed that the Minsk Package of Measures has no alternatives as a basis for the conflict settlement. They reiterated mutual commitment to continue constructive joint work within the Normandy format.'"

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"Putin: Russia To Produce Previously Banned Missiles, Deploy Them Only If U.S. Does"

Präsident Putin hat angekündigt, dass Russland nach dem Ende des INF-Vertrags die Produktion bisher verbotener Mittelstreckenraketen plane. Ob diese Raketen tatsächlich stationiert werden, hänge von den USA ab. "'We will make such missiles, of course, but we will not deploy them in the regions where no ground-based missile systems of this class manufactured by the United States have emerged,' he added. After accusing Russia of violating the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty for years, the United Sates officially withdrew on August 2 from the pact banning ground-launched cruise and ballistic missiles with a range between 500 and 5,500 kilometers. (...) Putin said in Vladivostok that he was concerned by comments from Washington concerning the deployment of missiles in Japan and South Korea since those sites are close enough to strike Russian territory."

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"Taliban Attack Shakes Kabul, Killing 16 As Peace Deal Reached ‘In Principle'"

Parallel zur Verkündung einer prinzipiellen Einigung in den Friedensverhandlungen der USA mit den Taliban sind in Kabul erneut zahlreiche Menschen bei einem Anschlag getötet und verletzt worden. "The Taliban took credit for killing at least 16 civilians involving a car bombing and gunmen in Kabul on September 2 as the Afghan-based militant group agreed 'in principle' to a deal to end the nearly 18-year conflict, the longest war in which the United States has been embroiled. (...) In an exclusive interview with RFE/RL, [U.S. special envoy to Afghanistan Zalmay Khalilzad] said the Taliban has agreed 'in principle' that any Afghan territory it controls in the future will not be used as a sanctuary for terrorists to launch attacks against the United States and its allies. He also said that U.S. and Taliban negotiators had also agreed on the gradual 'reduction and withdrawal' of Western forces from Afghanistan. 'That would depend on the situation on the ground,' the envoy said. However, he pointed out that the agreement, reached after nine rounds of U.S.-Taliban negotiations in Qatar, wasn't final until U.S. President Donald Trump agreed to it."

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"Taliban Launch Second Attack On Afghan City Despite Peace Talks"

Die Taliban haben in den vergangenen Tagen Großoffensiven gegen die strategisch wichtigen Städte Kundus und Puli Khumri im Norden Afghanistans gestartet. "Interior Ministry spokesman Nasrat Rahimi said militants had taken up positions in two areas of Puli Khumri and were battling Afghan security forces. 'The whole city is closed,' Safdar Muhsini, head of the Baghlan provincial council, said. 'If the central government does not take quick action, the situation could get worse.' Shortly before that announcement, U.S. peace envoy Zalmay Khalilzad had written on Twitter that U.S. and Taliban negotiators were closing in on a deal as they concluded their eighth round of talks in Qatar."

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"Trump Says Russia Belongs, Wants To Make It The G8 Again"

US-Präsident Trump hat sich dafür ausgesprochen, Russland wieder in den Kreis der derzeitigen G7-Staaten aufzunehmen. "His remarks came before a meeting with Romanian President Klaus Iohannis on August 20 in Washington and four days before he arrives at this year’s G7 summit in the southern French resort town of Biarritz. 'I could certainly' support that, he told reporters at the White House. 'It’s much more appropriate to have Russia in. It should be the G8, because a lot of the things we talk about have to do with Russia.' Trump said 'if somebody would make that motion, I would certainly be disposed to think about it very favorably,' regarding the inclusion of Russia in the group."

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"Trump Wants All Troops Out Of Afghanistan By 2020 U.S. Election: Reports"

US-Präsident Trump strebt Berichten zufolge an, die US-Truppen in Afghanistan noch vor den Wahlen im kommenden Jahr abzuziehen. "U.S. President Donald Trump has told aides that he wants to pull all U.S. troops out of Afghanistan before the presidential election in November 2020, U.S. news agencies are reporting, citing unnamed current and former administration officials. The latest reports on August 2 come after U.S. media cited unnamed sources as saying the United States is ready to withdraw a large number of troops from Afghanistan in exchange for Taliban guarantees to start direct negotiations with Kabul on ending the nearly 18-year war. The Washington Post and CNN cited sources as saying that the number of soldiers would go down from 14,000 to 8,000-9,000 as part of a peace deal to end the conflict. Washington has said it wants a peace deal finalized with the Taliban by September 1."

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"Trump Balks At Cancellation Of F-35 Jet Sales To Turkey, Blames Obama"

US-Präsident Trump hat bestätigt, dass die USA der Türkei aufgrund der begonnenen Lieferung russischer S-400-Raketenabwehrsysteme keine F-35-Kampfflugzeuge verkaufen werden. Zugleich hat Trump seinen Amtsvorgänger Obama für die Spannungen verantwortlich gemacht. "Speaking to journalists before a cabinet meeting on July 16, Trump didn't mention sanctions that are legally required to be enforced after Turkey started purchasing the Russian hardware. Trump instead said it was 'not fair' that Washington cancelled the sale of over 100 planes to Turkey while implying that his predecessor, Barack Obama, was to blame because the United States failed to sell it Patriot missiles instead. (...) At his Senate confirmation hearing to become defense secretary, Army Secretary Mark Esper said that Turkey 'cannot have both' the Russian and U.S. equipment, because the S-400 'fundamentally undermines the capabilities of the F-35.' Former State Department and national security official Andrew Weiss said that Trump's position 'undercuts his own team.'"

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"EU Countries Meeting To Reduce Tensions With Iran"

Der iranische Präsident Rohani hat sich grundsätzlich zu Verhandlungen mit den USA bereit erklärt, dies aber zugleich von der Aufhebung der US-Sanktionen abhängig gemacht. "President Hassan Rohani said in a televised speech on July 14 that Tehran will be ready to talk with the Trump administration when it stops its 'sanctions and bullying.' However, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo dismissed Rohani's proposal, telling The Washington Post it was 'the same offer that he offered to John F. Kerry and Barack Obama,' referring to the former U.S. secretary of state and president."

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"Merkel Seeks To Reassure Western Balkans On EU, Stresses ‘Strategic Interest’"

Bundeskanzlerin Merkel hat den Westbalkan-Ländern auf einem Gipfeltreffen im polnischen Poznan versichert, dass die EU trotz der Verschiebung der Aufnahme von Beitrittsverhandlungen weiterhin ein "strategisches Interesse" an ihrer EU-Mitgliedschaft habe. "Merkel told a Western Balkan summit in Poznan, Poland, on July 5 that concerns expressed by French President Emmanuel Macron that the countries’ governance mechanisms become more efficient should not delay accession talks. 'I share President Macron's view that the EU's working mechanisms must be improved,' she said. 'I don't see that as an abandonment of the accession talks.' She added that the accession process for Balkan nations aspiring for membership -- Albania, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, and North Macedonia -- was sufficiently lengthy to allow time for improvements to be made. (...) Last month, EU member states postponed a decision on whether to open accession talks with North Macedonia and Albania until October, amid resistance from some bloc members, including France and the Netherlands."

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"Pompeo Meets With Saudi Leaders For Iran Crisis Talks"

US-Außenminister Pompeo wünscht sich eine "globale Koalition" williger Verbündeter im Nahen Osten, Europa und Asien, die sich dem Iran als "größten staatlichen Sponsor von Terrorismus" entgegenstellen soll. "Pompeo told reporters on June 23 before leaving Washington: 'We’ll be talking with them about how to make sure that we are all strategically aligned and how we can build out a global coalition, a coalition not only throughout the Gulf states but in Asia and in Europe prepared to push back against the world's largest state sponsor of terror.' Pompeo also echoed President Donald Trump in saying Washington was prepared to negotiate with Tehran, without preconditions, in a bid to ease tensions between the longtime foes."

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"HRW Warns Of Risks Of Bosnian Plan To Relocate Refugees In Tent Camp"

Die Regierung in Bosnien-Herzegowina plant die Verlegung hunderter Migranten aus der Stadt Bihac in eine nahegelegene Zeltstadt. "According to, a website that analyzes population flows, 7,127 migrants were registered as entering Bosnia in 2019 up to May 15, more than 6 times the total for all of 2017. In 2018, 23,848 were registered, the highest single-year total ever for the country. Most migrants in Bosnia are concentrated in two northwestern towns, Bihac and Velika Kladusa, close to the 1,000-kilometer-long border with Croatia, a member of the European Union. Human Rights Watch researcher Lydia Gall told RFE/RL that Bosnian authorities need to ensure there is adequate accommodation space for all migrants and asylum seekers in the country, one of Europe's poorest."

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"Next Up For U.S. Weapons Supplies To Ukraine? Possibly Surface-To-Air Missiles"

Nachdem die US-Regierung im vergangenen Jahr die Lieferung von Javelin-Panzerabwehr-Raketen in die Ukraine genehmigt hat, denken US-Politiker nun offen über den Verkauf von Boden-Luft-Raketen an Kiew nach. "Any final decision would have to go through multiple approval processes at various U.S. agencies, including the U.S. Defense Department. Moreover, targets for Ukrainian surface-to-air missiles are limited for now: Russia-backed separatists don’t have fighter jets, and Russia sending its own aircraft over Ukraine would undermine its assertions that it is not involved in the conflict. Still, the move sends a clear message to the Kremlin of where Congress stands regarding the war in Ukraine. And, according to Steven Pifer, a former U.S. ambassador to Ukraine, it's a logical next step after the U.S. decision to supply Javelins to the Ukrainian armed forces. 'I don't see this as generating more problems than the arrival of the Javelins did,' Pifer, now a research fellow at Stanford University's Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, told RFE/RL. 'We're not talking about providing the Ukrainians with F-35 fighters or M-1 tanks.'"

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"Putin Says Russia Prepared To Drop Arms Control Treaty If U.S. Not Interested In Renewal"

Präsident Putin hat erklärt, dass Russland angesichts des amerikanischen Zögerns bei der Verlängerung des "New START"-Abkommens gezwungen sein könnte, auch diesen Rüstungskontrollvertrag aufzugeben. "At a meeting with the heads of international news agencies in St. Petersburg, Putin said Washington is reluctant to begin talks on extending the deal, which is due to expire in 2021. 'We do not have to extend it. Our systems can guarantee Russia's security for quite a long period of time,' Putin said. 'If no one feels like extending the New START agreement, well, we won't do it then,' the Russian president said. The pact, signed in Prague in 2010, provided for limiting to 1,550 the number of strategic nuclear warheads deployed by either country -- down almost two-thirds from the 6,000-warheads limit in the original START I treaty which entered into force in 1994 and expired in 2009. 'Everything ends in 2021,' Putin said. 'There will be no instruments left to curb the arms race.'"

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"Zelenskiy Calls For Referendum On Ukraine's NATO Membership"

Der ukrainische Präsident Zelenskiy hat sich für ein Referendum zum Nato-Beitritt des Landes ausgesprochen. "Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy has said Ukraine should hold a referendum on NATO membership, adding that the country is on a 'course toward Europe.' He made the comments during an interview conducted at a gym in Brussels on June 5 with RFE/RL correspondent Gregory Zhygalov, which also aired on Ukrainian channel 1+1. Zelenskiy also commented on his decision to reinstate former Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili's Ukrainian citizenship after it was annulled by former Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko."

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"UN Maritime Tribunal Rules Russia Must Release Ukrainian Sailors, Ships"

Der Internationale Seegerichtshof der Vereinten Nationen hat beschlossen, dass Russland die im November im Schwarzen Meer festgenommenen 24 ukrainischen Matrosen freilassen und die beschlagnahmten Schiffe an Kiew übergeben müsse. "The tribunal's decisions are legally binding, but it has no power to enforce them. The tribunal called for both Russia and Ukraine to report back on their compliance by June 25. Correspondents say the ruling is unlikely to definitively end the question of allowing Ukrainian ships full access to the Sea of Azov, which Russia has been restricting since a bridge across the Kerch Strait was completed. But Ukraine is hoping the victory will provide legal weight in its fight against Russia, which has boycotted the proceedings, saying the court has no jurisdiction. Ukraine has denied Russia's charge that the Ukrainian ships had entered Russian territorial waters illegally."

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"HRW: 'Mass Surveillance App' Used To Target Muslims In China's Xinjiang"

Die Organisation Human Rights Watch wirft der chinesischen Regierung vor, Angehörige der muslimischen Uiguren-Minderheit in der Provinz Xinjiang mit einer neuen App systematisch zu überwachen. "The New York-based watchdog said on May 2 that the mobile app is being used to 'collect a wide array of information from ordinary people in Xinjiang,' ranging from their blood type and height to their 'religious atmosphere' and political affiliation. The tool monitors people’s movements by tracing their phones, vehicles, and ID cards, and notes 'suspicious' behavior like whether an individual fails to socialize with their neighbors or uses an 'unusual' amount of electricity, according to HRW. Police in Xinjiang 'are using illegally gathered information about people's completely lawful behavior and using it against them,' said Maya Wang, HRW's senior researcher on China."

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"Venezuela Convulses And Russia Frets: What Does Moscow Stand To Lose If The Maduro Government Falls?"

Mike Eckel erläutert die Hintergründe der russischen Unterstützung für Venezuelas Präsident Maduro und verweist dabei neben wirtschaftlichen Interessen auch darauf, dass ein Sturz Maduros Moskaus Reputation beschädigen würde. "Russia and its state-owned oil giant Rosneft have invested heavily in the Venezuela's PDVSA and Venezuelan oil projects -- about $9 billion since 2010, according to Reuters. (...) 'Russia is now so deeply invested in the Maduro regime that the only realistic option is to double down,' [Alexander Gabuev of the Carnegie Moscow Center] wrote. (...) According to the Russian news agency TASS, Caracas purchased around $11 billion in armaments between 2005 and 2013. (...) It's unclear how much money Caracas still owes Russia for the weaponry. But the turmoil and any possible change in government throws in doubt whether Moscow will be paid for past deliveries, not to mention ongoing service contracts or future purchases. (...) Venezuela is a major importer of Russian grain and it is a key market for Moscow as it expands its farming exports and cuts into the market share of the United States, Brazil, and other agricultural powerhouses. (...) The Russian presence in Venezuela is a way of projecting power, with echoes of the Soviet presence in Cuba, and building relationships in Central America. It's also a way to bother the United States, which has long considered the Western Hemisphere part of its natural sphere of influence."

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