US-Soldaten in Afghanistan

Middle East Eye



"Annexation: How Israel already controls more than half of the West Bank"

In der Praxis kontrolliere Israel bereits heute mehr als die Hälfte des Westjordanlandes, stellt Jonathan Cook fest. Eine offizielle Annexion des Gebietes würde diese Realität in vieler Hinsicht lediglich bestätigen. "A state of de facto annexation already exists on the ground in most of the occupied West Bank. Almost two-thirds of the Palestinian territory, including most of its most fertile and resource-rich land, is under full Israeli control. About 400,000 Jewish settlers living there enjoy the full rights and privileges of Israeli citizens. (...) Leaked details suggest that Washington is now preparing to green-light the formal annexation of at least some of that territory as part of its deal-making, though Netanyahu’s political difficulties and his decision to call another election in September could mean putting details on ice once again. (...) Support in Israel for annexation is growing, with 42 percent backing one of several variants in a recent poll, as opposed to 34 percent who were behind a two-state solution. Only 28 percent of Israelis explicitly rejected annexation."

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"Has the New York Times declared war on Iran?"

Große US-Medien wie die New York Times spielen in der aktuellen Iran-Krise nach Ansicht von Belen Fernandez eine ähnlich beklagenswerte Rolle wie vor dem Irak-Krieg 2003. "(...) more than 16 years and an obscene quantity of Iraqi deaths later, it seems we may be witnessing a repeat performance of the same old media tricks, this time targeting Iran - although at least Times foreign affairs columnist Thomas Friedman has not yet decreed that the Iranians be made to 'suck on this'. First off, of course, there’s the ongoing nuclear hysteria, which apparently can’t be put to rest no matter how many times we review the facts. (...) Now, there has been plenty of ink spilled by well-intentioned observers urging journalists to recall the lessons of Iraq and to refrain from enlisting in the war effort against Iran. But the enduring lesson is that it quite literally pays to toe the official line, and that war - whether it achieves its purported aims or not - is the modus operandi and the essence of the global superpower, acting on behalf of an elite minority."

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"The reasons behind Germany's condemnation of BDS"

Nada Elia schreibt, dass der Bundestag mit seiner Resolution gegen die BDS-Bewegung ähnlichen Entscheidungen in Frankreich und Großbritannien gefolgt sei. Kritiker des Beschlusses hätten besonders die beteiligten linken Parteien ins Visier genommen, da diese seit Jahren immer stärker von einer klaren Unterstützung der palästinensischen Sache abrückten. "Whatever the complex reasons for the German left’s departure from popular support for Palestinian rights, some falsehoods around this latest resolution need to be addressed. First, as Middle East Eye points out, the move is non-binding, strictly symbolic. In other words, Germany has not 'criminalised' BDS, it has passed a resolution (falsely) condemning it as antisemitic. Second, the resolution itself is not a first, but follows in the footsteps of similar earlier resolutions, issued by France and England. (...) If Israel as a country is threatened, feels 'delegitimised' by demands that it abide by international law - which is all that BDS seeks to accomplish - than clearly that country is in egregious violation of international law. Ultimately, whether boycotting Israel is criminalised or not, the 'legality' of a movement, ideology, policy, or practice is no indicator of its moral integrity. Apartheid was the law, until it was abolished."

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"The rise of Libya’s renegade general: How Haftar built his war machine"

Arnaud Delalande beschreibt den militärischen Aufstieg von General Haftar und seiner Libyan National Army (LNA) zum Rivalen der Regierung in Tripolis. "The Libyan National Army is actually a group of militias rotating around a regular army nucleus representing a force of about 25,000 men. The regular army has a total of about 7,000 members. Haftar can also count on some 12,000 auxiliary militia members, including several Sudanese units from Darfur, Chadian militia fighters, and 2,500 members of the allied Zintan brigades, who were considered among the most effective fighters during the war against Gaddafi. (...) The equipment available to these disparate forces ranges from Toyota Land Cruisers to Russian-built tanks. Some units are very well equipped, with recent material including armoured personnel carriers, some provided by the UAE."

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"'Thousands could die': Are US and Iran headed for war?"

Ein offener Krieg zwischen den USA und dem Iran hätte für die gesamte Region "katastrophale" Folgen, so die Warnung vieler Experten. Unmittelbare Leidtragende könnten vor allem die Länder sein, die den harten Iran-Kurs der USA immer wieder gefordert hätten. "Should that happen, [Imad Harb, director of research and analysis at Arab Center Washington DC.,] painted a doomsday scenario in which Iran would not only retaliate against US troops in the region, but would also target the Arab Gulf countries hosting those American forces. Tehran and its allies in Yemen may also block or at least disrupt the straits of Hormuz and Bab el-Mandeb, the passageways into the Gulf and Red Sea, crippling international trade. 'Iran is not going to go down without harming others,' Harb said. 'We're talking about a Gulf that's anywhere between 35 and 70 miles-wide, and on the western coast ... we have Saudi and UAE installations. And Iran is not going to spare them if things really come to a head.' In fact, the same countries that have pushed the US to adopt a more confrontational approach to Iran - Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates - may be the ones to pay the price if violence breaks out. 'The Gulf countries - Saudi Arabia and the UAE - should really be cautious about what they wish for ... because if Iran is to be vanquished, it's going to hit them really hard,' Harb told MEE."

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"Arms sales to Middle East have increased dramatically, new research shows"

James Reinl macht darauf aufmerksam, dass Saudi-Arabien dem neuen SIPRI-Bericht zufolge zum weltweit größten Waffenkäufer aufgestiegen ist. "Arms flows to the Middle East have increased by 87 percent over the past five years and now account for more than a third of the global trade, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) said in a report on Sunday. The defence think-tank’s annual survey showed that Saudi Arabia became the world’s top arms importer in 2014-18, with an increase of 192 percent over the preceding five years. (...) The new report shows how the United States and European nations sell jets, jeeps and other gear that is used in controversial wars in Yemen and beyond, SIPRI researcher Pieter Wezeman told Middle East Eye."

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"EXCLUSIVE: British army permitted shooting of civilians in Iraq and Afghanistan"

Eine Recherche von Middle East Eye hat offenbart, dass britische Truppen in Afghanistan und Irak zumindest eine Zeitlang mit Einsatzregeln operierten, die das Erschießen unbewaffneter Zivilisten erlaubten. "The British army operated rules of engagement in Iraq and Afghanistan that at times allowed soldiers to shoot unarmed civilians who were suspected of keeping them under surveillance, a Middle East Eye investigation has established. The casualties included a number of children and teenage boys, according to several former soldiers interviewed by MEE. Two former infantrymen allege that they and their fellow soldiers serving in southern Iraq were at one point told that they had permission to shoot anyone seen holding a mobile telephone, carrying a shovel, or acting in any way suspiciously. The rules were relaxed, they say, in part because of concerns that unarmed individuals were acting as spotters for militants, or were involved in planting roadside bombs."

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"Saudi Arabia added to draft list of countries posing threat to EU: Report"

Die Europäische Kommission hat Saudi-Arabien einem Reuters-Bericht zufolge auf eine vorläufige Liste mit Ländern gesetzt, die aufgrund ihrer mangelnden Kontrolle der Finanzquellen von Terrororganisationen als Bedrohung eingestuft werden. "The EU's list currently consists of 16 countries, including Iran, Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan, Yemen and North Korea, and is mostly based on criteria used by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), a global body formed by developed nations. The draft list has been updated to address new criteria developed by the EU Commission since 2017. Saudi Arabia is one of the countries added to the updated list that is still confidential, one EU source and one Saudi source told Reuters. Under the new EU methodology, jurisdictions may also be blacklisted if they do not provide sufficient information on ownership of companies or if their rules on reporting suspicious transactions or monitoring financial customers are considered too lax."

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"Syrian Kurds reject 'security zone' under Turkish control"

Ein Vertreter der syrischen Kurden hat die amerikanische Idee, an der Grenze zwischen Syrien und der Türkei eine "Sicherheitszone" unter türkischer Kontrolle einzurichten, kategorisch abgelehnt. "Senior political leader Aldar Khalil said the Kurds would accept the deployment of UN forces along the separation line between Kurdish fighters and Turkish troops to ward off a threatened offensive. 'Other choices are unacceptable as they infringe on the sovereignty of Syria and the sovereignty of our autonomous region,' Khalil said."

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"Up to 250,000 Syrian refugees may return home in 2019: UNHCR"

Das Flüchtlingshilfswerk UNHCR geht davon aus, dass im kommenden Jahr bis zu 250.000 syrische Flüchtlinge in ihre Heimat zurückkehren könnten. Zuvor müssten allerdings einige Fragen geklärt werden. "(...) persistent questions around documentation, forced military conscription and property ownership among the returnees must still be resolved, the UN refugee agency (UNHCR) said on Tuesday. About 5.6 million Syrian refugees remain in neighbouring countries, namely Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt and Iraq, according to UNHCR’s director for the Middle East and North Africa, Amin Awad. That figure includes one million Syrian children born abroad and whose foreign birth certificates the Syrian government has agreed to recognise, Awad said on Tuesday. 'As the situation in Syria improves some of these refugees are making the journey home,' he said during a news briefing in Geneva."

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"EU countries approve arms sales to Saudi, UAE worth 55 times aid to Yemen"

Europäische Rüstungsunternehmen haben seit 2015 Waffen und Militärgerät im Wert von 86,7 Milliarden US-Dollar an die Golfstaaten verkauft, schreibt Paul Cochrane. "European governments and the European Union publicly wring their hands about the 'human tragedy' and need for 'life-saving assistance' in war-torn Yemen. Yet while the Saudi-led coalition has bombed the region’s poorest country over the past three years, the EU and European countries approved the sale of more than $86.7bn in arms to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, according to figures compiled by Middle East Eye. (...) Many governments have promised during the course of the war to stop or restrict sales of the weapons that are being used to maim Yemenis, and the killing of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi last month brought a new wave of public pressure to halt deals with the Saudi kingdom. But only Germany and Norway have suspended their sales – until Khashoggi’s murder is explained - while the UK, France and Spain have all signalled that they will continue business as usual. Experts say the continuation of the sales, which politicians often justify by pointing to job creation, security cooperation and trade relations, reveals a fundamental disconnect for Western governments between their actions and Yemen’s humanitarian crisis."

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"Turkey hosts Syria summit with Russian, French and German leaders"

Middle East Eye berichtet über das Gipfeltreffen zwischen Präsident Erdogan, Bundeskanzlerin Merkel, Präsident Putin und Präsident Macron in Istanbul. "'The eyes of the world are on us today... I hope we will act with a sincere and constructive understanding and will not fail to meet their expectations,' Erdogan said as he opened the summit in Istanbul. After arriving in Istanbul, Macron tweeted that what was at stake was averting a 'new humanitarian disaster'. The summit took place in the aftermath of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi's murder in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul on 2 October. Turkish media reported that Erdogan would also discuss the crisis in one-on-one talks with leaders on the summit's sidelines."

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"With Brunson out of jail, US-Turkey relations still face two major hurdles"

Ece Goksedef glaubt nicht, dass die Freilassung des US-Pastors Andrew Brunson aus türkischer Haft ausreichen wird, um die Beziehungen zwischen den USA und der Türkei wieder zu normalisieren. "The Americans, a Turkish diplomat told MEE, drew a line during the talks and told Ankara: 'We have no more to give or to negotiate, release Brunson and let's start talking then'. With Brunson out, the diplomat said it's time to 'deal with the real problems'. There are two: 1. Control of Manbij. Manbij has been a source of tension between the two countries since 2016, when the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), led by the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG), took control of the city with the support of the US army. (...) Ankara believes that the US is holding on to Manbij as a trump card for eventual political negotiations. 'They will easily give up Manbij in return of some oil wells in Deir Ezzor or Raqqa,' he added. 2. The S-400 purchase. There is a second burning issue facing the two countries: the S-400s. (...) Weeks before Brunson’s release, a US diplomatic source told MEE that relations can only be improved if Turkey gives up its decision to buy the S-400s. Turkish sources close to negotiations between the two countries say that the use of S-400 systems would create a crisis between Turkey and the US because the systems are capable of targetting and hitting most NATO missiles."

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"'No one was spared': Sweida massacre leaves Syrians reeling"

Zouhir Al Shimale berichtet über das Massaker an über 250 Zivilisten durch IS-Terroristen in der hauptsächlich von Drusen bewohnten Stadt Sweida im Süden Syriens. Überlebende werfen der syrischen Regierung vor, das Massaker nicht verhindert zu haben, um die volle Kontrolle über die Stadt übernehmen zu können. "Suspicions have also begun to mount that the government allowed the attack to take place so that it could remove the al-Aql brigade, a Druze militia in Sweida which claims to be 'neutral' in the Syrian civil war, and take full control of the province. The group has fought against al-Qaeda's one-time Syrian branch and has also had minor battles with government forces."

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"'Not up to expectation': American recruits struggle in IS territory, study says"

Einer neuen Studie der George Washington University zufolge sind amerikanische IS-Rekruten im Nahen Osten von ihren Erfahrungen mit der Terrormiliz überwiegend enttäuscht. Viele von ihnen wollen demnach trotz drohender Haftstrafen in die USA zurück. "US recruits to the Islamic State (IS) group struggle more than their European counterparts, lacking support networks and field experience and assigned to menial jobs, a report said on Monday. The study by the George Washington University Programme on Extremism said that online social networks were more essential to Americans in reaching Syria and Iraq, as they often had limited personal connections that could help them reach the battlefield. Once there, a number found disappointment in unfamiliar terrain and faced significant culture clashes; many, if they stayed alive, soon sought to return to the United States, despite facing near-certain imprisonment."

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"So far, Iran has endured Trump's hostility. That patience will run out"

Ellie Geranmayeh erwartet, dass sich der Iran die Konfrontationspolitik von US-Präsident Trump nicht mehr lange gefallen lassen wird. Um eine Verschärfung der Krisen im Nahen Osten zu vermeiden, müsse die westliche Diplomatie aktiver werden, so ihre Empfehlung. "In the coming months, as the Trump administration finalises its Iran policy review, it will be imperative for global leaders in Europe, Asia and Russia to clearly outline their concerns to both the White House and members of Congress. They ought to also provide President Trump with a more sober and accurate assessment of the root causes of the region’s current crises and highlight how the West can better secure its strategic interests on combating terrorism by cooperating with all regional powers, including Iran. Global actors should also attempt to neutralise the 'Trumpization' of the region. They could do so by offering support to any regional initiative aimed at de-escalating recent tensions between the GCC states and Iran. They can also amplify positive messaging towards Tehran in the hope that its leadership will restrain itself from provocative responses."

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"Five reasons Erdogan will win the Turkish referendum"

Omair Anas meint, dass Präsident Erdogan durch die von vielen EU-Politikern geäußerte Ablehnung eines EU-Beitritts der Türkei vor dem Verfassungsreferendum entscheidend gestärkt werden könnte. Gerade bei jungen Türken habe dies eine nationalistische Stimmung geweckt, der das Nein-Lager zu wenig entgegen setzen könne. "Here are five specific reasons why these dynamics are likely to bring conservative, nationalists and undecided voters behind Erdogan: 1. Erdogan’s opponents can’t guarantee Turkey’s accession to the EU (...) 2. The opposition doesn’t have a plan to improve Turkey’s economy (...) 3. Erdogan is trusted to improve the deteriorating security situation (...) 4. Erdogan already has a proven track record in Syria (...) 5. Voters are more interested in a 'strong Turkey' than a 'democratic Turkey' (...) So it depends on how the younger generation, now educated and prosperous, will interpret global politics. The existing narratives which unnecessarily provoke nationalist sentiments could lead young voters to favour a strong and resistant Turkey, instead of a Western underdog. The opposition parties may not fare well in this game of competitive nationalism."

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"Netanyahu: Palestinian mufti, not Hitler, wanted to exterminate Jews"

Israels Premierminister Netanjahu hat der religiösen Führung der Palästinenser in den 1930er Jahren in einer Rede offenbar vorgeworfen, die Vernichtung der Juden durch das Nazi-Regime angeregt zu haben. "In his speech, Netanyahu focused on incitement, saying Palestinian incitement could be traced back to before the creation of the Israeli state, and claiming that a Palestinian religious leader had encouraged Adolf Hitler to carry out the Holocaust. The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, 'flew to Berlin,' Netanyahu said. 'Hitler didn’t want to exterminate the Jews at the time, he wanted to expel the Jews.' 'And Haj Amin al-Husseini went to Hitler and said, 'If you expel them, they'll all come here.' 'So what should I do with them?' he asked. He said, 'Burn them.'' Netanyahu's claim is dismissed by most Holocaust scholars, although the idea is promoted by a few fringe researchers, Haaretz reported."

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"Saudi Hajj disaster: Photos suggest true death toll in thousands"

Rori Donaghy und Mary Atkinson präsentieren neue Belege, die darauf hindeuten, dass die Massenpanik nahe Mekka vor wenigen Wochen "tausende" Todesopfer gekostet haben könnte. "We have seen evidence suggesting that at least 2,432 people were killed on 24 September when pilgrims were crushed to death at a crossroads in Mina, inside Mecca and not far from the holy city. (...) The incident has also sparked a war of words between Saudi Arabia and its regional rival Iran, which has said that at least 464 of its citizens were killed in Mina. Tehran has accused Riyadh of mismanaging the annual pilgrimage, which this year saw more than 2 million people take part from across the world. Iranian state media has claimed that over 4,000 people were killed in the crush, and lawmakers have angrily called for Saudi Arabia to be stripped of organising the Hajj. Riyadh has dismissed Tehran’s allegations, but is now facing more questions about its tallying of the Mina dead, this time from Turkey."

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"The collapse of Saudi Arabia is inevitable"

Nafeez Ahmed ist davon überzeugt, dass sich Saudi-Arabien auf dem Weg in eine Krise befinde, die das konservative Königreich zum Zusammenbruch führen könnte. Niedrige Ölpreise und die Auswirkungen des Klimawandels hätten bereits in anderen Ländern der Region zu tiefen Staatskrisen geführt. "Yet the Saudi government has decided that rather than learning lessons from the hubris of its neighbours, it won’t wait for war to come home – but will readily export war in the region in a madcap bid to extend its geopolitical hegemony and prolong its petro-dominance. (...) Like many of its neighbours, such deep-rooted structural realities mean that Saudi Arabia is indeed on the brink of protracted state failure, a process likely to take-off in the next few years, becoming truly obvious well within a decade."

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"The Middle East’s nuclear double standard"

Der Journalist Sharif Nashashibi beklagt eine Doppelmoral, die in den USA, anderen westlichen Staaten und Israel alle Verhandlungen in Bezug auf Massenvernichtungswaffen dominiere. Dabei bezieht er sich auf das Scheitern der Verhandlungen zur Überarbeitung des internationalen Nichtverbreitungsabkommens (Non-Proliferation Treaty, NPT) im letzten Monat und hält die dadurch verursachte Frustration für gefährlich: "However, the longer this double standard persists, the greater the likelihood that resentment and vulnerability will lead to other states in the region considering the nuclear option. They may look at the aggressive way that countries without nuclear weapons are dealt with, compared with the caution with which nuclear powers are treated, and decide that it is in their best interest. This would herald the demise of the NPT."

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"Why Nusra Front represents the middle ground for many Syrians"

Lauren Williams schreibt, dass sich die der Al-Qaida nahestehende Rebellenfraktion Nusra Front mittlerweile zur führenden Kraft in Syrien entwickelt habe. Auch aus der syrischen Bevölkerung erhalte die Gruppe stetig wachsende Unterstützung. "Over the years, Middle East Eye has heard multiple complaints among civilians in Homs, Idlib and Aleppo against the Western-backed rebels of the Free Syrian Army, who they accuse of corruption. As one opposition media activist from Idlib, Juma al-Qassem described it: 'Nusra are, militarily speaking, the best in the middle. They are the best between the regime, IS, and the dissolved and corrupt FSA.' Sayigh also described the group as 'fundamentally a Syrian organisation, with Syrian interests at heart … at least that’s the perception among other rebel groups'."

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"Netanyahu a 'danger' to Israel, say 200 security veterans"

200 Veteranen der israelischen Sicherheitsdienste haben Premierminister Netanjahu vor dessen umstrittener Rede vor dem US-Kongress in einer Erklärung vorgeworfen, Israels Sicherheit zu gefährden. "General Amnon Reshef, widely regarded in Israel as a hero for his role in the 1973 war against Egypt and Syria, said the group’s membership had grown rapidly since he established it three months ago. 'We are experts with more than 6,000 years of security experience between us,' he told Middle East Eye. 'It is time the prime minister listened to us before he wrecks our strategic interests with our closest ally. Nothing good for Israel can come from humiliating the US president.'"

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"First beheading in Saudi Arabia under King Salman"

Nur wenige Tage nach der Amtseinführung von König Salman haben die saudi-arabischen Behörden erneut eine öffentliche Enthauptung durchgeführt. Die Hinrichtung des wegen Vergewaltigung verurteilten Lehrers war vom verstorbenen König Abdullah mit Aussicht auf ein erneutes Verfahren verschoben worden. "Friends of the family, who asked to remain anonymous, said the police investigator who arrested Zahrani was a relative of one his alleged victims and demonstrated an 'obvious conflict of interest'. The kingdom has faced constant international criticism over its human rights record, including the use of the death penalty. The latest beheading brings a total of 16 people executed in 2015 by Saudi authorities. In 2014, 87 people were executed, with 72 taking place between August and December."

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"Social Media: The weapon of choice in the Gaza-Israel Conflict"

Der jüngste Krieg in Gaza sei einer der ersten Konflikte gewesen, der hauptsächlich durch Amateure und Soziale Netzwerke bebildert worden sei, schreibt Yousef al-Helou. "Citizen journalism from Palestine is especially valuable for those who are looking for information which has not been filtered through a Western agenda. Social media has definitely weakened the Israeli narrative, as Palestinians are able to connect directly with overseas audiences and tell the stories that they feel are important. Hundreds of thousands of tweets exchanged reports, opinions, and challenges to mainstream news reports and to each other. There were of course, many other tags that hosted additional discussions. In hindsight, it seems that Twitter hosted the most open and democratic discussions, compared with other social media venues."

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Europa, Asien, Afrika, Amerika und weltweite Phänomene und Institutionen. Die bpb bietet ein breites Angebot zu internationalen Themen.

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Informationsportal Krieg und Frieden

Wo gibt es Kriege und Gewaltkonflikte? Und wo herrscht am längsten Frieden? Welches Land gibt am meisten für Rüstung aus? liefert wichtige Daten und Fakten zu Krieg und Frieden.

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Innerstaatliche Konflikte

Vom Kosovo nach Kolumbien, von Somalia nach Süd-Thailand: Weltweit schwelen über 280 politische Konflikte. Und immer wieder droht die Lage gewaltsam zu eskalieren.

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Zahlen und Fakten


Kaum ein Thema wird so intensiv und kontrovers diskutiert wie die Globalisierung. "Zahlen und Fakten" liefert Grafiken, Texte und Tabellen zu einem der wichtigsten und vielschichtigsten Prozesse der Gegenwart.

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