Citizenship Education in Europe

Initiated and established under different historical and political circumstances and backgrounds, citizenship education discourse differs from country to country. Here you can find a range of contributions that provide insight into the origins, systems, and debates on citizenship education in the different nations that make up Europe.

The following contributions were first published in "The Making of Citizens in Europe", 2008.

Citizenship Education in England

The changing political atmosphere in the 1990s played an important part in contributing to make English people think of themselves as citizens. It was not until the very end of the 20th century that the terms civic education or citizenship education began to appear in educational documents with any regularity.

PDF-Icon Ted Huddleston: Citizenship Education in England (PDF-Version: 55 KB)

Ted Huddleston is consultant in civic and citizenship education and an associate of the Citizenship Foundation in England. The focus of his work is pedagogy and policy in citizenship education nationally and internationally including training and consultancy in a number of countries, among them Bosnia, Serbia, Bahrain, Oman and Ethiopia.

Citizenship Education in France

If most of the themes covered by citizenship education focus on rights enjoyed by French citizens, as well as on the functioning of the various political and social institutions in which citizens can exert those right, citizenship education has opened itself to other topics, such as the impact of globalisation and of the process of European integration on the contemporary meaning of citizenship.

PDF-Icon Elise Féron: Citizenship Education in France (PDF-Version: 45 KB)

Elise Féron, Dr. Hab., is senior lecturer in International Conflict Analysis at Brussels School of International Studies (University of Kent) and associated researcher and invited professor at the Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium). She has worked and published mainly in the field of conflict studies, more specifically on the Nothern Irish conflict. She obtained her Accreditation to Supervise Research in 2003, and her Ph.D. (Political Science) in Lille in 1999.

Citizenship Education in Germany

Citizenship education exists as a pedagogical principle at all of Germany`s varied educational facilities, it is a very important part of the German school system and takes place at every level of education.

PDF-Icon Dirk Lange: Citizenship Education in Germany (PDF-Version: 50 KB)

Dirk Lange, Dr. Phil., is professor of Didactics in Civic Education at Leibnitz University Hannover and visiting professor at the University of Sydney. He is the editor of the journal Praxis Politik and the Chairman of the German Association for Political/Civic Education (DVPB).

Citizenship Education in Portugal

Portugal continues to show structural weakness in terms of the population`s training and qualifications, which has kept the country below European Union standards in such areas as school dropouts and qualifications of the working population as whole.

PDF-Icon Maria Helena Salema: Citizenship Education in Portugal (PDF-Version: 60 KB)

Maria Helena Salema is professor in the Department of Education, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon. She worked in the project of the Council of Europe Education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC) as a member of the CAHCIT (Ad Hoc Committee of Experts fort he European Year of Citizenship through Education) and as a member of the Bureau, from 2004-2006. She was the Portuguese EDC coordinator from 2002-2005 and member of the Accompaniment Group, Ministry of Education, Bureau for European Affairs and International Relations (GAERI).

Citizenship Education in Slovenia

A new educational legislation lent substantial support to the active participation of pupils in various aspects of school life such as mandatory childrens parliaments, which are the best form of education for encouraging pupil`s participation in active citizenship.

PDF-Icon Mitja Sardoè: Citizenship Education in Slovenia (PDF-Version: 50 KB)

Mitja Sardoè, MSc, is a researcher at the Educational Research Institute in Ljubljana and assistant at the Faculty of Management in Koper, Slovenia, where he is currently engaged in several research projects on citizenship education, human rights, and equal eductional opportunities. His research focuses on political theory and philosophie of education with particular emphasis on citizenship education, equality, inclusion, and diversity in public education.

Citizenship Education in Ukraine

Citizenship education in Ukraine was influenced by the communist ideology of the USSR until the 1990s. Nowadays civic values are represented in basic educational policy documents in Ukraine. Citizens reacted to current political events with a strong civic volunteer movement.

PDF-Icon Yaroslav Pylynskyi: Civic education in Ukraine
PDF-Icon Yaroslav Pylynskyi: Civic education in Ukraine (russ.)

Yaroslav Pylynskyi works for the Centre for Civic Education ‘Kyivske bratstvo’ in Kiev.

Citizenship Education in Armenia

Today, Armenia has the challenge that many civics teachers still are attached to the “mandatory materials” such as the mandatory civics textbook that limits possibilities for creativity and critical thinking. Furthermore there is a lack of effective cooperation between the labor market and the system of professional education (vocational education).

PDF-Icon Grgoryan/Mkrtchyan: Citizenship Education in Armenia

Hasmik Grigoryan is PhD Student at UCD School of Politics and International Relations in Ireland and Anush Mkrtchyan works for Analytical Centre on Globalization and Regional Cooperation (ACGRC).

Citizenship Education in Azerbaijan

The Law on Education of the Republic of Azerbaijan adopted in 2009 did not stipulate a definition of civic education. Pursuant to the current Law on Education, informal education is a form of education provided through a wide range of courses, study groups, and individual studies.

PDF-Icon Rauf Radzhabov: Citizenship Education in Azerbaijan

Rauf Radzhabov is head of the 3RD VIEW Think Tank and member of the Management Board of the Public Union of Azerbaijan History Educators.



Please take a look at the new NECE Newsletter:

NECE Magazine 2016
The NECE Magazine brings you up to date on citizenship education in Europe and its neighboring countries.

NECE Blog 2016
Keeping up the tradition, NECE is running a conference blog. The blog will not only provide live documentation of the Zagreb conference but will help you familiarise with the upcoming conference beforehand.

Interview with Alicja Pacewicz
In October 2015, the Law and Justice Party won the elections in Poland and gained the absolute majority in the parliament. NECE talked with Alicja Pacewicz, Vice President of The Center for Citizenship Education (CCE), about the rapid changes in her country following last year´s change of government.

Civic Education in Eastern Europe - bpb publishes collection of essays as free e-book in English and Russian
The Federal Agency for Civic Education (Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung/bpb) has published the book "Civic Education and Democratisation in Eastern Partnership Countries". The publication is available as a free e-book in English and Russian language.

A new Council of Europe reference framework of competences for democratic culture!
This book presents a new conceptual model of the competences which citizens require to participate in democratic culture and live peacefully together with others in culturally diverse societies. The model is the product of intensive work over a two-year period, and has been strongly endorsed in an international consultation with leading educational experts.