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Eine Frau geht an einer Weltkarte, die aus Kinderporträts besteht, am Freitag (18.06.2010) im JuniorMuseum in Köln vorbei.

Turkey

With the exception of the influx of the Turkish Muslim populations of the Ottoman Empire who were left out of its newly established borders in 1923, Turkey has largely been considered a country of emigration throughout much of the 20th century. However, the last quarter of the 20th century witnessed a significant change in Turkey's role in international migration regimes as it transformed into a transit and immigration country. Turkey´s transition from being a predominantly migrant-sending country to a migrant-receiving country, and its ongoing effort to become a member of the European Union, are generating pressure to reform Turkish immigration policies, a big challenge that Turkey has to face in the very near future. (Version from 4/2009)

Ballspielendes Kind in einem Lager für syrische Flüchtlinge in Kilis/Türkei. Die Türkei gewährt Syrern nur temporären Schutz, die vor dem Bürgerkrieg geflohen sind oder die Gefahr laufen, Opfer weitverbreiteter Gewalt oder systematischer und allgemeiner Menschenrechtsverletzungen zu werden.

Prof. Dr. Nuray Ekşi

Turkey’s Asylum Policy: An Overview

Since 2014 Turkey has been the world's major refugee hosting country as regards the absolute number of hosted individuals. Due to the large refugee inflow and connected challenges, the country put into force a new Law on Foreigners and International Protection in 2013.

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Syrische Familie bewohnt Ladenlokal in Gaziantep. Syrische Flüchtlinge, die außerhalb der offiziellen Flüchtlingslager leben, leiden u. a. unter hohen Mietpreisen, gesellschaftliche Marginalisierung und Ausschluss von zentralen Gesellschaftsbereichen sowie eingeschränktem Zugang zu Bildung und Gesundheitsversorgung.

Dr. Doğus Şimşek

Situation of Syrian Refugees in Turkey

More than four million Syrians fled the Syrian Civil War and have sought refuge in one of Syria's neighboring countries. Turkey is hosting the lion share. However, since their arrival in Turkey, living conditions have worsened. Especially Syrians who are living in urban areas hardly have access to public services.

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Turkey

Ahmet İçduygu, Deniz Sert

Background Information

Turkey has largely been considered a country of emigration throughout much of the 20th century. However, the last quarter of the 20th century witnessed a significant change in Turkey's role in international migration regimes as it transformed into a transit and immigration country.

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Ahmet İçduygu, Deniz Sert

Historical Trends in Emigration and Immigration

During the first years of its existence, the new Republic of Turkey faced two parallel international migratory movements: the mass departure of non-Muslim minority populations and the influx of Turkish Muslim populations that were left outside of the borders of the Republic.

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Ahmet İçduygu, Deniz Sert

Immigration and Integration Policy

Although Turkey has rather conservative policies on the permanent settlement of foreigners, migrants, asylum-seekers, and refugees, the visa system of the country has been somewhat liberal.

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Ahmet İçduygu, Deniz Sert

Citizenship

In Turkey, citizenship is granted in three main ways. Children of Turkish mothers or fathers as well as children born in Turkey to non-Turkish citizens are automatically granted citizenship. Citizenship can also be awarded on other grounds at the discretion of the authorities.

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Ahmet İçduygu, Deniz Sert

Refuge and Asylum

Turkey has increasingly become a source of asylum-seekers looking for refuge in other parts of the world. On the other hand, Turkey has always been a country of destination for asylum-seekers looking for a safe haven.

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Ahmet İçduygu, Deniz Sert

Foreign Population

The number of foreign-born people in Turkey is much larger than the number of foreign residents. As of 2000, approximately 2% of the entire population were born abroad. The group consists of the children of returning migrants as well as immigrants from the Balkans.

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Breakdown by nationality of irregular immigrants arrested by Turkish security forces, 1995-2007

Ahmet İçduygu, Deniz Sert

Irregular Migration

The geographical position of Turkey makes it a major route for irregular migrants from its politically and economically unstable eastern neighbors aiming for better lives in the West. The rather lenient visa system helps make it a major destination and transit country for irregular migration.

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Turkish migrant stock abroad in the mid-1980s, mid-1990s and mid-2000s

Ahmet İçduygu, Deniz Sert

Current Developments and Future Challenges

As the largest immigrant community in Europe, Turks are are becoming an easy target for anti-immigrant feelings and xenophobia. Regarding the irregular migration flows between Turkey and neighboring states there is an ongoing debate among experts.

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Country Profile 5: Turkey

References

Here you can find references and further reading for Country Profile 5: "Turkey" by Ahmet İçduygu and Deniz Sert.

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Kurzdossiers

Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl: Aktuelle Themen

Ein Kurzdossier legt komplexe Zusammenhänge aus den Bereichen Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl sowie Integration auf einfache und klare Art und Weise dar. Es bietet einen fundierten Einstieg in eine bestimmte Thematik, in dem es den Hintergrund näher beleuchtet und verschiedene Standpunkte wissenschaftlich und kritisch abwägt. Darüber hinaus enthält es Hinweise auf weiterführende Literatur und Internet-Verweise. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, sich eingehender mit der Thematik zu befassen. Unsere Kurzdossiers erscheinen bis zu 6-mal jährlich.

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