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"UN says Libya sides reach 'permanent ceasefire' deal"


Die Konfliktparteien in Libyen haben der UN zufolge einen dauerhaften Waffenstillstand vereinbart. "Libya’s warring sides signed an agreement for 'a permanent ceasefire in all areas of Libya', the UN Libya mission said on Friday, raising hopes the long-running conflict may finally reach a lasting peace. Scepticism in some quarters was raised, however, as previous truce deals over the years have failed to end the fighting. (…) The accord – concluded in Geneva after talks between military representatives of the internationally recognised Government of National Accord (GNA) and renegade commander Khalifa Haftar’s eastern-based Libyan National Army (LNA) – will be followed up with political discussions in Tunisia next month. According to the deal, all mercenaries and foreign fighters will leave Libya within three months."

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"US approves $1.8bn in potential arms sales to Taiwan"


Das US-Außenministerium hat den potentiellen Verkauf von drei Waffensystemen im Wert von 1.8 Milliarden US-Dollar an Taiwan genehmigt. "Further congressional notifications are expected to follow, including drones made by General Atomics and land-based Harpoon anti-ship missiles, made by Boeing, to serve as coastal defence cruise missiles. Sources told Reuters news agency the 100 cruise missiles stations and 400 missiles would cost about $2bn. The formal notification gives Congress 30 days to object to any sales, but there is broad bipartisan support for the defence of Taiwan. Defence Minister Yen De-fa welcomed the development, saying that while Taiwan did not want to get involved in an arms race with China, it needed a credible military."

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"France closes mosque in crackdown following teacher’s killing"


Die französischen Behörden haben eine Moschee, die vor der Ermordung Samuel Patys ein Hassvideo gegen den französischen Lehrer veröffentlicht hat, zeitweise geschlossen. "The six-month order was 'for the sole purpose of preventing acts of terrorism', the notice issued by the head of the Seine-Saint-Denis department read. The investigation into the grisly killing revealed on Tuesday the man who decapitated Paty had been in contact with a parent leading an online campaign against the teacher. The breakthrough in the case came as President Emmanuel Macron promised more pressure after days of a crackdown that resulted in more than a dozen arrests, the mosque ordered shut, and a pro-Hamas group ordered dissolved. 'Our fellow citizens expect actions,' Macron said during a visit to a Paris suburb. 'These actions will be stepped up.'"

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"What role is Russia playing in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict?"


Trotz der engeren Beziehungen zu Armenien habe Russland bisher darauf verzichtet, den Partner im Konflikt um Bergkarabach militärisch zu unterstützen, schreibt Mansur Mirovalev. "(…) Moscow’s pro-Armenian tilt has not result in severed ties with Baku. Azerbaijani President Ilkham Aliyev studied diplomacy at a prestigious Russian university, and his father and predecessor Heydar Aliyev spent decades working in Moscow as a top KGB officer. But many Azerbaijanis see Moscow’s preference as the main obstacle in settling the oldest conflict in the former Soviet Union. 'It was Russia that helped occupy Nagorno-Karabakh and districts around it, and has all these years stood in Baku’s way to settle the conflict peacefully,' Baku-based analyst Emil Mustafayev told Al Jazeera. While Ankara pledged to back Azerbaijan, Turkey’s linguistic and cultural sibling, 'until the end of the occupation,' Russia seems to be limited to a secondary role, some observers say. Armenia and Russia are part of a security treaty of six ex-Soviet nations, which does not include Azerbaijan, that must help each other militarily in case of armed conflicts. Moscow also has a military base in Armenia, but the Kremlin has not dispatched a single soldier to support the Armenians."

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"The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is ushering in a new age of warfare"


Aserbaidschan könne im Konflikt in Bergkarabach aufgrund von Lieferungen aus der Türkei und aus Israel auf modernere Waffen und Geräte als Armenien zurückgreifen, berichtet Alex Gatopoulos. "Azerbaijan has been steadily building up its force of UAVs [unmanned aerial vehicles]. (…) It is not just the use of drones that has been so decisive. The modern battlespace is filling up with sensors, making it far easier to spot an adversary from far off. Drones, armed or not, are effectively sensor platforms, feeding vital information about the enemies’ movements back to command centres. (…) While long-range artillery and air attacks have been around for over a century, their increasing accuracy is something that militaries are only now coming to grips with. Combined with the clouds of sensors saturating the battlefield, these new systems have the ability to travel further with pinpoint accuracy, no longer needing to blanket an area with warheads in order to guarantee destruction of a target. They are now able to find and destroy a target sometimes hundreds of kilometres away. Azerbaijan, despite falling oil revenues, has invested heavily in these systems (…)."

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"Taliban cheers Trump vowing early troop withdrawal, Kabul sceptic"


Der von US-Präsident Trump angekündigte Truppenabzug aus Afghanistan sei von den Taliban als "positiver Schritt" begrüßt worden, berichtet Al Jazeera. "Taliban spokesman Zabiullah Mujahid on Thursday said Trump’s statement was welcome and he considered it a 'positive step' for the implementation of the peace agreement between the United States and the Taliban signed in Qatar earlier this year. (…) But Abdullah Abdullah, the head of Afghanistan’s High Council for National Reconciliation, said a 'premature' withdrawal of US troops would have negative consequences for the war-torn country. 'It will take a little bit [of] time for us to digest it,' Abdullah said at an event organised by a think-tank in India’s capital, New Delhi."

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"Germany 'cautiously optimistic' over efforts to end Libya war"


Die unklare militärische Situation in Libyen hat die Chancen auf eine Annäherung bei den Friedensgesprächen zwischen den Konfliktparteien nach Ansicht des deutschen Außenministers Maas erhöht. "Germany’s foreign minister has expressed 'cautious optimism' about the prospect of ending Libya’s long-running conflict, encouraged by what he described as a shift to 'political logic' after the warring sides in the North African country appeared unable to achieve their aims militarily. 'We believe that there is now a window in which much has become possible that was not possible before. I think we must seize that,' Heiko Maas told a virtual ministerial meeting of 23 countries that was co-hosted by the United Nations and Germany on Monday."

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"Colombia sees surge in mass killings in 2020: UN"


In Kolumbien sind einem neuen UN-Bericht zufolge in diesem Jahr mindestens 42 "Massaker" verübt worden. "Colombia has recorded at least 42 massacres since the start of 2020, the highest number since the 2016 signing of a peace agreement with the former FARC fighters, the United Nations has said. The UN, which is responsible for verifying application of the agreement, said Secretary-General Antonio Guterres was concerned about the surge in mass killings in various regions of the South American country in recent months. The UN defines a massacre as the killing of three or more people at one time. It said 13 other incidents were being verified. The UN peace mission in Colombia recorded 36 massacres in 2019, 29 in 2018 and 11 in 2017. 'These crimes take place mainly in areas of poverty where the state has little presence, where the illegal economy reigns and there are disputes between illegal armed groups and criminal organisations,' said the report published on Thursday."

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"Nagorno-Karabakh: Information war and competing media narratives"


Der neu entflammte Konflikt zwischen Armenien und Aserbaidschan in Bergkarabach wird Robin Forestier-Walker zufolge von einem Medienkrieg begleitet. "The international media focuses its attention once again on the fighting, but it is a conflict for now largely seen and read through official tweets, Facebook posts and emails. We watch through cameras mounted on military drones and hilltop high magnification lenses. The videos depict tanks, anti-aircraft defences and personnel carriers disappearing in puffs of smoke. (...) Official sources have monopolised the messaging. And internet restrictions in Azerbaijan have stifled conversations between its citizens on social media. Much of the official messaging seems vainglorious – Azerbaijan’s defence minister describes the liberation of occupied lands as a 'sacred duty'. An Armenian tweet shows a pious priest brandishing a Kalashnikov. Controlling the narrative and the media obscures the human suffering. The pandemic, the geography and the information war make it all the more difficult to penetrate the isolation of Nagorno-Karabakh."

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"The end of the Saudi era"


Der saudi-arabische Einfluss im Nahen Osten sei möglicherweise unwiderruflich im Absinken begriffen, meint Marwan Bishara. "The past five years have been especially painful and destructive. What began as a promising and ambitious drive by the rather Machiavellian Prince Mohammed Bin Salman (MBS), soon turned into a reckless venture. Guided primarily by his mentor, the other Machiavellian prince, Mohammed Bin Zayed (MBZ) of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), MBS is running the kingdom to the ground. Paradoxically, nothing testifies to the decline of Saudi Arabia more than the abrupt rise of its junior partner as a bellicose regional power, interfering in Libya and Tunisia and supporting dictators and war criminals, like Egypt's Abdel Fattah el-Sisi and Syria's Bashar al-Assad. (…) The Saudi kingdom is in disarray, its regime utterly disoriented and disrespected throughout the region and beyond. Unable to deal with the failures or to meet the challenges ahead amid rising tensions with Iran and Turkey, MBS is desperate. He may try for a comeback during the upcoming G20 summit hosted by Riyadh, but that will prove too little too late."

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"Afghanistan: Bloodiest day of fighting since peace talks began"


Trotz der Friedensverhandlungen zwischen den Taliban und der afghanischen Regierung gehen die Kämpfe im Land weiter. "At least 57 members of the Afghan security forces were killed and dozens injured in overnight clashes with Taliban fighters across Afghanistan in the bloodiest day of fighting since the government and the armed group began peace talks in Qatar more than a week ago. Sunday night's clashes were in the central province of Uruzgan, where 24 members of the Afghan security forces were killed when Taliban fighters attacked security checkpoints, Deputy Governor of the province Sayed Mohammad Sadat said."

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"Facing 'normalisation' threat, Palestinians respond with unity"


Die Palästinenser wollen auf die Normalisierung der Beziehungen arabischer Staaten mit Israel mit demonstrativer Einheit reagieren, berichtet Ali Adam. "Prompted by Arab states normalising relations with Israel, fractured Palestinian political factions are working diligently in multilateral talks to restore unity and mend the division between the Gaza Strip and the West Bank in negotiations far more promising than previous efforts. (…) On Saturday, Palestinian groups led by Hamas and Fatah agreed on a 'unified field leadership' comprising all factions that will lead 'comprehensive popular resistance' against the Israeli occupation, a statement said. It called for Tuesday - when the signing ceremony takes place in Washington, DC - to be a day of 'popular rejection'. Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank are planning 'day of rage' demonstrations, and other protests are expected outside the embassies of Israel, the United States, UAE, and Bahrain worldwide."

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"Israel ties that bind: What is the US giving Gulf Arab states?"


Einige Experten weisen Creede Newton zufolge darauf hin, dass amerikanische Waffenverkäufe eine wichtige Rolle bei der Entstehung der Friedensverträge der VAE und Bahrains mit Israel gespielt hätten. "William Hartung, director of the Arms and Security Program at the DC-based Center for International Policy, told Al Jazeera arms sales were an 'important factor' in the agreements. The UAE has long wanted F-35 fighter jets, Hartung said, and larger drones, which the US was unable to sell because of its commitment to Israel's military advantage. But Trump often touts arms sales and was likely to view the UAE as another client as a positive, Hartung said. (…) Hartung said Bahrain may have agreed to normalisation to access to advanced weaponry and the Saudis could potentially follow. (…) normalisation could lead to an 'emboldened' UAE in Yemen [and] in Libya, [Trita Parsi, executive vice president of the Quincey Institute for Responsible Statecraft,] continued."

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"What is behind Bahrain's normalisation deal with Israel?"


Farah Najjar erklärt, warum sich Bahrain entschlossen habe, dem Vorbild der VAE zu folgen und seine Beziehungen zu Israel zu normalisieren. "Despite Bahrain declaring last month that it was committed to the creation of a Palestinian state, the island state was always likely to follow the UAE suit 'once the taboo had been broken', Ian Black, visiting senior fellow at the Middle East Centre at the London School of Economics, told Al Jazeera. (…) Bahrain's political agenda is 'pretty much dictated by Saudi Arabia', according to Marwa Fatafta, a policy member with the Palestinian policy network Al-Shabaka. (…) Besides being 'financially dependent on its neighbours', Bahrain's new alliance with Israel may help it entrench its power and 'crush any resistance to authoritarianism or efforts towards freedom and democracy', Fatafta said."

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"Africa leaders: Mali military gov't must name president by Sep 15"


Die Regierungschefs der westafrikanischen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft ECOWAS haben die Militärregierung in Mali aufgefordert, bis zum 15. September eine zivil geführte Übergangsregierung einzusetzen. "The 15-nation Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) slapped sanctions on Mali after the August 18 coup, including closing borders and banning trade, and has called for elections within 12 months. The military government has proposed a years-long, military-led transition back to civilian rule, but ECOWAS commission chief Jean-Claude Kassi Brou has insisted it be led by a civilian president and prime minister for a 12-month period."

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"The US's pursuit of Julian Assange threatens media freedom"


Am Montag ist das britische Auslieferungsverfahren gegen den WikiLeaks-Gründer Julian Assange wieder aufgenommen worden. Julia Hall meint, dass mit Assange auch die Pressefreiheit vor Gericht stehe. "Beside him will sit the fundamental tenets of media freedom that underpin the rights to freedom of expression and the public's right of access to information. Silence this one man, and the US and its accomplices will gag others, spreading fear of persecution and prosecution over a global media community already under assault in the US and in many other countries worldwide. The stakes really are that high. If the United Kingdom extradites Assange, he would face prosecution in the US on espionage charges that could send him to prison for decades - possibly in a facility reserved for the highest security detainees and subjected to the strictest of daily regimes, including prolonged solitary confinement. All for doing something news editors do the world over - publishing public interest information provided by sources."

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"What is the nerve agent Novichok?"


Al Jazeera hat den Neurotoxikologen William Atchison von der Michigan State University zum bisherigen Wissensstand über das Nervengift "Nowitschok" befragt. "William Atchison (…) said Novichok kills by disrupting communication between nerves and muscles or nerves in the brain. 'They work within minutes by paralysing the muscles responsible for breathing and stopping the heart. Seizures also occur. However, in some cases, if the dose is insufficient, death may be delayed or prevented but the victim continues to suffer from seizures, neuromuscular weakness, liver failure, and other damage,' said Atchison. 'To be clear, much of what is known about Novichok is conjecture. It is based on the limited information provided by two Russian chemists: one a defector, and the other who accidentally poisoned himself with a Novichok compound and died, though not immediately. It is his delayed clinical symptoms which have been the basis for understanding about what can happen when death isn't immediate.'"

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"What does the coup mean for Mali's spiralling security crisis?"


Joseph Stepansky analysiert die möglichen Auswirkungen des Militärputsches in Mali auf die sicherheitspolitische Krise im Land. "Despite early comparisons, however, armed groups in Mali are not likely to benefit as 'significantly' as they did from the political instability eight years ago, said Flore Berger, a Sahel research analyst at the International Institute for Strategic Studies. 'It's not gonna be like 2012 where they can actually take vast parts of the country,' she said. 'First of all, they're already there. They don't control the entire areas where they attack, but they're still there, they have quite a big presence.' 'They also have changed their tactics. They're not aiming at controlling major town centres. Now they aim at attacking and going south towards coastal West Africa,' Berger added. (…) With more questions than answers, many analysts agree that any transition will need to holistically contend the country's myriad issues, with the primary focus on the underlying problems that plague citizens across its far-flung reaches. 'The root causes of the security situation are not security in itself, but they are mostly the economic situation,' said Gregory Chauzal, a senior researcher and director of the SIPRI's Sahel West Africa programme."

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"Who are the Kurds?"


 Al Jazeera stellt in einem zehnminütigen Video die Geschichte und aktuelle Probleme der Kurden vor. "The fight against ISIL in Syria, an uneasy US alliance and being considered a terrorist organisation by a number of countries have kept the Kurdish people in the news. So who are the Kurds? And why is there so much resistance to the idea of a Kurdish nation-state?"

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"Mali crisis: From disputed election to president's resignation"


Dem Militärputsch in Mali sei eine monatelange politische Krise vorausgegangen, berichtet Al Jazeera. "For months, Mali has been mired in an escalating political crisis marked by large anti-government rallies and failed mediation attempts by regional leaders wary of further instability in the country. Political tension has been simmering following the re-election of President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita in 2018, in a poll that opposition parties said was marred by irregularities. (…) The tension culminated on Tuesday when mutinying soldiers detained Keita, Prime Minister Boubou Cisse and other top government officials, a dramatic escalation that was condemned by regional and international powers. Here is a timeline of what has led to the latest unrest".

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"Kushner: US will not approve Israeli annexations for 'some time'"


Jared Kushner, Architekt des Nahost-Friedensplans der US-Regierung, hat noch einmal bestätigt, dass die US-Regierung einer israelischen Annexion des Westjordanlandes bis auf weiteres nicht zustimmen wird. "'Israel has agreed with us that they will not move forward without our consent. We do not plan to give our consent for some time,' Kushner told reporters in a telephone briefing. 'Right now, the focus has to be on, you know, getting this new peace agreement implemented,' he said. 'We really want to get as much interchange between Israel and the United Arab Emirates as possible and we want Israel to focus on creating new relationships and new alliances.' The US-UAE-Israel joint statement on the normalisation deal said Israel had agreed to 'suspend' the annexation plan. 'What you're saying as suspension, we're seeing as stopping,' UAE Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Anwar Gargash told reporters shortly after the deal was announced."

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"South Africa crime rate falls 40 percent in coronavirus lockdown"


In Südafrika ist die Verbrechensrate aufgrund des Corona-Lockdowns um bis zu 40% gesunken. "Crime rates dropped by up to 40 percent between April and June, when the country was placed under strict stay-home restrictions aimed at limiting the spread of the virus, Police Minister Bheki Cele said on Friday. 'These statistics show major decreases in all crime categories compared to the same comparative period last year,' Cele said. (…) Contact-related crimes, such as arson and malicious damage to property, registered a 29 percent drop. The country's lockdown regulations included a ban on the sale of alcohol and cigarettes. Cele said the figures showed that the absence of alcohol had helped reduce crime."

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"Germany, France, Italy to push ahead with EU sanctions over Libya"


Deutschland, Frankreich und Italien haben sich auf eine Liste von Unternehmen und Individuen verständigt, die wegen Verstößen gegen das UN-Waffenembargo in Libyen mit Sanktionen belegt werden sollen. "Germany, France and Italy plan to push ahead with a bid to use European Union sanctions to stem the continuing supply of arms to war-torn Libya. The three countries have agreed on a list of companies and individuals providing ships, aircraft or other logistics for the transport of weapons, in violation of a United Nations embargo that has been in place since 2011, EU sources told the DPA news agency. Three companies from Turkey, Jordan and Kazakhstan as well as two individuals from Libya are involved, the sources said."

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"ISIL will bounce back if Libya civil war doesn't end, study warns"


Eine neue Studie des Strategic Studies Institute des United States Army War College warnt vor einer Rückkehr des "Islamischen Staates" in Libyen. "It said the armed group retained its capacity to launch 'small-scale' attacks in Libya, which was a deviation from its earlier strategy of high-profile 'shock and awe' raids. 'They engage in small-scale attacks and skirmishes necessary to establish themselves in the criminal smuggling network that link sub-Saharan Africa to the Libyan coast in the north,' according to the study conducted by Azeem Ibrahim. (…) According to the study, after ISIL's removal from Sirte, most of its activity moved to Fezzan in the southern Libyan desert, 'where the group has increasingly embedded themselves in the local human and illicit goods trafficking, particularly along the refugee migration routes through Libya'. 'ISIS [ISIL] in Libya is overwhelmingly composed of non-Libyan foreign fighters, further diminishing their capacity to embed themselves in the local political landscape,' it said. However, Ibrahim warned the situation could change if the Libyan civil war is prolonged, and called on the international community to ensure stability in the country."

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"Chad slows down internet to curb 'hate speech' on social media"


Die Regierung Tschads hat eine zeitweise Drosselung der Internetgeschwindigkeit im Land mit dem Kampf gegen die Verbreitung von "Hassrede" begründet. "(…) telecoms officials, speaking on condition of anonymity, said the restrictions had been triggered by a video showing a Chadian military officer in a dispute with two young mechanics. The images, which are dated July 14, show him opening fire on one of them at point-blank range, before being attacked with a knife. A statement by the public prosecutor said one of the mechanics 'died of his wounds' while the officer was hospitalised and 'will be prosecuted after he has recovered'. The video is still circulating on Facebook and WhatsApp, and some users have touched on the ethnic background of the soldier, pointing out that he is from the same community as President Idriss Deby, who took power in 1990."

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"Beware of the looming chaos in the Middle East"


Marwan Bishara schreibt, dass sich der Nahe Osten heute in deutlich schlechterem Zustand befinde als noch vor zehn Jahren. Der Niedergang sei noch lange nicht am Ende: "The economic, political and societal realities in the region are going from dire to horrendous, with no end in sight. They could spiral out of control towards a more violent and chaotic future with unforeseen international ramifications. The killings may have relatively subsided in some places, for now, but the wounds of war are not healing and are being exacerbated by the coronavirus pandemic and its associated economic hardship. The greater Middle East is hurting far more than meets the eye. In 2010, the region was also heading into the abyss, but with little fanfare. Today, the writing is on the wall. If similar but milder situations have led to a violent and destructive decade, today's apocalyptic dangers could lead to a much worse outcome."

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"Syria slams US firm's oil deal with SDF as 'null and void'"


Die von Washington unterstützte Vereinbarung eines US-Unternehmens mit den Kurden im Nordosten Syriens zur "Modernisierung" der dortigen Ölfelder ist von der syrischen Regierung als "Diebstahl" angegriffen worden. "The Syrian foreign ministry's statement said Damascus 'condemns in the strongest terms the agreement signed between al-Qasd militia (SDF) and an American oil company to steal Syria's oil under the sponsorship and support of the American administration'. It added: 'This agreement is null and void and has no legal basis.' (…) US President Donald Trump has shown an acute interest in the oilfields of northeast Syria. Despite announcing a US military pullback from the region in December 2018, Trump also pledged that a small number of US forces would remain 'where they have oil'."

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"Taliban says ready for talks next month if prisoner swap complete"


Die Taliban haben im Fall eines erfolgreichen Gefangenenaustausches Friedensverhandlungen mit der Regierung in Kabul in Aussicht gestellt. "The conditional offer marks the first occasion a talks timeline has been floated since warring parties blew past a March 10 deadline to begin negotiations. The development on Thursday comes amid soaring violence that has threatened to derail US-backed efforts to bring Kabul and the Taliban to the negotiating table and seek an end to Afghanistan's nearly 19-year war. The Taliban is 'likely ... ready to begin intra-Afghan negotiations immediately after Eid in case the process of the release of the prisoners is completed', the armed group's political spokesman Suhail Shaheen said on Twitter. (…) The prisoner-exchange issue, agreed to under a deal between the US and the Taliban, has proved a major sticking point ahead of peace talks."

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"New French PM says battle against 'radical Islamism' a priority"


Frankreichs neuer Premierminister Jean Castex hat den Kampf gegen den "radikalen Islamismus" zu einer "absoluten Priorität" seiner Regierung erklärt. "France's newly-appointed Prime Minister, Jean Castex, has vowed to be 'intransigent' in defending France's official secularism, promising to fight 'radical Islamism in all its forms' as 'an absolute priority'. Unveiling new government policy in Paris on Wednesday, Castex told the National Assembly that the French republic was being 'shaken to its foundations' by 'the coalition of its enemies - terrorists, conspiracy theorists, separatists and communitarians'. Castex, a centre-right provincial mayor who graduated from the elite National School of Administration, said a new law to combat 'separatism' would be introduced after the summer break."

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"Serbia-Kosovo deal: Can the EU succeed where Trump failed?"


Trotz der Absage des geplanten Kosovo-Gipfels im Weißen Haus sollte sich die EU nicht der Illusion hingeben, dass sie den Streit zwischen Serbien und Kosovo ohne die USA lösen könne, meint Dimitar Bechev. "Europe's comeback is welcome, but process cannot compensate for substance. At the end of the day, the EU - or at least 22 of its members who recognise Kosovo's statehood - expects that Serbia will accept independence in return for vaguely defined gains. (…) Merkel, Macron and Josep Borrell, the EU's foreign affairs chief, should put incentives on the table to make Vucic and Hoti, a proxy for Thaci, trade some concessions and truly bring normalisation talks back to life. To get things moving in the decade-long Balkan dispute, the EU will still need the US. Americans carry substantial diplomatic leverage, especially in Kosovo, where frustration with Brussels led Thaci to turn to Washington. It will be ill-advised to stonewall Grenell, much less the US State Department where transatlanticism and multilateralism are still rated highly. The Americans and the Europeans need to be on the same page in order to ensure that Russia, a partner for Serbia, does not undercut conflict resolution efforts. Given the acrimony between the current administration and allies in Europe, cooperation cannot be taken for granted."

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