US-Soldaten in Afghanistan

Wall Street Journal



"Trump Brings Foreign Policy Back to Earth"

Walter Russell Mead vom Hudson Institute hält die Kritik an der Außenpolitik von US-Präsident Trump in einigen Punkten für überzogen. So sei Trumps Abkehr von der seit 1991 verfolgten globalen US-Strategie überfällig gewesen. "Promoting democracy in the Middle East; protecting the rights of religious and sexual minorities; building successful states from Niger to Ukraine; advancing global gender equality; fighting climate change: This is only a partial list of objectives recent administrations pursued, sometimes under pressure from congressional mandates. Foreign policy has become as complex and unwieldy as the tax code, even as public support for this vast, misshapen edifice has withered. Change had to come, and the failure of Mr. Trump’s 2016 rivals — both Republican and Democratic — to offer a less disruptive alternative to gassy globalism helped put him in the White House. Although the president’s antiglobalist and mercantilist instincts blind him to some realities, they enable him to grasp three significant truths. First, Mr. Trump knows that the post-Cold War policies can no longer be politically sustained. Second, he knows that China poses a new and dangerous challenge to American interests. Third, he sees that foreign policy must change in response."

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"Pentagon Offers Plan to Arm Ukraine"

Das Pentagon hat dem Weißen Haus dem Wall Street Journal zufolge einen detaillierten Plan für Waffenlieferungen an die Ukraine unterbreitet. "American military officials and diplomats say the arms, which they characterized as defensive, are meant to deter aggressive actions by Moscow, which the U.S. and others say has provided tanks and other sophisticated armaments as well as military advisers to rebels fighting the Kiev government. (...) A senior administration official said there has been no decision on the armaments proposal and it wasn’t discussed at a high-level White House meeting on Russia last week. The official said President Donald Trump hasn’t been briefed on the plan and his position isn’t known. Some U.S. and Ukrainian officials said they expect it could be months before the White House makes a final determination."

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"Japan and South Korea May Soon Go Nuclear"

Henry Sokolski fürchtet, dass der atomare Status Quo in Ostasien bald zusammenbrechen könnte. Sowohl Japan als auch Südkorea seien dabei, Plutoniumvorräte anzuhäufen, um in der Lage zu sein, relativ schnell eigene Atomwaffenprogramme zu starten. Bis dahin würden in beiden Ländern die zivilen Atomprogramme vorangetrieben. "The Asian goal of stockpiling plutonium to launch a new generation of plutonium-fueled fast-breeder reactors is one shared with nuclear enthusiasts in the West. But fast reactors are so much more expensive than conventional uranium-burning reactors that they, and the reprocessing of spent fuel they require, have never made economic sense. In Tokyo, Seoul and Beijing there are government officials and advisers who understand this and the security risks of commercializing plutonium. But their concerns have been trumped by nationalistic demands not to fall behind in plutonium technology."

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"10 Must-Read Books on the Evolution of Terrorism in the Middle East"

Anna Russell empfiehlt zehn Sachbücher, die sich mit der Entstehung radikalislamischer Terrorgruppen im Nahen Osten beschäftigen. "In the wake of Friday night’s violent attacks in Paris, The Wall Street Journal asked several experts for book recommendations on the evolution of terrorism in the Middle East. Here are their top picks".

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"Desert Storm, the Last Classic War"

Richard N. Haass vom Council on Foreign Relations blickt auf die Ereignisse zurück, die im Irak vor 25 Jahren zum letzten "klassischen Krieg" geführt hätten. "The Gulf War was a signal success of American foreign policy. It avoided what clearly would have been a terrible outcome — letting Saddam get away with a blatant act of territorial acquisition and perhaps come to dominate much of the Middle East. But it was a short-lived triumph, and it could neither usher in a 'new world order,' as President Bush hoped, nor save the Middle East from itself."

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"Greek Crisis Shows How Germany’s Power Polarizes Europe"

Anton Troianovski schreibt, dass sich Deutschland mit seiner Führungsrolle in Europa immer noch schwer tue. Hinzu komme, dass sich in anderen EU-Ländern langsam Widerstand gegen die deutsche Dominanz rege. "(...) across Europe, Germany’s power is also straining unity in the EU, an alliance forged as a partnership of equals that now is struggling to accommodate the swelling dominance of one member. With every crisis in which Ms. Merkel acts as the Continent’s go-to problem solver, the message to many other Europeans is that for all the lip service about the common 'European project,' it is the Germans and faceless bureaucrats in Brussels who run the show. The pushback against German power in Europe is likely to grow if the eurozone crisis worsens or if Berlin’s policies grow more assertive."

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"The Capitalist Cure for Terrorism"

Terrorgruppen wie der Islamische Staat könnten langfristig am besten durch die Eröffnung alternativer Perspektiven für ihre potentiellen Anhänger bekämpft werden, ist Hernando de Soto überzeugt. Er verweist auf seine Erfahrung in Peru, wo die Terrororganisation Leuchtender Pfad vor allem durch Wirtschaftsreformen und den wachsenden Wohlstand der Mittelschicht besiegt worden sei. "Between 1980 and 1993, Peru won the only victory against a terrorist movement since the fall of communism without the intervention of foreign troops or significant outside financial support for its military. Over the next two decades, Peru’s gross national product per capita grew twice as fast as the average in the rest of Latin America, with its middle class growing four times faster. Today we hear the same economic and cultural pessimism about the Arab world that we did about Peru in the 1980s. But we know better. Just as Shining Path was beaten in Peru, so can terrorists be defeated by reforms that create an unstoppable constituency for rising living standards in the Middle East and North Africa."

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"Obama Weighs Options to Close Guantanamo"

US-Präsident Obama überlegt offenbar, das umstrittene Gefangenenlager in Guantanamo ohne Zustimmung des US-Kongresses zu schließen. "The White House is drafting options that would allow President Barack Obama to close the detention facility in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, by overriding a congressional ban on bringing detainees to the U.S., senior administration officials said. Such a move would be the latest and potentially most dramatic use of executive power by the president in his second term. It would likely provoke a sharp reaction from lawmakers, who have repeatedly barred the transfer of detainees to the U.S."

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"Intelligence Gaps Crippled Mission in Syria to Rescue Hostages James Foley, Steven Sotloff"

Das Wall Street Journal mit einem Hintergrundbericht über die fehlgeschlagene Militäroperation amerikanischer Spezialeinheiten zur Befreiung der beiden Geiseln James Foley und Steven Sotloff, die von der Terrorgruppe Islamischer Staat vor kurzem ermordet wurden. "A reconstruction of events surrounding the failed rescue, based on interviews with current and former U.S. officials and foreign diplomats, and with other people familiar with the hostage situation, shows the extent to which it was a calculated gamble under intense time pressure."

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"Henry Kissinger on the Assembly of a New World Order"

Der frühere US-Außenminister Henry Kissinger fürchtet, dass die aktuellen internationalen Krisen die bisherige westlich geprägte Weltordnung gefährden könnten. "The contemporary quest for world order will require a coherent strategy to establish a concept of order within the various regions and to relate these regional orders to one another. (...) For the U.S., this will require thinking on two seemingly contradictory levels. The celebration of universal principles needs to be paired with recognition of the reality of other regions' histories, cultures and views of their security. Even as the lessons of challenging decades are examined, the affirmation of America's exceptional nature must be sustained. History offers no respite to countries that set aside their sense of identity in favor of a seemingly less arduous course. But nor does it assure success for the most elevated convictions in the absence of a comprehensive geopolitical strategy."

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"European Court Assails Poland Over Role in CIA 'Black Sites'"

Der Europäische Gerichtshof für Menschenrechte hat Polen für die Folter von Terrorverdächtigen in einem geheimen CIA-Gefängnis auf polnischem Boden mitverantwortlich gemacht. Das Wall Street Journal berichtet, dass das Urteil auch in den USA Folgen haben könnte. "They court ordered Poland to pay €100,000 ($134,640) in damages to each inmate, plus €30,000 in compensation for legal costs and expenses to Mr. Zubaydah. They also ordered the Polish government to obtain diplomatic assurances from the U.S. that it wouldn't subject Mr. Nashiri to the death penalty. While the U.S. wasn't a party to the Strasbourg proceedings and isn't bound by the ruling, the court's opinion may carry weight. 'The European court is by far the most respected court on international human rights,' said Diane Marie Amann, a professor of international law at the University of Georgia. A spokesman for the Polish foreign minister said the government may appeal Thursday's verdict, complaining that it had been unable to present some classified evidence to the court because of national-security concerns."

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"Vietnam, Philippines Incidents Raise Sea Tensions"

Zwei neue Vorfälle haben die Spannungen über territoriale Streitfragen im Südchinesischen Meer wieder deutlich ansteigen lassen, berichtet das Wall Street Journal. "Off Vietnam, dozens of Chinese military and civilian ships clashed with the Vietnamese coast guard, with Vietnamese officials complaining its vessels were repeatedly rammed. On the same day, Philippine police apprehended Chinese fishing vessels loaded with hundreds of sea turtles in disputed waters. (...) The confrontation—by far the most serious in recent years between the two neighbors—marked a significant escalation in Beijing's willingness to press its natural-resource claims, analysts said."

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"German Businesses Urge Halt on Sanctions Against Russia"

Die deutsche Wirtschaft spiele eine wichtige Rolle bei der Verhinderung schärferer westlicher Sanktionen gegen Russland, schreibt Matthew Karnitschnig. "Several of the biggest names in German business — including chemical giant BASF SE, engineering group Siemens AG, Volkswagen AG, Adidas AG and Deutsche Bank AG have made their opposition to broader economic sanctions against Russia clear in recent weeks, both in public and in private. (...) In most countries, it would be highly unusual for corporate executives to inject themselves into geopolitics and matters of national security with the forcefulness that a number of German business leaders have. But many of Germany's largest companies have substantial Russian operations, built in some cases over decades, and worry that tough economic sanctions would rob them of a key growth market when their home market — Europe — is stagnant."

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"NATO Military Chief Breedlove Says Russia Could Take Ukraine in Three to Five Days"

NATO-General Philip Breedlove zufolge hat Russland genügend Militär an der Grenze zur Ukraine postiert, um innerhalb von drei bis fünf Tagen erfolgreich einmarschieren zu können. "Gen. Breedlove, who has previously warned of the threat from the 40,000 Russian troops massed on Ukraine's border, said Wednesday that force includes support for planes and helicopters as well as military hospitals and electronic warfare equipment—'the entire sweep that would be required to successfully have an incursion into Ukraine, should the decision be made,' he said. Gen. Breedlove stressed that the Russian force is in a high state of readiness and could move at any time."

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"Toward a Scottish Solution for Crimea"

Thomas de Waal vergleicht die mögliche Abspaltung der Krim von der Ukraine mit anderen Separationsbewegungen in Europa und meint, dass der Westen nicht mit absoluter Ablehnung reagieren sollte. Ein legaler Separatismus sollte sehr schwierig, aber nicht unmöglich gemacht werden, so de Waal. "So the international response to pro-independence Crimean Russians should be this: The world will listen to your claims, alongside those of other Crimean communities, It will support protracted negotiations about status that might even lead to a Scottish-style independence referendum many years hence. But this process carries responsibilities too, for instance that any changes can only be effected by all citizens acting without intimidation. That means no meaningful discussions on Crimea's status can start until Russian forces leave the peninsula. Only then can Crimean Russians start preparing thousand-page dossiers for discussion with Kiev, once a new Ukrainian government is elected in May."

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Wo gibt es Kriege und Gewaltkonflikte? Und wo herrscht am längsten Frieden? Welches Land gibt am meisten für Rüstung aus? liefert wichtige Daten und Fakten zu Krieg und Frieden.

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Innerstaatliche Konflikte

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