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"Imagine Almost Every Russian Warship With Hypersonic Missiles"

Die russische Marine will ihre Schiffe Robert Beckhusen zufolge in etwa zehn Jahren mit neuen Hyperschall-Raketen ausrüsten. Die sicherheitspolitischen Risiken dieses neuen Raketentyps sind vor kurzem in einer RAND-Studie analysiert worden. "Such missiles travel so fast, designing the vehicles and onboard guidance systems to withstand the heat and friction caused by meeting air resistance at Mach 5 and beyond is one of the biggest challenges in hypersonic development. (...) 'These features enable such missiles to penetrate most missile defenses and to further compress the timelines for a response by a nation under attack,' the California-based think tank RAND Corporation noted in a recent study."

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"South Korea Will Try to Blow Up Kim Jong Un If He Launches Nukes"

Militärplaner in Südkorea wollen Robert Beckhusen zufolge einen möglichen Atomangriff durch Nordkorea mit einem vernichtenden Gegenschlag auf die nordkoreanische Hauptstadt beantworten, um die Führungsspitze des Regimes auszuschalten. "A decapitation strike would likely rely on fast-moving ballistic missiles, precision-guided cruise missiles and warplanes. Seoul has rapidly introduced modernized cruise and ballistic missiles under the name Hyunmoo, but it’s unclear how many it possesses. (...) But be skeptical. South Korea has the means to attack North Korea’s leaders. The problem is that decapitation strikes rarely succeed. One reason being that leaders take precautions, and targeting them requires extremely precise intelligence to stand any chance of a hit. Kim probably has a plan in case he needs to go to ground. It’d be shocking if he didn’t."

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"Sleepwalking Toward Nuclear War"

Die neue Syrienstrategie der US-Regierung erinnert Geoff Wilson an die Sorglosigkeit, mit der die europäischen Regierungen 1914 den Ersten Weltkrieg ausgelöst haben. "Much like the geopolitical environment in Europe preceding World War I, Syria is home to a complex web of alliances and support structures. More than a century ago, the assassination of an archduke in Bosnia ignited a chain reaction that saw two blocks of alliances explode into a devastating global world war. The realities in Syria are even more complex and the stakes have never been higher. (...) It is in this environment that U.S. president Donald Trump’s missile strikes have brought us one step closer to a scenario in which two nuclear superpowers could engage in direct combat operations against each other. (...) In 1914 Europe’s monarchs thought they understood battlefield strategy. They quickly lost control of the situation, resulting in a war that lasted 4 years and killed close to 20 million people. Miscalculating in Syria could have far greater consequences."

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"Trump’s Cruise Missile Strike Could Be a Sign of Weakness"

Paul Iddon ist sich nicht sicher, ob der US-amerikanische Raketenangriff auf ein syrisches Flugfeld tatsächlich ein Zeichen von Stärke ist. Die "Operation Desert Strike", ein ähnlicher Angriff gegen das irakische Regime von Saddam Hussein im Jahr 1996, sei von Experten im Nachhinein als ineffektiv eingeschätzt worden. "'At first blush it appeared to be a great American victory, but on second thought it doesn’t seem very impressive at all,' political commentator Larry Sabato wrote at the time about the Desert Strike raids. 'To the contrary, it’s looking more and more like Saddam Hussein won.' (...) Assad (...) could violate Trump’s declared red-line on chemicals by using, say, mobile artillery guns in the future instead of a fixed base of operations. Then, as was the case with Saddam in Iraqi Kurdistan in 1996, Assad could frequently challenge Trump’s red-line while remaining elusive to targeted tit-for-tat retaliatory air or cruise missile strikes. (...) without careful coordination with the Russians, the White House may find it harder to enforce its red-line against Assad."

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"Few Teenagers Radicalized Into ISIS Are Truly Loners - That makes them easier to spot"

Ein neuer Beitrag des Combat Terrorism Center der Militärakademie West Point kommt Robert Beckhusen zufolge zu dem Schluss, dass es sich bei jungen Terroristen überraschend selten um echte Einzelgänger handle. Oft spielten frühe Kontakte mit Mitgliedern von Terrornetzwerken eine wichtige Rolle bei der Radikalisierung der Täter. "Of 34 I.S.-directed or inspired plots by teenagers in Western countries since September 2014, only 20 percent were truly solo, according to the report. More than 17 percent involved domestic terrorist cells without contact with the Islamic State, while 50 percent of the total involved electronic contact and another 11.8 percent involved direct, in-person contact. 'Therefore, the primary terror threat cannot be said to come from teenage loners,' noted Robin Simcox, a counter-terrorism researcher at the Heritage Foundation and author of the report. 'The dissemination of its propaganda online is part of the reason the Islamic State has been able to find unparalleled success with this demographic group,' Simcox added."

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"Reviving Cold War Doomsday Devices Could Patch America’s Broken Nuclear Controls"

Im letzten Beitrag einer dreiteiligen Serie über die Sicherheit des amerikanischen Atomwaffenarsenals fordert Elaine Grossman die Wiedereinführung von Sicherheitsmaßnahmen, die nach dem Ende des Kalten Krieges abgeschafft worden seien. "These could include aircraft or rockets that broadcast emergency orders to nuclear forces if all other modes of communication have been silenced. Some say the White House might even consider pre-delegating authority for ordering or calling off nuclear strikes down the chain of command, in the event that top political leaders can no longer be found. The U.S. president holds unique authority to authorize nuclear missions or call them off. But that key facet of nuclear deterrence could be jeopardized by communications equipment prone to failure. A conventional or 'hybrid' attack on key U.S. military satellites, transmissions nodes or radio signals could endanger already fragile links that connect the commander in chief with bomber aircraft and ballistic missiles deployed at sea and in underground silos."

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"The Pentagon Is Still Worried About Climate Change"

US-Präsident Donald Trump macht nur wenig Hehl daraus, dass er den Klimawandel nicht als vordringliches Problem der USA betrachtet. Kevin Knodell berichtet, dass diese Einschätzung im Pentagon unter dem neuen Verteidigungsminister Mattis nicht geteilt werde. "(...) while environmental issues may not be Mattis’ top priority he definitely believes in climate change. He also helped spearhead the military’s research into renewable fuel sources. In many ways, that sets him apart from other members of the Trump administration. (...) The seemingly hostile attitude of members of the current U.S. government toward climate and environmental science has made many researchers and ecologists nervous. But the U.S. military - which Trump has promised to lavish with more funding and resources - has for years explored alternative energy sources and studied how pollution, environmental degradation and climate change can harm service members, affect military operations and contribute to new conflicts around the world. That will likely continue under Mattis’ leadership. For the military, it’s not about saving the whales - it’s about preparing for the wars of the future."

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"Who Does ISIS Kill - And Why?"

Patrick Burke hat aus verschiedenen UN-Berichten einen Datensatz über mehr als 6.000 Hinrichtungen des "Islamischen Staates" erstellt. Die Auswertung der ihm vorliegenden Daten soll die Frage beantworten, aus welchen Gründen die Terrormiliz Exekutionen und Massaker verübt hat. "The data suggests that ISIS is both a genocidal group and practices selective killing of perceived threats. However horrific, ISIS’s executions of civilians seems to be consistent with the group’s attempts to establish a caliphate. Now clearly, ISIS attempted genocide against the Yazidi ethnic and religious group in Iraq. Both the U.S. State Department and the United Nations have come to this conclusion. ISIS even admitted it. Indeed, my data shows that Yazidis were the most numerous of ISIS’s civilian victims - 1,209. Leaving aside the Yazidis, ISIS seems to mainly kill people it deems a threat to its caliphate. My dataset shows that 76 percent of people ISIS executed were either captured combatants or suspected of collaborating with ISIS’s enemies. The other 24 percent were noncombatants."

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"Italian Troops in Iraq Are Trying to Prevent a Watery Catastrophe"

Der strategisch wichtige Staudamm bei Mosul werde gegenwärtig von italienischen Ingenieuren repariert und von 450 italienischen Elitesoldaten beschützt, berichtet Sébastien Roblin. Ein Kollaps des Dammes hätte Experten zufolge katastrophale Folgen. Auch der IS in Mosul habe deshalb bisher Beschädigungen des Staudammes vermieden. Im September sei allerdings ein gefährlicher Angriffsplan von IS-Extremisten aufgedeckt worden. "In September 2016, the Italian investigative journalism website Wikilao revealed that Western intelligence had intercepted details of an ISIS plot to attack Mosul Dam. (...) The order to launch the attack would have been transmitted by top ISIS leader Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi. The plot may reflect exactly the scenario the anti-ISIS coalition fears the most. But with surprise now impossible, the attack seems unlikely to ever take place. Moreover, penetrating the dam’s defensive perimeter could prove difficult."

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"Arab Spring Activists Relied on Social Media - And America Taught Them How to Use It"

Tausende Aktivisten des Arabischen Frühlings wurden in den Jahren vor 2011 durch Organisationen der US-Regierung und gut vernetzte US-Thinktanks trainiert und finanziell unterstützt, schreibt Darien Cavanaugh. "The NED, along with the State Department’s Agency for International Development and numerous nonprofits, NGOs, government agencies and politically-connected think tanks, trained and funded tens of thousands of Arab activists like Soliman during the years leading up to the Arab Spring. (...) The training emphasized the use of social media for organizing protests and inspiring mass movements. Many of these U.S.-trained activists became leaders of the Arab Spring uprisings in their home countries. (...) Since many of the people who receive assistance or participate in the training from these organizations are dissident groups or anti-government activists, it’s not a stretch to interpret 'positive change' … as 'regime change.'"

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"Don’t Panic Yet About the British Military After Brexit"

Robert Beckhusen analysiert die möglichen militärpolitischen Folgen eines EU-Austritts Großbritanniens. "[Malcom Chalmers] of the Royal United Services Institute described a post-Brexit United Kingdom as possibly becoming a 'more populous version of Canada, retaining an independent foreign and security policy, clearly differentiated from that of the giant power next door, even while being sensitive to the need to maximize its access to the international top table on some issues, for example European relations with Russia.' However, the ripple effects throughout the rest of Europe could upend this optimistic scenario. A Britain ridden with recession and internal turmoil could turn inward - making it harder for NATO to cooperate on deterring Russia. Brexit could also add to NATO’s existing troubles at presenting a common face on policy."

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"The U.S. Army’s Great Green Fleet Returns to Eastern Europe"

Robert Beckhusen berichtet über die symbolische Fahrt einer Fahrzeugflotte des US-Militärs durch Osteuropa. "(...) for 13 days, 600 American soldiers and 120 vehicles moved freely across more than 1,000 miles of former Warsaw Pact territory. The reaction from locals on the ground was mixed but generally positive, as the soldiers met cheering crowds waving American flags. In terms of what the military calls 'information operations,' Dragoon Ride was a coup -  and at low cost compared to sending expensive warships or bombers to flex U.S. military muscle near Russia’s border. And it was highly visible (which was the point), bringing the soldiers into direct contact with locals across the alliance’s eastern periphery."

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"No, You Can’t Have a Small Nuclear War"

Wilson und Will Saetren schreiben, dass im Pentagon offenbar ernsthaft diskutiert werde, ob im Fall einer Eskalation einer Krise in Osteuropa ein begrenzter Atomkrieg gegen Russland möglich wäre. Der wahrscheinliche Verlauf dieser "gefährlichen Fantasie" sei bereits 1983 in einer Kriegssimulation des Pentagons deutlich geworden. "In 1983, amidst heightened tensions with the Soviets, the administration put the U.S. war-plan to the test in a war game called Proud Prophet. (...) 'The Soviet Union team interpreted the nuclear strikes as an attack on their nation, their way of life and their honor,' Bracken wrote. 'So they responded with an enormous nuclear salvo at the United States. The United States retaliated in kind. The result was a catastrophe that made all the wars of the past five hundred years pale in comparison. (...) Unfortunately, we have forgotten these lessons. (...) The notion that nuclear weapons can be used for anything 'beyond deterrence' is reckless and dangerous thinking. It is an option that should be taken off the table entirely. Reagan recognized as much after witnessing the disastrous results of Proud Prophet."

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"The Coming Collapse of Afghanistan - But it’s not too late to save it"

Ohne weitere Unterstützung durch die USA werde Afghanistan in naher Zukunft erneut kollabieren, warnt Matthew Gault. Die Regierung in Kabul kontrolliere einigen Schätzungen zufolge nur 70 Prozent des Staatsgebiets, der Mangel an staatlicher Aufsicht begünstige eine massive und alles durchdringende Korruption. "Corruption is bad, but the lack of personnel knowledge creates a security threat. If Kabul doesn’t know which areas need extra troops and which infantry units needs more medics, then it’s impossible to effectively fight a force such as the Taliban. (...) Funding Afghanistan’s security forces costs about $5 billion a year. America pays 80 percent of that budget. Kabul committed to pay a meager $500 million a year, but can’t manage even that. Gen. John Campbell, former commander of the International Security Force, told the House Armed Services Committee that Afghanistan won’t be able to fund its own military until 2024. (...) fixing this problem will take time, money and probably more American blood. That’s a hard sell for an American public weary of a confusing war half a world away."

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"Sudan Spends Almost Everything on War"

Die Regierung Sudans gibt Schätzungen zufolge bis zu 70% ihres Gesamtbudgets für das Militär und den seit Jahren andauernden Bürgerkrieg aus. Große Teile der Bevölkerung würden im Gegenzug faktisch sich selbst überlassen. "The 2016 defense budget ensures the government will continue to seek a military solution to the near five-year civil war in Sudan’s Nuba Mountains region and the renewed fighting witnessed in western and central Darfur. (...) In comparison, Sudan’s budget allocates one percent to health and 2.3 percent for education; a scarce allocation that has persisted for the past two decades, according to Hamid Ali, associate professor of public policy at the American University in Cairo, Egypt."

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"The Islamic State Is Running Out of Time in Somalia"

In Somalia werde der Vormarsch des "Islamischen Staates" von der radikalislamischen Al-Shabab-Miliz aufgehalten, die der Al-Qaida nach wie vor die Treue halte, berichtet Cameron Evers. "Al Shabab’s distrust of the Islamic State also likely reflects strategic differences. Indeed, actually holding territory like the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria — as opposed to fighting within it — is a tall order for a terrorist organization with relatively few fighters. Conquering a 'caliphate' would be even taller. Other risks are harder to ignore. Al Shabab is already dodging American drone strikes and battling a multi-national African Union coalition. The globally-hunted name of 'Islamic State' could bring even more unwanted attention. Thus, despite all of the zeal, pomp and propaganda of the Islamic State, Al Shabab will likely keep a relatively lower profile with almost-exclusively local goals."

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"A Rebel Army Tried to Build a New Sudan, Then Fell Apart"

Austin Bodetti analysiert in einer dreiteiligen Artikelserie die Hintergründe des andauernden Bürgerkrieges in Sudan. "Sudan, fractured by ethnic and religious conflict since its independence, seems to welcome civil war. For decades, a government controlled by Arab Muslims from the north has oppressed and persecuted minorities at the margins and peripheries of the country. But war has fractured the opposition into dozens of armed groups. Rebel factions form, break apart, then combine with other groups … and then do it all over again. There are multiple rebel armies with the same name. This week we look at the Sudanese Liberation Movement/Army — or SLM/A — which became emblematic of the divisions that befell the country’s insurgent movements."

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"Hezbollah May Come Out of the Syrian Civil War Stronger Than Ever"

Die Hisbollah in Libanon könnte aus ihrer Beteiligung am syrischen Bürgerkrieg militärisch gestärkt hervorgehen, schreibt Darien Cavanaugh. In Israel werde diese Möglichkeit mit wachsender Sorge beurteilt. "Today there are as many as 8,000 Hezbollah fighters on the ground in Syria, potentially twice as many as fought Israel in 2006. This could suggest a significant increase in Hezbollah’s military capabilities. One of the main worries for Israel is that Hezbollah has been training and fighting alongside Syrian government forces as well as Russian and Iranian forces, even taking the lead in some engagements. (...) Of particular concern to Israel is the expertise Hezbollah is gaining from fighting alongside Russian advisers in Syria. (...) The report concludes that the experience Hezbollah is gaining from Russia and Iran has made it one of the most effective fighting forces in the tangled Syrian conflict. Hezbollah fighters are getting so good that they’re reportedly growing frustrated by what they consider to be an inept Syrian army."

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"These Are the Wars That Will Rage in Africa in 2016"

Peter Dörrie schreibt, dass die von gewaltsamen Konflikten geprägten Regionen in Afrika relativ dicht beieinander lägen. Afrika als Kontinent sei in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten insgesamt friedlicher geworden. "Geographically Africa’s conflicts are tightly clustered along an arc stretching from northern Mali through southern Algeria and Libya into Egypt, extending into the Sinai peninsula. The Boko Haram conflict in northeastern Nigeria is another epicenter and situated in relative proximity to an area of conflict hot spots in the Central African Republic, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, South Sudan and Darfur. On Africa’s eastern coast, the Somali civil war is still going strong in its third decade. Modern conflicts in Africa are thus highly localized, and they defy simplistic explanations based on stereotypes. That being said, these are our predictions for Africa’s conflicts in 2016."

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"With Heavy Air Support, Kurdish Troops Go on the Offensive"

Im zweiten Teil seiner Reportage aus dem Irak beschreibt der Kriegsberichterstatter Matt Cetti-Roberts einen verlustreichen Angriff der kurdischen Peschmerga auf IS-Stellungen westlich von Kirkuk. "An F-18 passes high over our heads — either American or Canadian, but we can’t tell. The warplane’s predatory silhouette and the noise of its twin engines makes everyone look up. Last night, the platoon’s captain called the coalition aircraft his 'big brother.' In battle after battle here, the presence of coalition aircraft gives a morale boost — a big one — to troops on the ground. It’s easy to understand why … and it’s not just because of the extra firepower."

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"Islamic State Is Not Even Close to Defeat"

Paul Iddon schreibt, dass die Terrormiliz "Islamischer Staat" trotz der zunehmenden Zahl ihrer Feinde in Syrien und Irak keineswegs vor der Niederlage stehe. Der IS sei in der Lage, mehrere Fronten seines eroberten Territoriums gleichzeitig zu verteidigen und die mangelnde Einigkeit seiner Gegner für sich auszunutzen. "Islamic State has survived — and expanded — by exploiting gaps in its enemies’ disorganized defenses during the past 22 months. There’s little evidence to suggest the situation will change for the better. It may get a lot worse."

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"The Korean War Saved the World From Nuclear Annihilation"

Matthew Gault schreibt in diesem schon etwas älteren Beitrag unter Verweis auf ein lange geheimes NSA-Dokument des Historikers John Schindler, dass der Ausbruch des ersten Koreakrieges 1950 möglicherweise einen Atomkrieg zwischen den USA und der Sowjetunion verhindert haben könnte. Im Zentrum des damaligen Konflikts zwischen den Supermächten habe eine drohende sowjetische Invasion Jugoslawiens gestanden. "(...) the West lacked the conventional ground troops to resist such a force and those it did have were tied up in South Korea. To stave off a Soviet invasion of Yugoslavia, America would have to use nukes. 'Within weeks of the invasion of South Korea, Washington had accepted in principle that due to the dearth of conventional forces, atomic weapons would probably have to be used to defend Yugoslavia against Soviet attack,' Schindler explained. (...) Luckily, it never came to that. The rapid Western response to the invasion of South Korea startled Stalin. 'If America would commit two divisions at once,' Schindler wrote. 'And eventually more than a half-dozen, to save South Korea, what might it do to rescue the strategically vital Tito?'"

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"HBO’s New Political Satire Channels 'Dr. Strangelove'"

Matthew Gault stellt die neue HBO-Serie "The Brink" vor, die sich in satirischer Form mit der amerikanischen Außenpolitik, den Kriegen der USA und dem Terrorismus auseinandersetze. "The Brink is a big deal. It’s a dark satire brimming over with bile not just for the politicians who contrive to put the world in danger, but also the military that backs them up. On the surface, the show might seem crude, a throwback to a time when HBO aired basic cable schlock such as Arliss. But the crude humor comes from a place of anger. It shows in every camera shot, every bit of dialogue and every ridiculous situation. The dialogue is great, because it’s hilarious, and propelled by rage at our increasingly awful geopolitics."

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"Why the World Ignores South Sudan’s Killing Fields"

Nathaniel Ross Kelly macht in einer vierteiligen Artikelserie auf den Bürgerkrieg in Südsudan aufmerksam, der von der Weltöffentlichkeit und selbst von der UNO weitgehend ignoriert werde. "The culture of impunity in South Sudan - the world’s youngest nation -  has spawned a civil war with no official body count. While government forces and rebels kill, rape and terrorize civilians, the United Nations refuses to estimate the death toll and ignores sites of mass burials. Forgotten among the carnage is a new generation of trauma victims, waiting for peace and justice or, at the least, a time and a place to mourn the ones they’ve lost."

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"We Went on the Front Lines of Ukraine’s War"

Zack Baddorf hat sich in die Stadt Shyrokyne an der Frontlinie des Konflikts in der Ostukraine begeben und berichtet in dieser mit eigenen Fotos ergänzten Reportage über seine Eindrücke. "Neither side in this battle-damaged town is giving up".

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"The U.N. Wants to Regulate the Arms Trade — Here’s Why It Won’t Work"

Peter Dörrie glaubt nicht, dass es der UNO mit dem am 24. Dezember in Kraft getretenen Abkommen gelingen wird, den internationalen Waffenhandel wirksam zu regulieren. Die Vertragslücken und Hintertürchen des Abkommens seien einfach zu groß. "For one, the treaty only binds those states that have signed and ratified it. It’s completely voluntary, and it’s unlikely most of the world’s largest arms exports will sign up anytime soon. Russia, China, Iran, Sudan and Egypt — just to name a few countries whose weapons have shown up in recent conflicts — haven’t joined the treaty or announced any plans to do so. (...) The treaty also includes a range of loopholes. 'The treaty doesn’t cover such things as technology transfer,' Max Mutschler, an analyst at the Bonn International Center for Conversion, told War Is Boring. This is unfortunate, because arms deals today often include more than physical hardware. In many cases, the deals come with the knowledge and rights to the intellectual property, which allows a recipient to produce the weapons locally."

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"There’s Drama Between Kurdistan’s Two Best Frenemies"

Vager Saadullah berichtet über Spannungen zwischen den Kurden im Norden Iraks und den PKK-Kämpfern, die den Peschmergas nach den Angriffen durch den Islamischen Staat im vergangenen Sommer zu Hilfe eilten. "Some Kurds see the guerrillas’ role as an example of Kurdish unity in the face of an existential threat from Islamic State. Others complain that the PKK doesn’t cooperate with Iraqi Kurdish authorities—and is trying to exploit the war for its own political agenda. At the same time, PKK officials complain the Iraqi Kurds don’t cooperate with them. To complicate the drama even more, if the PKK suddenly left Iraq, it could expose deep political divisions many Kurds are not ready to acknowledge."

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"German Advisers Train Kurdish Troops With Battle Rifles"

Till Rimmele berichtet, dass die Bundesregierung ein Team von Bundeswehrausbildern in den Irak geschickt habe, um die Kurden vor Ort beim Einsatz der zuvor gelieferten Sturmgewehre und Panzerabwehrlenkwaffen gegen den Islamischen Staat zu unterstützen. Die Mission werde vorerst bis zum 31. Januar 2016 dauern. "In Germany, the government agreed to step up its aid to the Kurds. On Jan. 29, the German parliament agreed to set up a training mission consisting of — at maximum — 100 instructors who will assist Kurdish troops in the region until Jan. 31, 2016. To be sure, the German troops can defend themselves, but will not directly involve themselves in combat. The advisers’ operational tasks include training and coordinating with allies based at command centers in Iraq and Kuwait."

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"Sudan Is Arming Africa and No One Cares"

Peter Dörrie wirft der Regierung in Sudan vor, viele Konflikte in der Region durch ihre Waffenlieferungen anzuheizen. "Once rebels get their hands on weapons, they become almost impossible to trace and control. Weapons used in Africa’s various conflicts circulate freely across the continent — for decades. This makes it easy for terrorists to get their hands on sophisticated weaponry. Unfortunately, controls, regulations and prosecution are weak when it comes to the international arms trade. With little indication that anybody actually cares, Sudan will likely continue to arm rebels and rogue governments across Africa for some time to come."

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"The Kurds Are Close to Mosul — And in No Hurry to Get There"

Matt Cetti-Roberts hat sich mit einem französischen Kollegen an die Front vor der vom Islamischen Staat besetzten irakischen Stadt Mosul begeben. Die Offensive der kurdischen Peschmerga-Kämpfer sei überraschend, da die Führung der Kurden offiziell kein Interesse an der Befreiung der Stadt bekundet habe und die irakische Armee ihre Offensive erst im Frühjahr beginnen wolle. "'The Mosul liberation is not the job of Kurds,' [General Serbest] said. 'That being said, ISIS thinks the Kurds are more dangerous than the central government — who are nowhere to be found.' So why the push toward Mosul? 'We have to protect our Kurdish governate and stop ISIS from approaching,' he answered. 'On top of that we have two million refugees to protect against a force that attacks the whole of Iraq.'"

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Wo gibt es Kriege und Gewaltkonflikte? Und wo herrscht am längsten Frieden? Welches Land gibt am meisten für Rüstung aus? liefert wichtige Daten und Fakten zu Krieg und Frieden.

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Innerstaatliche Konflikte

Vom Kosovo nach Kolumbien, von Somalia nach Süd-Thailand: Weltweit schwelen über 280 politische Konflikte. Und immer wieder droht die Lage gewaltsam zu eskalieren.

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Zahlen und Fakten


Kaum ein Thema wird so intensiv und kontrovers diskutiert wie die Globalisierung. "Zahlen und Fakten" liefert Grafiken, Texte und Tabellen zu einem der wichtigsten und vielschichtigsten Prozesse der Gegenwart.

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