US-Soldaten in Afghanistan

Modern Diplomacy

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29.08.2021

"As Exercise Malabar turns 25, the Quad edge makes it sharper today"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/08/29/as-exercise-malabar-turns-25-the-quad-edge-makes-it-sharper-today/

Bejoy Sebastian berichtet über das Marine-Manöver "Malabar", an dem alle Staaten des Quadrilateralen Sicherheitsdialogs (kurz: Quad), bestehend aus Australien, Indien, Japan und den USA, teilgenommen hätten: "The 2021 edition of the annual Malabar exercise is currently underway off the coast of Guam, a U.S. island territory in the western Pacific Ocean. The four-day war games commenced on August 26 and will go on till August 29. (…) Exercise Malabar, which has reached its 25th edition, entails a complex set of naval drills that includes anti-surface, anti-air, and anti-submarine warfare with different kinds of warships, submarines and aircraft displaying their might in the high seas. (…) Even though now a quadrilateral exercise, it has its actual beginnings as a bilateral U.S.-India annual naval drill in 1992, with the Indian Ocean as its primary theatre."

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08.08.2021

"Pakistan's Geoeconomic Necessities"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/08/08/pakistans-geoeconomic-necessities/

Nach langjährigen inneren und äußeren Sicherheitsproblemen eröffne sich nun für Pakistan die Möglichkeit, seine wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in Angriff zu nehmen, stellt Rubab Nawaz fest. "The country has started diversifying its economic and diplomatic engagement with states. Domestically, the situation is rather vague when it comes to economic attributes necessary for pulling geo-economic strategy. Pakistan is facing recurrent need of foreign loans, trade deficit, narrow export base, and low international market share. (…) First of all, Pakistan needs to enhance its engagement in the regional economic setups."

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01.08.2021

"Russia and China: Geopolitical Rivals and Competitors in Africa"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/08/01/russia-and-china-geopolitical-rivals-and-competitors-in-africa/

Im Gespräch mit Kester Kenn Klomegah gibt Lipton Matthews Einblicke in Chinas Rolle auf dem afrikanischen Kontinent. "(… R)eports deriding China's influence in Africa are pervasive in the West, but in reality, Africans are appreciative of China's role in the region. Since the days of the Cold War, developing countries have viewed China as an ally. Therefore, the ascent of China is perceived favourably by African policymakers because it represents the aspirations of the developing world. (…) Though Russia's investment in Africa is not on the scale of China, it appears that Russian players have identified the region as a source of raw materials and are exploiting the opportunities offered by the continent."

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11.07.2021

"Russia's National Security Strategy: A Manifesto for a New Era"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/07/11/russias-national-security-strategy-a-manifesto-for-a-new-era/

Dmitri Trenin analysiert die kürzlich veröffentlichte neue nationale Sicherheitsstrategie Russlands: "It is much more than an update of the previous paper, adopted in 2015. (…) Overall, the 2021 Russian National Security Strategy seeks to adapt the country to a still interconnected world of fragmentation and sharpening divisions, in which the main battle lines are drawn not only - and not even mostly - between countries, but within them. Victories will be won and defeats suffered largely on domestic turf. Accordingly, it is the Home Front that presents the greatest challenges, and it is there that the main thrust of government policies must be directed."

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27.05.2021

"China Seeks to Boost its Role in the Arctic"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/05/27/china-seeks-to-boost-its-role-in-the-arctic/

Chinas Aktivitäten in der Arktis hätten seit 2013 zugenommen, stellt Emil Avdaliani fest: "As a so-called non-Arctic state, China is the most prominent actor seeking to become a major stakeholder in the future geopolitics of the uninhabited region. (…) China's active engagement is a more recent development, starting in 2013, when China became one of the 13 observer states of the Arctic Council. The Polar Silk Road - an integral part of Beijing's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) - was introduced in 2017. Then in June 2018, Beijing announced plans to build its first 30,000-ton nuclear icebreaker, making China the second country (after Russia) to possess nuclear icebreakers. In the same year, China released a much anticipated white paper entitled 'China's Arctic Policy', wherein it outlined its motivations, referring to itself as a 'near-Arctic state.'"

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05.05.2021

"Biological warfare: A global security threat"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/05/05/biological-warfare-a-global-security-threat/

Ayesha Sikandar skizziert historisch die Entwicklung von Biowaffen: "The evolution of bio-weapons can be broadly categorized into four phases; first phase includes the post WWII developments with the evident use of chlorine and phosgene in Ypres. The second phase was marked by the use of nerve agents like tabun, cholinesterase inhibitor and anthrax and plague bombs. The initiation of third phase was marked by the use of biological weapons in Vietnam war during 1970s where deadly agents like Agent orange were used. 4th and last phase include the time of biological and technological revolution where genetic engineering techniques were at their peak."

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13.04.2021

"COVID-19 As an Agent of Change in World Order"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/04/13/covid-19-as-an-agent-of-change-in-world-order/

Nauman Ahmad Bhatti skizziert den Einfluss, den die COVID-19-Pandemie auf die bestehende Weltordnung haben könnte: "COVID-19 pandemic alone may not change the World Order altogether. The transitions brought by the pandemic in the international system are likely to decide the leader of global political order. (…) If the United States or China succumbs to vaccine nationalism - the practice to limit the dosage of COVID-19 vaccine to domestic use - it will be difficult for them to ally other states in their vision of the new World Order."

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16.03.2021

"The Arctic Silk Road: Belt And Road In North Dimention. Fight For The North"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/03/16/the-arctic-silk-road-belt-and-road-in-north-dimention-fight-for-the
-north/

Maria Smotrytska analysiert die sicherheitspolitische, infrastrukturelle und wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Arktis für Chinas "Belt and Road"-Initiative: "Today the Arctic is one of the world's key regions both economically and in terms of military security. The melting of glaciers opens up not only previously inaccessible territories, but also prospects for global economic and geopolitical rivalry in the Northern hemisphere (…). (…) (T)he favorable geographical significance and resource potential of the region make the Arctic one of the key maritime links of the Chinese Belt and Road initiative (…)."

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01.03.2021

"The European Union and Russia: To talk or not to talk and about what?"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/03/01/the-european-union-and-russia-to-talk-or-not-to-talk-and-about-what
/

Warum führte die jüngste Reise des EU-Außenbeauftragten Josep Borrell nach Moskau nicht zur erhofften Verbesserung der Beziehungen zwischen Russland und der Europäischen Union? Rein Mullerson geht dieser Frage nach. "The failure of Borrell's mission was (…) predetermined by what the High Representative himself called 'the DNA' of the European Union - the concern for human rights, particularly in States that don't belong to the Union. (...) He even demanded Navalny's 'immediate and unconditional release'. And only then came issues of bilateral cooperation between the EU and Russia. This was an absolutely wrong, even disastrous, way to start a dialogue. The European Union is not a human rights NGO, like the Amnesty International or the Human Rights Watch, and even if it has a human rights mandate, then only vis-à-vis its member-States."

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01.03.2021

"New Wars"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/03/01/new-wars/

Ahmed Jawad beleuchtet, wie sich Kriege im 20. und 21. Jahrhundert voneinander unterscheiden: "(The) Twentieth century was (…) marked by the deadliest wars, deadliest weapons and unprecedented interconnectedness. The destructive power of A-bombs and the interconnectedness that transformed world into a global village infused traditional wisdom of conflict resolution with great confusions. (…) War in twenty first century has acquired a whole new character. (…) Wars of today are not fought between states rather there is network of state and non-state actors (…). (…) (I)t is not the change in military logic and innovation of new types of weapons that have transformed the character of war. Rather transformation in politics is the defining element of this change. Politics of 'new wars' is Identity politics which is very different from politics of old wars."

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17.02.2021

"Corona pandemic: Realism limitation in solving 21st century security threats"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/02/17/corona-pandemic-realism-limitation-in-solving-21st-century-security
-threats/

Pourya Nabipour diskutiert die politikwissenschaftliche Theorie des Realismus mit Blick auf die COVID-19-Pandemie: "The argument is that realism has a valid logic and reasons for confidence since answers to the pandemic have confirmed the supremacy of sovereign states, the grounds for the state's power competition. Nevertheless, the pandemic also presents realism's weaknesses as a source for successful policy answer to this security challenge. In other words, realism is better at defining risks and threats than suggesting solutions. Put simply, realism's explanatory power lies in diagnosis rather than treatment or prevention."

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12.02.2021

"COVID sparks resurgence of ISIL terrorists, threatening international peace and security"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/02/12/covid-sparks-resurgence-of-isil-terrorists-threatening-internationa
l-peace-and-security/

Die Terrororganisation "Islamischer Staat" sei infolge der COVID-19-Pandemie wieder auf dem Vormarsch, warne laut Modern Diplomacy der Untergeneralsekretär für Terrorismusbekämpfung bei den Vereinten Nationen, Vladimir Voronkov. "'While ISIL has not developed a purposeful strategy to exploit the pandemic, its efforts to regroup and to reinvigorate its activities [has] gained further momentum', he said. (…) At the same time, the pandemic's socio-economic toll and political fallout could further render individuals receptive to radicalization and recruitment."

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03.02.2021

"Conquering The North: The Battle For The Arctic"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/02/03/conquering-the-north-the-battle-for-the-arctic/

Spannungen in der Arktischen See hätten in den vergangenen Jahren zugenommen, analysiert Maria Smotrytska. "Due to its special geographical location, large reserves of natural resources, defense, scientific, and environmental significance, the Arctic is a place where many countries' interests intersect. Thus, tensions between the leading countries are increasing all over the world and will inevitably flow to the Arctic. (…) (W)hoever controls the Arctic will largely control the world economy".

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03.02.2021

"Diplomats from Middle Powers, prepare for Great Power Campaigns"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/02/03/diplomats-from-middle-powers-prepare-for-great-power-campaigns/

Die Pandemie verstärke die Spaltung der Welt, führe zu weniger Kooperation und schwäche das Vertrauen in den Multilateralismus, analysiert Radu Magdin. Für Mittelmächte könne dies negative Auswirkungen haben, gleichzeitig aber auch eine Chance darstellen. "Middle powers, states which have a regional voice and the ability to shape international events, could be in danger of being caught in the crossfire of the rivalry between great powers such as the United States and China (…). But the middle powers are also faced with an opportunity window now - to play a more important role in the world and international structures, to act as stabilizers in a tumultuous international environment, to cooperate with other similar-sized, like-minded countries, and together promote adherence to the traditional rules of the game, slightly tweaked for this new context."

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02.02.2021

"Should China and Russia Form an Alliance?"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/02/02/should-china-and-russia-form-an-alliance/

Zhao Huasheng erörtert die Vor- und Nachteile einer Allianz zwischen China und Russland für die strategischen Interessen der beiden Staaten und kommt hierbei zu der Schlussfolgerung: "China and Russia should maintain a strategic partnership, take full use of the possibilities it contains, and leave the door to alliance open. The two countries should not set limits on their strategic choices. Under the condition that international situation continues to deteriorate, China and Russia's strategic and military security threats are likely to increase. At a certain critical point, the alliance may become a practical need for China and Russia."

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26.01.2021

"The strategic thinking behind the EU-China investment deal"

https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/01/26/the-strategic-thinking-behind-the-eu-china-investment-deal/

Hinter dem neuen Investitionsabkommen zwischen China und der EU stecke Yuan Jiang zufolge mehr strategisches Denken, als auf den ersten Blick zu erkennen sei. Die EU habe geopolitische Kalkulation über ideologische Unterschiede gestellt, und auch das Verhältnis zu den USA habe die Entscheidung in Brüssel beeinflusst. "Sensibly, the EU is adopting an independent foreign policy to maintain autonomy between China and the US. More notably, as a third party during the Sino-American power competition, having signed a deal with Beijing, Brussels may possibly request Washington to offer more, thus maximizing its geopolitical and commercial interests."

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05.02.2017

"The Importance of Maintaining The Balance of Power"

http://moderndiplomacy.eu/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=2222:the-importance-of-maintaining-the-bal
ance-of-power&Itemid=150

Rahul D. Manchanda erläutert in seinem Essay, warum das Prinzip des Gleichgewichts der Kräfte zwischen Großmächten in den internationalen Beziehungen auch heute noch von großer Bedeutung sei. Dies gelte entgegen der Ansicht mancher Experten auch für die USA nach dem Ende des Kalten Krieges. "For example, Council on Foreign Relations ('CFR') member and CNN host Fareed Zakaria asked 'Why is no one ganging up against the United States?' John Ikenberry and John M. Owen asked the same question. Two American Neo-Con leaders, Robert Kagan and William Kristol, completely agreed when they said that 'today’s international system is built not around a balance of power but around American hegemony.' However what these critics fail to notice is that these other major great powers are merely waiting for the USA to exhaust itself militarily, financially, and existentially, so that knocking it over would be an easy task – this is why the USA needs to pull out or cease from rampant military adventurism and instead focus on forging alliances and working relationships with the other great powers and to avoid any and all military conflict, completely and finally. This is the only way it can hope to maintain its power."

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