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Country Profiles

Citizenship Education in Austria


Citizenship Education in Austria

In the early 20th century, when the general right to vote was introduced for men, a formal introduction to political information for citizens was established. The goal was to create a positive attitude towards the existing social and political system. What was mainly taught was information about political institutions. Citizenship education for adults was first organised by associations dedicated to workers‘ and general adult education as well as middle-class readers‘ and literature clubs. Their efforts were driven by the emancipative goal of empowerment.

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Civic education in Bulgaria


Citizenship Education in Bulgaria

In 1909 Bulgaria ratified the Public Education Act, a piece of legislation which instituted a relatively modern system of civic education. After the end of World War II, the communist regime came to power in Bulgaria and education became a powerful tool. The strong ideological emphasis placed on education was observed both in the educational process and in the extracurricular activities. Looking back on recent decades there is hardly any evidence of legal or public undertakings concerning civic education between 1989 and 1995, when Bulgaria signed the Association Agreement with the EU. Currently (2015) a new bill submitted to the National Assembly attempts to update the current system when it comes to specific skills, knowledge and competences.

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Citizenship education in the Czech Republic

Czech Republic

Citizenship Education in the Czech Republic

Citizenship education in the Czech Republic has a long tradition, reaching back to the 19th century. The first law on citizenship education was adopted in 1919, three months after the creation of independent republic. Ondřej Matějka, historian and leading expert on citizenship education, believes that this period resulted in a positive legacy: strong democratic ethos and a relatively long tradition of civil society and an experience with modern society.

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Citizenship Education in Croatia

The development of policy, theory and practice of citizenship education in Croatia should be seen in conjunction with the building-up of a democratic state after decades of communist regime in the context of war in which the country’s territorial integration was threatened. Both led to the lack of appreciation that the protection of national interests and the strengthening of democracy were two interrelated and interdependent processes in the centre of which is emancipated citizenry.

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Civic Education in Denmark


Citizenship Education in Denmark

From a general theoretical point of view, citizenship education could be said to refer to those processes of teaching through which individuals and groups of people learn to think and act as members of political and/or cultural communities. In that sense, citizenship education is as old as the formal educational system itself. With the establishing of the formal, state-sponsored school system during the 19th century, citizenship education of formal education was closely connected with the aim of promoting national-Christian cultural citizenship – that is, promoting national identity with

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Civic Education in Egypt


Citizenship Education in Egypt

In the Egyptian context, there are two ministries that are mainly concerned with citizenship education, the Ministry of Education (MoE) which is mainly concerned with the schooling system and the Ministry of Youth (MoY) which organizes activities and camps for youth as extra-curricular activities. For the purpose of this study, the efforts done within this framework will be referred to as Formal. On the other hand, the Non-formal sector is any non-governmental organization, whether registered in the Ministry of Social Solidarity (MoSS) or not registered or social enterprises, in other words Civil Society Organizations (CSOs).

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Civic Education in Germany


Citizenship Education in Germany

Since its inception, the field of citizenship education has exclusively focused on the transmission of knowledge and the ways in which the political world could be understood. Since the 1960s, new approaches have broadened and deepened the conceptions and expectations of citizenship education, which has since developed into academic discipline that involves empirical research, (normative) reflection, planning and implementation of learning processes.

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Citizenship Education in Jordan – In Editing

Jordanian citizenship is different from the traditional Western definition of citizenship, but its understanding is crucial to Jordanians, since the country is the centre of the international political and ideological debate. We can refer to Jordanian citizenship as hybrid (Kubow and Kreishan, 2014), adopting the definition of hybrid sovereignty, in which "the modern and the traditional coexist behind the formal appearance of statehood"

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Country Profile Morocco


Country Profile Morocco

Morocco has been experiencing many social political changes since the coronation of King Mohammed VI in 1999. His reign has been a period of significant social, economic and technological change, aimed to build new relationships among individual citizens and state institutions on the basis of laws that shaped modern discussions of citizenship education and human development. As a matter of fact, citizenship education has been increasing substantially in recent years at all levels of society.

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Country Profile Netherlands


Citizenship education in the Netherlands

In 2012, media reports about the low levels of civic competences of the Dutch youth in comparison to teenagers in 37 other countries lead to a discussion about the causes of this backlog (Obbink, 2012). Even though citizenship education is prioritized, the debate about the implementation and the level of monitoring continues.

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Country Profile Poland


Citizenship Education in Poland

Not many countries can boast as long a tradition of citizenship education as Poland. In 1773, right before Poland lost its independence, the Commission of National Education (KEN) was established, one of the first ministries of education in the world. To use modern language, it was precisely citizenship education that KEN deemed one of the essential

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Country Profile Slovenia


Citizenship Education in Slovenia

The formation and systematization of citizenship education in Slovenia since its independence in 1991 is a historical process of gradual changes driven by multiple causes and factors, among which are modifications of Slovenian (formal) education system, novel socio-political realities at the national, the European and the global level, and, at least in part, by the competing political (ideological) outlooks on what should be the main aim of citizenship education.

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Country Profile Spain


Citizenship Education in Spain

The educational system during the period of Franco’s rule (1939-1975) was influenced by Catholic and Christian values, as the Church occupied an important place in the lives of many Spanish people. At the time citizenship education programs focused on promoting patriotism, assimilation, Christian ethics, and indoctrinating citizens in government adherent values. This historical period is compared to

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Country Profile UK


Citizenship Education in the UK

Despite its global reputation for promoting parliamentary democracy it is surprising that England does not have a long track record in citizenship education. Citizenship only became a formal curriculum subject for 11 to 16 year olds, for the first time in 2002. Prior to this, there was no official national policy to guide teaching and

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Country Profile Tunisia


Citizenship Education in Tunisia

The premises of citizenship education date back to French colonial times when this subject was introduced as part of the Shariaa science subject, explaining and spreading general notions and concepts pertaining to justice, peace, freedom, and efforts aimed at preserving Tunisian national identity in the face of French occupation which was striving to distort Tunisian identity and culture and violate the rights of Tunisian people.

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Country Profile Tunisia


Citizenship Education in Tunisia

تعود بدايات تشكل التربية على المواطنة لفترة الاستعمار الفرنسي لتونس حيث كانت تندرج في إطار مادة العلوم الشرعية من خلال الترويج لمعاني عامة كالعدالة والسلام والحرية والعمل على الحفاظ على الهوية الوطنية التونسية في مواجهة الاستعمار الذي كان يحاول طمس الهوية والثقافة التونسية وينتهك حقوق التونسيين. بعد الاستقلال وبالشروع في وضع المناهج التعليمة تم ادراج مادة التربية على المواطنة في البرنامج الرسمية لكن دون استراتيجية واضحة فقد اندرجت في إطار مشروع كبير يتعلق بتعميم وتونسة التعليم. اتسمت هذه الفترة بمواصلة التمشي القائم فترة الاستعمار حيث تم ادراج المادة في حصص مع مواد أخرى حيث جاء في تقرير اليونسكو بعنوان التربية المدنية في 5 دول أعضاء في القسم المتعلق بالجمهورية التونسية من خلال جدول المواد التعليمية في الجدول الخامس أن التربية المدنية تدرس بداية من السنة الخامسة ابتدائي مع مجموعة مواد هي التربية الإسلامية والتربية الاجتماعية والتاريخ.

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تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

Here you can find the Arabic version of this Publication.

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European societies, albeit at different paces, have undergone profound changes in the fabric of their populations due to EU enlargement, European Citizenship, globalization and migration processes. Traditional concepts of citizenship and citizenship education in Europe have to be revised in the light of these developments.

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Associated Partner / Organisations / Projects

Within the NECE Database we gathered projects of associeated Organizations and their projects regarding citizenship education. Add your Project or Organization to help other People creating their own projects.

Tip: By using the "topics / subjects"-filter you can search for euro-mediterranean projects within the database.


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NECE Newsletter 03/2020

#digitalNECE #NECEcampus
Auf der findet ihr weitere Informationen zum NECE Campus.

Useful information ahead of the EU elections on
Going to the polls can make a difference, as Brexit and other electoral shocks have shown. Elections do matter! Read more about it here.

Interview with Sarah de Lange
Our new Advisory Board member, Sarah de Lange, introduces herself to NECE. Read the interview here.

NECE Conference 2018: Brave new Worlds?! The Future of Democracy and Citizenship Education
6 - 9 September 2018, Marseille (France)
Conference documentation available here.

Lorenzo Marsili on the parliamentary elections in Italy
NECE asked Lorenzo Marsili in what way the results of the parliamentary elections in Italy fit in Europe’s current political landscape. Read the comment here.

bpb statement to the Public consultation on EU funds in the area of values and mobility
The consultation took place as part of the preparations for the Multiannual Financial Framework which will define and shape the EU Budget after 2020. Click here for the PDF-Icon statement and the PDF-Icon questionnaire.

DARE (Democracy and Human Rights Education in Europe) Mini-conference on Populism and Democratic Resilience
14 June 2018 in Nafplio, Greece
Find out more

25th EUROCLIO Annual Conference and Professional Training and Development Course: Mediterranean Dialogue
April 21-26 2018 in Marseille
Find out more

Eurydice Brief: Citizenship Education at School in Europe – 2017
In an age where the importance of citizenship education is becoming apparent to deal with the current threats to fundamental European values, many countries are implementing changes in their national policies. Read more here

NAME CHANGE: “Hard to Reach” Focus Group now “All-in network” - Your chance to get involved!
Labelling learners as “Hard to Reach” immediately suggests that the problem lies with the learner rather than the educational system.
Find out more

MAPPING TRANSITION IN EASTERN EUROPE: Experience of Change after the End of Communism, edited by Louisa Slavkova
Click here for the publication

Civic Education in Eastern Europe - bpb publishes collection of essays as free e-book
The publication is available in English and Russian language.