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Background Information

Important aspects that influence citizenship education in a country.
Every country has a different system of citizenship education, resulting from the specific background and historical developments. This section will help you understand the emergence and specific nature of citizenship education in the different countries.

Questions regarded are for example: "What is the last major turning point that influenced the country?" "How are the national processes influenced by international organisations?" "What were the original reasons to implement citizenship education?"

Citizenship Education in Austria

Background Information: Austria

In the early 20th century, when the general right to vote was introduced for men, a formal introduction to political information for citizens, called Bürgerkunde, was established. The goal was to create a positive attitude towards the existing social and political system. What was mainly taught was information about political

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Civic education in Bulgaria

Background Information: Bulgaria

The first law on education in post-liberation Bulgaria (Bulgaria was under Ottoman rule between 1396 and 1878) was passed in 1891 by example of the French education system. A relatively modern system of citizenship education, compared to established Western European traditions. The compulsory subject of citizenship education was integrated into the secondary education. Students were introduced to topics such as democracy and its principles, the Constitution

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Citizenship education in the Czech Republic

Background information: Czech Republic

Citizenship education in the Czech Republic has a long tradition, reaching back to the 19th century. The first law on citizenship education was adopted on 7 February 1919, three months after the creation of independent republic. Ondřej Matějka, a historian and leading expert on citizenship education, believes that this period resulted in a positive legacy: strong democratic ethos; the above mentioned act; a relatively long tradition of civil society and an experience with modern society.

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Civic Education in Denmark

Background information: Denmark

From a general theoretical point of view, citizenship education could be said to refer to those processes of teaching through which individuals and groups of people learn to think and act as members of political and/or cultural communities. In that sense, citizenship education is as old as the formal educational system itself. With the establishing of the formal, state-sponsored school system during the 19th century, citizenship education of formal education was closely connected with

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Civic Education in Egypt

Background information: Egypt

In the Egyptian context, there are two ministries that are mainly concerned with citizenship education, the Ministry of Education (MoE) which is mainly concerned with the schooling system and the Ministry of Youth (MoY) which organizes activities and camps for youth as extra-curricular activities.

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Civic Education in Germany

Background Information: Germany

Since its inception, the field of citizenship education has exclusively focused on the transmission of knowledge and the ways in which the political world could be understood. Since the 1960s, new approaches have broadened and deepened the conceptions and expectations of

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Country Profile Morocco

Background information: Morocco

Morocco has been experiencing many social political changes since the coronation of His Majesty King Mohammed VI in 1999. His reign has been a period of significant social, economic and technological change, aimed to build new relationships among individual citizens and state institutions on the basis of laws that shaped modern discussions of citizenship education and human development

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Country Profile Netherlands

Background Information: Netherlands

Throughout the Dutch history government interference concerning citizenship education has been part of a larger debate about the freedom of education. The pillarized educational system (1917-1967) played a key role in the existence of the political and denominational segregation of Dutch society. This segregation separated the Dutch youth in different social circles and this lead to

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Country Profile Poland

Background information: Poland

Not many countries can boast as long a tradition of citizenship education as Poland. In 1773, right before Poland lost its independence, the Commission of National Education (KEN) was established, one of the first ministries of education in the world.

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Country Profile Slovenia

Background Information: Slovenia

The formation and systematization of citizenship education in Slovenia since its independence in 1991 is a historical process of gradual changes driven by multiple causes and factors, among which are modifications of Slovenian (formal) education system, novel socio-political realities at the national, the European and the global level, and, at least in part, by the competing political (ideological) outlooks on what should be the main aim of citizenship education.

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Country Profile Spain

Background information: Spain

The educational system during the period of Franco’s rule (1939-1975) was influenced by Catholic and Christian values, as the Church occupied an important place in the lives of many Spanish people. At the time citizenship education programs focused on promoting patriotism, assimilation, Christian ethics, and indoctrinating citizens in government adherent values. This historical period is

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Country Profile Tunisia

Background information: Tunisia

The premises of citizenship education date back to French colonial times when this subject was introduced as part of the Shariaa science subject, explaining and spreading general notions and concepts pertaining to justice, peace, freedom, and efforts aimed at preserving Tunisian national identity in the face of French occupation which was striving to distort

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Country Profile UK

Background information: UK

Despite its global reputation for promoting parliamentary democracy it is surprising that England does not have a long track record in citizenship education. Citizenship only became a formal curriculum subject for 11 to 16 year olds, for the first time in 2002. Prior to this, there was no official national policy to guide

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تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

Here you can find the Arabic version of this Publication.

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European societies, albeit at different paces, have undergone profound changes in the fabric of their populations due to EU enlargement, European Citizenship, globalization and migration processes. Traditional concepts of citizenship and citizenship education in Europe have to be revised in the light of these developments.

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Associated Partner / Organisations / Projects

Within the NECE Database we gathered projects of associeated Organizations and their projects regarding citizenship education. Add your Project or Organization to help other People creating their own projects.

Tip: By using the "topics / subjects"-filter you can search for euro-mediterranean projects within the database.


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NECE Newsletter 03/2020

#digitalNECE #NECEcampus
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Useful information ahead of the EU elections on
Going to the polls can make a difference, as Brexit and other electoral shocks have shown. Elections do matter! Read more about it here.

Interview with Sarah de Lange
Our new Advisory Board member, Sarah de Lange, introduces herself to NECE. Read the interview here.

NECE Conference 2018: Brave new Worlds?! The Future of Democracy and Citizenship Education
6 - 9 September 2018, Marseille (France)
Conference documentation available here.

Lorenzo Marsili on the parliamentary elections in Italy
NECE asked Lorenzo Marsili in what way the results of the parliamentary elections in Italy fit in Europe’s current political landscape. Read the comment here.

bpb statement to the Public consultation on EU funds in the area of values and mobility
The consultation took place as part of the preparations for the Multiannual Financial Framework which will define and shape the EU Budget after 2020. Click here for the PDF-Icon statement and the PDF-Icon questionnaire.

DARE (Democracy and Human Rights Education in Europe) Mini-conference on Populism and Democratic Resilience
14 June 2018 in Nafplio, Greece
Find out more

25th EUROCLIO Annual Conference and Professional Training and Development Course: Mediterranean Dialogue
April 21-26 2018 in Marseille
Find out more

Eurydice Brief: Citizenship Education at School in Europe – 2017
In an age where the importance of citizenship education is becoming apparent to deal with the current threats to fundamental European values, many countries are implementing changes in their national policies. Read more here

NAME CHANGE: “Hard to Reach” Focus Group now “All-in network” - Your chance to get involved!
Labelling learners as “Hard to Reach” immediately suggests that the problem lies with the learner rather than the educational system.
Find out more

MAPPING TRANSITION IN EASTERN EUROPE: Experience of Change after the End of Communism, edited by Louisa Slavkova
Click here for the publication

Civic Education in Eastern Europe - bpb publishes collection of essays as free e-book
The publication is available in English and Russian language.