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What is the aim of citizenship education - to educate citizens to be patriots or to be critical about the realities on the ground? Is it supposed to focus on knowledge or rather on skills? This section is dedicated to information about existing definitions in the different countries.

Citizenship Education in Austria

Definition: Austria

The Decree on Citizenship Education in Schools specifies a framework of content and didactics for formal education. It starts from a very wide definition of politics. According to the Austrian Ministry of Education, Citizenship Education comprises human rights education

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Civic education in Bulgaria

Definition: Bulgaria

Two principal normative documents define citizenship education in Bulgaria. As mentioned above, the first is the Level of Schooling, General Educational Minimum and Curriculum Act, according to which the general cultural and educational spheres comprise of "social sciences, citizenship education and religion" (Article 10, Section 4). The second document is Ordinance No 2 for Educational content from 18 May 2000

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Citizenship education in the Czech Republic

Definition: Czech Republic

There is no official definition of citizenship education. Initial concepts defined in 2008 and 2009 emphasized core principles rather than definitions, trying to firmly establish the field as a part of liberal democracy and defend it from accusations of indoctrination, propaganda and political manipulation. The German example proved useful, particularly the principles defined in Beutelsbach Consensus

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Civic Education in Denmark

Definition: Denmark

Within the field of formal education, the notion ‘citizenship´ (= medborgerskab) is used explicitly only within the official curricular guidelines of bachelor of education, bachelor of social education, within specific branches of formal vocational education, and within what is called language centers. The latter are specialized schools that

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Civic Education in Egypt

Definition: Egypt

According to a publication issued by the MoE in 2003[1], CE is based on eight core principles: 1) civic education (duties and rights); 2) life skills (negotiation, cooperation, tolerance, and managing diversity); 3) government system (democracy, constitution, People’s Council, elections, citizens’ role in elections); 4) preserving heritage (Arab and Egyptian heritage, Islamic and Coptic heritage, Arab and Egyptian values and traditions); 5) Egypt’s relations with other countries (on the Arab, Islamic, African and global levels)

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Civic Education in Germany

Definition: Germany

The definite definition of civic education has long been contested. The debate centres on what knowledge should be applied, what academic disciplines are most worth considering regarding the topics of citizenship education content and which conceptual frameworks are most promising in regard to an efficient and meaningful teaching and learning

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Country Profile Morocco

Definition: Morocco

The term citizenship education is becoming more and more frequently used at schools and civil society organisations in various educational discourses. However, one can rarely hear this term in the public space. There are reasons for this, both objective and subjective. First, there is no consensus on the meaning of citizenship education. Second, the term citizenship education is not explicitly mentioned in the legislative texts.

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Country Profile Netherlands

Definition: Netherlands

A definition of citizenship can be derived from the task given by the government to schools as described in the Law on the Enhancement of Active Citizenship and Social Integration: ‘Education departs from the assumption that students grow up in a pluralistic society, aims to promotion of active citizenship and social integration, and is directed towards

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Country Profile Poland

Definition: Poland

Subsequent governments introduced school reforms, repeatedly changing the national curriculum, but fundamental subject matters remained to a large degree unchanged: an individual in a society, active citizenship, political system and public life, law and human rights, challenges for Europe and the contemporary world, plus – in lower-secondary schools – economy, market and entrepreneurship.

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Country Profile Slovenia

Definition: Slovenia

In Slovenia, there is no single definition of citizenship education recognized as official or referred to by all the stakeholders in the field. Nevertheless, there are some key documents and reference points that are usually used when defining the meaning of citizenship education.

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Country Profile Spain

Definition: Spain

The Spanish Royal Decree 1631/2006 define the objectives of citizenship education “to promote the development of free and upright people through nurturing self-esteem, personal dignity, freedom and responsibility and the formation of future citizens with discretion, respect, equity and solidarity, they know their rights, assume his duties and develop civic habits so that they can effectively exercise citizenship and responsible”. Using formal, non-formal, and informal learning methods,

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Country Profile Tunisia

Definition: Tunisia

Despite the numerous reforms and development operations witnessed by citizenship education, no definition has been found to it in the official syllabus. Nonetheless, one can draw a definition through the exhibition of the objectives that are found in the different official orientation documents.

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Country Profile UK

Definition: UK

The nearest thing to a definition of citizenship education is the Purpose of Study statement for the 2014 Citizenship National Curriculum which states that: ‘A high-quality citizenship education helps to provide pupils with knowledge, skills and understanding to prepare them to play a full and active part in society. In particular, citizenship education should

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تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

Here you can find the Arabic version of this Publication.

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European societies, albeit at different paces, have undergone profound changes in the fabric of their populations due to EU enlargement, European Citizenship, globalization and migration processes. Traditional concepts of citizenship and citizenship education in Europe have to be revised in the light of these developments.

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Associated Partner / Organisations / Projects

Within the NECE Database we gathered projects of associeated Organizations and their projects regarding citizenship education. Add your Project or Organization to help other People creating their own projects.

Tip: By using the "topics / subjects"-filter you can search for euro-mediterranean projects within the database.

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NECE Newsletter 03/2020
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Interview with Sarah de Lange
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NECE Conference 2018: Brave new Worlds?! The Future of Democracy and Citizenship Education
6 - 9 September 2018, Marseille (France)
Conference documentation available here.

Lorenzo Marsili on the parliamentary elections in Italy
NECE asked Lorenzo Marsili in what way the results of the parliamentary elections in Italy fit in Europe’s current political landscape. Read the comment here.

bpb statement to the Public consultation on EU funds in the area of values and mobility
The consultation took place as part of the preparations for the Multiannual Financial Framework which will define and shape the EU Budget after 2020. Click here for the PDF-Icon statement and the PDF-Icon questionnaire.

DARE (Democracy and Human Rights Education in Europe) Mini-conference on Populism and Democratic Resilience
14 June 2018 in Nafplio, Greece
Find out more

25th EUROCLIO Annual Conference and Professional Training and Development Course: Mediterranean Dialogue
April 21-26 2018 in Marseille
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Eurydice Brief: Citizenship Education at School in Europe – 2017
In an age where the importance of citizenship education is becoming apparent to deal with the current threats to fundamental European values, many countries are implementing changes in their national policies. Read more here

NAME CHANGE: “Hard to Reach” Focus Group now “All-in network” - Your chance to get involved!
Labelling learners as “Hard to Reach” immediately suggests that the problem lies with the learner rather than the educational system.
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MAPPING TRANSITION IN EASTERN EUROPE: Experience of Change after the End of Communism, edited by Louisa Slavkova
Click here for the publication

Civic Education in Eastern Europe - bpb publishes collection of essays as free e-book
The publication is available in English and Russian language.