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Legal environment

Legal Environment
While some countries do not have acting legislation about citizenship education, it represents an important framework in others. In this section you can obtain a comparison of the legal framework in each country.

Citizenship Education in Austria

Legal environment: Austria

Curricula for schools are decreed centrally by the Austrian Ministry of Education. If the occasion arises, additional guidelines or circulars provide a framework for implementing classes. A text book campaign

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Civic education in Bulgaria

Legal environment: Bulgaria

What is currently being discussed, although somewhat marginally, is the scope of citizenship education. The present debate mirrors the gaps in the bill, namely a) how do we understand citizenship education beyond educational institutions, b) whether citizenship education should be introduced as a separate subject, and if yes c) which classes are to be taught and how should teachers’ training and the curriculum be organised. To support this discussion

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Citizenship education in the Czech Republic

Legal environment: Czech Republic

Citizenship education in the Czech Republic is not governed by a specific law. After persistent and systematic lobbying, the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic adopted a declaratory Resolution in support of citizenship education on 30th of October 2014

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Civic Education in Denmark

Legal environment: Denmark

n legal terms, citizenship education, understood as part of a discourse of democratic education, found its way into formal education as part of a reform of the primary school in 1975, as mentioned above. In different versions, this overall legal framework of the primary school, has been an often used legal point of reference point within different sectors of the educational system ever since.

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Civic Education in Egypt

Legal environment: Egypt

According to Article 19 in the Egyptian Constitution 2014, “Every citizen has the right to education. The goals of education are to build the Egyptian character, preserve the national identity … and found the concepts of citizenship, tolerance and non-discrimination. The State shall observe the goals of education in the educational curricula and methods, and provide education in accordance with international quality standards.”

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Civic Education in Germany

Legal environment: Germany

Citizenship education in schools is categorized under the cultural authority of the German Länder, which means its importance as a subject varies from federal state to federal state. With regard to its place in curriculum, citizenship education is structured as its own subject. While situated within a normative

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Country Profile Morocco

Legal environment: Morocco

Citizenship education in the Moroccan context is not regulated by law; however, the 2011 constitutional reform in Morocco formalized the purposes of citizenship education in the first paragraph of the Constitution

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Country Profile Netherlands

Legal environment: Netherlands

The Law on the Enhancement of Active Citizenship and Social Integration was adopted in 2005 and implemented in 2006. Schools of all levels (primary, secondary and special education) have the task to promote active citizenship and social integration. Schools are obliged to promote active citizenship and social

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Country Profile Poland

Legal environment: Poland

The national curriculum for general education in its preamble states that the mission of the school is to form attitudes that condition efficient and responsible functioning in the modern world, while supporting personal and social development of the students. The curriculum lists such values as integrity, responsibility, self-esteem, entrepreneurship, willingness to participate in teamwork, and citizenship attitude in general.

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Country Profile Slovenia

Legal environment: Slovenia

Key framework and legislative documents for the current systematization and definition of citizenship education within formal education are White Paper on Education in the Republic of Slovenia adopted in 2011, Basic School Act from 2007 and Organization and Financing of Education Act from 2008.

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Country Profile Spain

Legal environment: Spain

After Franco’s death and with the beginning of a new democratic era, it was the 1978 constitution that marked a new beginning in defining citizenship in Spain. The country’s constitution spoke of issues such as justice, freedom, liberty, democracy, rule of law, and human rights. In 1976 Adolfo Suarez’s government approved

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Country Profile UK

Legal environment: UK

Citizenship is a statutory National Curriculum subject for all 11 to 16 year olds in state secondary schools with all students having an entitlement to Citizenship teaching and learning. It is part of a non-statutory framework alongside Personal Social and Health Education (PSHE) for all 5 to 10 year olds in primary schools. Schools also have a legal responsibility to show how they are developing community cohesion, since 2007, and promoting fundamental British values, since 2014.

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تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

Here you can find the Arabic version of this Publication.

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European societies, albeit at different paces, have undergone profound changes in the fabric of their populations due to EU enlargement, European Citizenship, globalization and migration processes. Traditional concepts of citizenship and citizenship education in Europe have to be revised in the light of these developments.

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Associated Partner / Organisations / Projects

Within the NECE Database we gathered projects of associeated Organizations and their projects regarding citizenship education. Add your Project or Organization to help other People creating their own projects.

Tip: By using the "topics / subjects"-filter you can search for euro-mediterranean projects within the database.


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NECE Newsletter 03/2020

#digitalNECE #NECEcampus
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Useful information ahead of the EU elections on
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Interview with Sarah de Lange
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NECE Conference 2018: Brave new Worlds?! The Future of Democracy and Citizenship Education
6 - 9 September 2018, Marseille (France)
Conference documentation available here.

Lorenzo Marsili on the parliamentary elections in Italy
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bpb statement to the Public consultation on EU funds in the area of values and mobility
The consultation took place as part of the preparations for the Multiannual Financial Framework which will define and shape the EU Budget after 2020. Click here for the PDF-Icon statement and the PDF-Icon questionnaire.

DARE (Democracy and Human Rights Education in Europe) Mini-conference on Populism and Democratic Resilience
14 June 2018 in Nafplio, Greece
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25th EUROCLIO Annual Conference and Professional Training and Development Course: Mediterranean Dialogue
April 21-26 2018 in Marseille
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Eurydice Brief: Citizenship Education at School in Europe – 2017
In an age where the importance of citizenship education is becoming apparent to deal with the current threats to fundamental European values, many countries are implementing changes in their national policies. Read more here

NAME CHANGE: “Hard to Reach” Focus Group now “All-in network” - Your chance to get involved!
Labelling learners as “Hard to Reach” immediately suggests that the problem lies with the learner rather than the educational system.
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MAPPING TRANSITION IN EASTERN EUROPE: Experience of Change after the End of Communism, edited by Louisa Slavkova
Click here for the publication

Civic Education in Eastern Europe - bpb publishes collection of essays as free e-book
The publication is available in English and Russian language.