NECE Exchange

9.6.2016 | Von:
Editorial Team

The Making of Citizens in Europe and North Africa - Work in Progress


The Making of Citizens in Europe and North Africa emerged as a platform within the framework of NECE’s Focus Group "Exchange between Europe and North Africa", established at the NECE Conference 2012 in Cordoba. The growing need to share practices and experience across the Mediterranean became evident, especially after 2011.

Being a work in progress, the platform is launched with nine country profiles, covering citizenship education in countries from both Europe and North Africa. The ambition of the team is to upgrade the collection with more countries and background information, to be of use for both practitioners and academics alike. In addition to the profiles, the platform aims to cover thematic areas relevant to citizenship, such as citizenship education for youth.

The goal of the platform, similar to the mission of the Focus Group is to:
  • Provide information about the history and trends in citizenship education in countries in Europe and North Africa, focusing on the specific environment in which citizenship education evolves;
  • Contribute to the international exchange, debates and research on citizenship education, it´s frameworks and approaches;
  • Enable comparison and draft recommendations, based on analysis.
We understand "Citizenship Education" as a relatively wide concept that allows the integration of different interpretations in the countries, mirrored in the platform. The Council of Europe´s definition on Education for Democratic Citizenship is a common point of reference[1]. The variety of definitions, references and terminologies can be found in each of the articles and are further explained for information. The different understandings of the same concepts are both a challenge and a gain. They give a glimpse into the different circumstances, be them societal or political that framed citizenship education in the respective country. While in the Egyptian context formal education is understood as capturing educational activities by all public bodies, in Germany it describes only activities, delivered by the public educational system (school, university, vocational training); any other activities are understood as non-formal, even though they are part of the work of public institutions, such as the bpb.

The current selection of country profiles does not claim to be exhaustive. Still, diversity of size and experience was aimed for. The platform of NECE proved to be a valuable pool for experts and scholars, representing the diversity of the geographical region itself. Members from the NECE Focus Group from Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia [2] did extensive research in order to depict citizenship education in their countries, as did their counterparts from the other side of the Mediterranean. The later were chosen to represent European countries alongside criteria of geography, EU membership (newer and older members) and transitional experience. The variety of articles provides invaluable insights about the current situation of Citizenship Education. The situation varies from country to country due to academic discussions as well as availability and accessibility of data and literature. A valuable touch is added by the personal assessment of each and every author, passionate for civic education in their own way, be it academic, of a practitioner or of an activist. While a basic structure applies to all papers, a great deal of liberty has been given to allow for different methodologies and approaches to be accommodated. Still, it allows comparison between the different subsections of the profiles. The entire content will be available both in English and Arabic.

Being work in progress, the platform will continue to be updated and we are looking forward to your feedback and comments.


It was a pragmatic decision to start with those North African countries that were represented in the Focus Group. The profiles of other countries will follow.

تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

Here you can find the Arabic version of this Publication.

Read more

European societies, albeit at different paces, have undergone profound changes in the fabric of their populations due to EU enlargement, European Citizenship, globalization and migration processes. Traditional concepts of citizenship and citizenship education in Europe have to be revised in the light of these developments.

Read more

Associated Partner / Organisations / Projects

Within the NECE Database we gathered projects of associeated Organizations and their projects regarding citizenship education. Add your Project or Organization to help other People creating their own projects.

Tip: By using the "topics / subjects"-filter you can search for euro-mediterranean projects within the database.


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