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Challenges: Egypt


a. Formal Sector

The challenges within the formal sector are related to the political environment, the school and university environment, the curriculum, and the teaching methods and teacher preparation. The political environment might be seen as a challenge to CE, because of the real life situations the student has to encounter that contradict with the principles and values of CE; teaching students about human rights, social justice, freedom of speech, political participation and other concepts would only create further frustrations and issues because these practices are not allowed in real life (Waddel, 2013). The top down approach in the Egyptian education system that rests on principles such as Discipline, obedience, oppression, and commitment makes CE difficult (El-Nagar & Krugly-Smolska , 2009). CE curriculum is more based on information rather than skills, doesn’t include any real life situations or participation from students (El-Nagar & Smolska, 2009, p.47). With regards to the teaching methods and teachers’ preparation there is still a lot of effort needed in introducing new teaching techniques that are of participatory and creative nature, highlighting “the role of the teacher in a democratic classroom” (El-Nagar & Krugly-Smolska , 2009).

b. Non-formal Sector

The institutions working with CE in the non-formal sector are facing several challenges with regard to their program’s outreach, impact, sustainability, curriculum development, trainers, and financial constraints. In Egypt, small and medium sized CSOs do not have the capacity nor the resources to manage media campaigns or any other marketing campaign, while the big local CSOs have been able to sustain a rather good image of CSOs in Egypt. With regard to the outreach, there is huge pressure on CSOs with regards to outreach, especially that the country is large on both a geographic and demographic level. There are huge differences between the urban and rural settings in Egypt in terms of culture and also interests. When it comes to content, the programs can use further improvement; there is a need for further emphasis on civic skills such as advocacy, organizing, and persuasive argument. Another challenge to implementation is finding trained and qualified trainers who can deliver the programs in quality, given the limited resources available to this sector. In addition, most CSOs receive funding from INGOs, international agencies, local and international corporations and community members; the funds are inconsistent and short-term which leads to many challenges and obstacles. Over and above, there are limitations from the MoSS and a very lengthy process to get the funds approved. Another challenge for CE is measuring the impact of their programs requested by donors, which is not easy to measure given the nature of the subject matter.

Country Profile: Egypt

تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

Here you can find the Arabic version of this Publication.

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European societies, albeit at different paces, have undergone profound changes in the fabric of their populations due to EU enlargement, European Citizenship, globalization and migration processes. Traditional concepts of citizenship and citizenship education in Europe have to be revised in the light of these developments.

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Associated Partner / Organisations / Projects

Within the NECE Database we gathered projects of associeated Organizations and their projects regarding citizenship education. Add your Project or Organization to help other People creating their own projects.

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