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NECE Exchange

26.10.2015 | Von:
Maram Anbar

Challenges: Spain


Spain faced a series of challenges in its efforts to implement citizenship education. There were ideological disputes on the definition of freedoms, values, role of religion, and whose ‘legitimate’ role it is to establish a civic and moral education. Furthermore, there was the deeply rooted decentralization system which provides a high level of autonomy to the different communities making it a challenge to create a unified common homogeneous curriculum for the country. Autonomous communities in Spain have control over their curriculum and each community has the right to formulate the subject of citizenship education according to their model and values. Then there was the power dynamics between and within the State (the different political parties) and the Catholic Church. The teacher’s own belief system, susceptibility and the strong influence of the Catholic Church may also have been a challenging factors when addressing issues of diversity. In the case of Spain, conservative families and groups formed a hurdle to citizenship education by challenging the role of the State and the values taught in the curriculum. Financial limitation is another key factor. Like many EU countries, the education cuts affected both the educational structure and the teachers’ salaries. In 2012 the Spanish government decided to reduce and freeze teachers’ salaries making it the “largest annual budget cut since the death of [..] Franco”[1]. On the technical level the school reality confirms that the teachers did not receive adequate training, nor tools to facilitate teaching the subject. For teachers to be able to address issues such as interculturality, pluralism, diversity, and the multiple identities of today’s citizens, special pedagogical methods were required. There was a lack of monitoring and assessment strategies to the curriculum and the students’ learning resulting in difficulty in defining whether or not the material achieved the objectives, and whether the student acquired the desired skills, knowledge and eventually change in behavior. The citizenship education curriculum focused on global and national contexts of citizenship and intended to a certain extent to use an interdisciplinary approach. However, the early termination of the program prior to any assessment or comprehensive evaluation meant that Spain has yet to achieve its target for education for citizenship and not just about citizenship.

Country Profile: Spain


Spain from Crisis to opportunity. Education in Crisis http://www.educationincrisis.net/country-profiles/europe/item/412-spain

تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

تكوين المواطنة في أوروبا وشمال إفريقيا

Here you can find the Arabic version of this Publication.

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European societies, albeit at different paces, have undergone profound changes in the fabric of their populations due to EU enlargement, European Citizenship, globalization and migration processes. Traditional concepts of citizenship and citizenship education in Europe have to be revised in the light of these developments.

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Associated Partner / Organisations / Projects

Within the NECE Database we gathered projects of associeated Organizations and their projects regarding citizenship education. Add your Project or Organization to help other People creating their own projects.

Tip: By using the "topics / subjects"-filter you can search for euro-mediterranean projects within the database.


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