Demographic Change and Migration in Europe

All European countries will be facing similar demographic conditions in the near future: their populations are aging, and many countries are facing a negative natural population balance in the long term, that is, a population decline as a result of a deficit of births in comparison to deaths. Internal and international migration flows have an impact on the population development in terms of its size and structure. The policy brief analyzes the complex interrelation of demographic change and migration in Europe.


Frank Swiaczny


The different populations in Europe have undergone incisive quantitative and structural changes in the last decades. Notwithstanding the various regional differences, the causes for the current demographic change in Europe are related to the consequences of a demographic transition. Weiter...

Ein neugeborenes Mädchen liegt am 2. Januar 2007 im Auguste-Victoria-Klinikum in Berlin in ihrem Bett.

First and Second Demographic Transition

In demographic research the first demographic transition refers to the transition from high to low mortality and birth rates. It typically begins with the decline in a previously high mortality. The causes for this decrease include higher standards of living and better hygiene in the population, as well as medical progress, whereby first the infant and child mortality are reduced. Weiter...

Eine Mutter mit ihren beiden Kindern.

Demographic Change in Germany and Europe

The case of Germany helps illustrate the relationship between the partial processes constituting this demographic change. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Germany had a total fertility rate of approximately 4.2 children per woman. The life expectancy of someone born during this time was less than 45 years. Weiter...

Älteres Paar im Görlitzer Park, Berlin-Kreuzberg

International Migration and Migrants

In contrast to the long-term structures of demographic processes, as they become apparent in the current demographic change, international migration in Europe is subject to more pronounced variations depending on the time period and region in question; these developments can only be described in broader terms. Weiter...

Tür eines Kreißsaales mit Storchen-Zeichnung

Frank Swiaczny

Integration and Reproductive Behavior

For the German case, the relationship between international migration and population development can be observed in the number of children born to foreign citizen mothers, which has strongly increased since the 1960s. These mothers are responsible for 17 percent of all births in Germany, although non-citizens only constitute 7.8 percent of the German population. Weiter...

Im deutsch-polnischen Eurokindergarten in Frankfurt (Oder) schauen sich die Mädchen Nele Möbius (l) aus Deutschland und Luisa Kujathawska aus Polen gemeinsam ein Buch an, aufgenommen am 30.03.2009.

Frank Swiaczny

Migration Policy and Demographic Effects

The discussion on restricting immigration had a strong impact on political debates concerning migration in Europe, especially during periods with substantial increases in the number of refugees and asylum seekers, as was the case in the 1990s. These days, however, EU countries are talking more about immigration’s contribution in coping with demographic change. Weiter...

Leerer Spielplatz

Frank Swiaczny

Regional Patterns of Demographic Change

An analysis of the demographic change and of the migration balances taking place in smaller regional areas shows that even in countries which still have a positive population balance overall, the population in specific regions may already be shrinking. Negative population balances (presented with a dotted fill pattern in the map) extend from Greece in the South through wide regions of Eastern Europe and the Baltic states through the peripheral regions in Finland and the north of Sweden. Weiter...

Demographic Change and Migration in Europe


Here you can find the glossary for Frank Swiaczny's policy brief "Demographic Change and Migration in Europe". Weiter...

Demographic Change and Migration in Europe

References and Further Readings





Teaserbild Newsletter Migration und Bevölkerung

Kurzdossiers und Länderprofile focus migration abonnieren

Hier können Sie Kurzdossiers und Länderprofile von focus migration abonnieren. Weiter... 


Zahlen zu Asyl in Deutschland

Wie viele Menschen suchen in Deutschland Asyl? Woher kommen sie? Wie viele Asylanträge sind erfolgreich? Und wie viele Menschen werden abgeschoben? Wir stellen die wichtigsten Zahlen zum Thema Asyl und Flucht monatlich aktualisiert in einfachen Infografiken dar. Weiter...