Eine Frau geht an einer Weltkarte, die aus Kinderporträts besteht, am Freitag (18.06.2010) im JuniorMuseum in Köln vorbei.

Croatia

Since the 19th century, Croatia has had comprehensive experience under different constitutional constructions and territorial demarcations with migration, asylum and displacement. To be emphasized are the overseas migration in the 19th century, the increasing migration in the direction of the northern and western European states in the early 20th century, the subsequent inclusion in the system of the European recruitment migration in the second half of the 20th century as well as the various migration and refugee flows connected to the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. Croatia can be equally described as a land of emigration, immigration, transit, and remigration as well as a country of both origin and destination for asylum seekers and displaced persons.

Croatia

Pascal Goeke

Background Information

Since the 19th century, Croatia has had comprehensive experience under different constitutional constructions and territorial demarcations with migration, asylum and displacement.

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Pascal Goeke

Historical Developments of Migration

The tradition of primarily economically motivated emigration experienced a crucial turning point through the events of the Second World War. For one, increasingly more people migrated decidedly due to political reasons, and secondly, migration movements were then more strictly politically observed, assessed and instrumentalized.

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Pascal Goeke

Migration Policies

Croatian migration policies were for a long time part of an encompassing policy, in Croatia partly so named diaspora policy.

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Pascal Goeke

The Immigrant Population

The immigrant population of Croatia is made up most importantly of Croatians (the majority from Bosnia-Herzegovina) and Serbs (the majority of whom had been at first displaced from Croatia but later returned). Numbers of other immigrants are of no significance, as all statistics on the topic substantiate.

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Pascal Goeke

Citizenship

The current roll and form of the Croatian right to citizenship is the result of the particular situation of the right to citizenship in former Yugoslavia, of the ethnic-national policies for the determination of the Croatian people in the 1990s and of the liberalization and EU-harmonization since 2000. From this constellation, only rights and provisions which are partially difficult to understand yet have serious consequences are derived.

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Pascal Goeke

Integration and Integration Policies

Whatever one understands under the concept of integration, it should be recognized that there is no large scale political area of activity concerning this matter in Croatia. This owes itself, firstly, to the dominance of the immigration of Croatian descendants next to the simultaneous relative irrelevance of the international migration—the required action or pressure to act is correspondingly slight.

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Pascal Goeke

Flight and Asylum

In Croatia, refuge and asylum are matters that are strongly influenced by the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s and increasingly more considerably by the closer partnership with the EU in the 21st century. Accordingly, the after effects of the Yugoslav Wars on the one hand and the current immigration of refugees and the asylum policies directed at it on the other hand should be differentiated between. The long-term effects of the war alone are presently numerically meaningful.

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Pascal Goeke

Irregular Migration

The phenomenon of irregular migration is closely connected with Croatia’s geopolitical position. Croatia is located in the northern part of the so-called Balkan route. The bustling traffic on this route led in 2011 to the Croatian-Slovenian border being crossed by over 47 million people and 21 million automobiles, making it clearly the most highly trafficked EU external border.

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Pascal Goeke

Current Developments and Future Challenges

Croatia’s migration history, the increasing geo-political stability and general insights of migration research make the following three developments likely to occur: Croatia will first continue its efforts towards a good relationship with its citizens living abroad.

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Pascal Goeke

Links and References

Here you can find literature and further reading for Country Profile 27 "Croatia" by Pascal Goeke.

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Kurzdossiers

Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl: Aktuelle Themen

Ein Kurzdossier legt komplexe Zusammenhänge aus den Bereichen Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl sowie Integration auf einfache und klare Art und Weise dar. Es bietet einen fundierten Einstieg in eine bestimmte Thematik, in dem es den Hintergrund näher beleuchtet und verschiedene Standpunkte wissenschaftlich und kritisch abwägt. Darüber hinaus enthält es Hinweise auf weiterführende Literatur und Internet-Verweise. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, sich eingehender mit der Thematik zu befassen. Unsere Kurzdossiers erscheinen bis zu 6-mal jährlich.

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