US-Soldaten in Afghanistan

4.2 US-Außenpolitik

Spiegel Online vom 19.11.2014

"Obamas Kampf gegen IS: Im Sog des Krieges"

http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/kampf-gegen-islamischer-staat-obama-fehlt-die-strategie-a-1003731.h
tml

In den USA wachsen Sorge und Unmut über die Strategie der Obama-Regierung gegen die Terrormiliz Islamischer Staat, berichtet Sebastian Fischer aus Washington. "Brauchen die USA eine neue Anti-IS-Strategie? Soll Syriens Diktator Assad gestürzt werden? Amerika diskutiert, und US-Präsident Barack Obama schickt neue Elitesoldaten. Er gerät immer tiefer in einen Krieg, den er unbedingt vermeiden wollte."

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National Journal vom 18.11.2014

"How Congress Could Block a Nuclear Deal With Iran"

http://www.nationaljournal.com/defense/how-congress-could-block-a-nuclear-deal-with-iran-20141118

Kaveh Waddell erläutert verschiedene Möglichkeiten, mit denen der US-Kongress ein erfolgreiches Atomabkommen der US-Regierung mit dem Iran torpedieren könnte. "The most obvious avenue available to Congress for blocking a deal is legislative action. Because the deal rides on sanctions relief, Congress can deprive the American negotiating team of its strongest bargaining chip by either imposing new sanctions on Iran or making it very difficult for the U.S. to keep any promise to roll back existing sanctions. (...) Negotiations are so fragile, and each side's distrust of the other so deep, that a symbolic gesture could be just as effective as legal action. (...) Another approach that's been floated to block a deal is to deny funding for necessary elements of the agreement."

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Middle East Online vom 17.11.2014

"Can the World Avert a New Cold War?"

http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=68959

Annie Machon, frühere Mitarbeiterin des britischen Geheimdienstes MI5, macht die geopolitischen Ziele der USA für die aktuelle Konfrontation zwischen dem Westen und Russland verantwortlich. "(...) in my view, this is the current geopolitical situation: Russia is now strong enough — with its domination of Europe’s energy supply, its backing by some Middle Eastern countries that want to break away from the US sphere of influence, and its trade deals and establishment of an independent global investment development bank with other BRICS countries — that it can challenge the US hegemony. However, threaten the petro-dollar monopoly and thereby the financial solvency of the United States of America and you are suddenly Public Enemy No 1. (...) Unfortunately, I have to agree with Gorbachev — we are indeed facing a new Cold War, and this time it is clearly of America’s making. But Europe will bear the brunt, through trade sanctions, energy shortages and even, potentially, war. It is time we Europeans broke away from our American vassalage and looked to our own future."

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The Globalist vom 17.11.2014

"U.S. Double Standards: ISIS and Murders in Mexico"

http://www.theglobalist.com/mexican-cartels-and-isis-a-tale-of-two-threats/

Bill Humphrey fragt, warum die US-Regierung auf den Terror des Islamischen Staats im Nahen Osten mit militärischen Mitteln reagiere, die mindestens ebenso barbarischen Morde der Drogenkartelle im Nachbarland Mexiko aber weitgehend ignoriere. "ISIS is held up for its barbarity. But the cartels in Mexico have them beat there, too, with far more public beheadings and dismemberments. There has also been a far more systematic campaign against reporters and citizen journalists in Mexico than anything seen from ISIS. (...) The Mexican cartels have not only staged attacks and assassinations inside the United States but have killed more U.S. citizens inside the United States itself than were killed by al-Qaeda on 9/11. The cartels have even attacked U.S. consulate compounds. (...) The Mexico conflict is the most egregious and unjustifiable strategic blind spot the United States currently has anywhere in the world. Every argument raised for the aggressive response toward ISIS could have been (and still can be) made toward the ongoing conflict in Mexico."

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Mother Jones vom 14.11.2014

"America Still Has Hundreds of Military Bases Worldwide. Have They Made Us Any Safer?"

http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/11/america-still-has-hundreds-military-bases-worldwide-have-they
-made-us-any-safer

Nach Ansicht von David Vine trägt das globale Netzwerk amerikanischer Militärstützpunkte keineswegs zur amerikanischen Sicherheit bei. Gerade im Nahen Osten könne die mittlerweile 35 Jahre alte Strategie zum Aufbau der US-Militärstützpunkte als eines der größten "Desaster" der amerikanischen Außenpolitik eingeschätzt werden. "On their own, the existence of these bases has helped generate radicalism and anti-American sentiment. As was famously the case with Osama bin Laden and US troops in Saudi Arabia, bases have fueled militancy, as well as attacks on the United States and its citizens. They have cost taxpayers billions of dollars, even though they are not, in fact, necessary to ensure the free flow of oil globally. They have diverted tax dollars from the possible development of alternative energy sources and meeting other critical domestic needs. And they have supported dictators and repressive, undemocratic regimes, helping to block the spread of democracy in a region long controlled by colonial rulers and autocrats."

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The Intercept vom 12.11.2014

"Obama Administration Reverses Bush Policy, Says U.S. Torture Ban Applies Abroad"

https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/11/12/obama-administration-reverses-bush-policy-says-u-s-torture-
ban-applies-abroad/

US-Präsident Obama habe sich nach langen internen Debatten im Weißen Haus dazu entschlossen, die Folter von Gefangenen künftig auch außerhalb der USA ausdrücklich zu verbieten, berichtet Dan Froomkin. "The debate is over. And the good guys won — this time. (...) Despite concerns from some civil libertarians that the statements today still allowed for some exclusions — such as U.S. government sites in other countries — Yale Law Professor Harold Hongju Koh praised the move. (...) 'When asked if the torture treaty applies without exception, the Bush Administration answered 'no.' The Obama Administration said, 'There should be no doubt: the U.S. affirms that torture and cruel inhuman and degrading treatment are prohibited at all times and in all places and we remain resolute in our adherence to these prohibitions.' That unequivocal statement explicitly changed the USG’s official position, and took a significant step forward in recognizing application of the treaty extraterritorially and in armed conflict. In so doing, they placed critical distance between them and the Bush administration.'"

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ABC News vom 12.11.2014

"UN Anti-Torture Panel Grills US Officials"

http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/anti-torture-panel-grills-us-officials-26852414

Bei ihrer Befragung vor dem UNO-Ausschuss gegen Folter haben Mitarbeiter der US-Regierung eingestanden, dass die USA nach dem 11. September 2001 "Grenzen überschritten" hätten. "The Obama administration officials said that whatever transgressions occurred had been under the previous administration of George W. Bush, but Obama that had quickly tried to turn things around. 'As President Obama has acknowledged, we crossed the line and we take responsibility for that,' McLeod said. 'The United States has taken important steps to ensure adherence to its legal obligations.' Tom Malinowski, an assistant U.S. secretary of state, told the committee the government believes torture, and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment and punishment 'are forbidden in all places, at all times, with no exceptions.'"

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Al Jazeera English vom 11.11.2014

"The US has a new friend in the region: Iran"

http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/11/us-new-friend-region-iran-20141191344125636.html

Crispian Cuss hält es nicht für ausgeschlossen, dass die USA sich in den kommenden Jahren zu einer geopolitischen Kehrtwende entschließen und den Iran als neuen Verbündeten im Nahen Osten annehmen könnten. Die gemeinsame Interessenlage in vielen aktuellen Konflikten sei offensichtlich. Zudem werde die Basis der bisherigen Allianz mit Saudi-Arabien immer brüchiger. "While the US relationship with Saudi Arabia is, of course, strong and of global significance - as the current downward pressures on oil prices show - it does have a shelf life. The current ruler, King Abdullah, is aged 90, and has already outlived two of his chosen successors. The current crown prince, Prince Salman, is 78. Furthermore, this relationship is primarily based on oil much of which sits in the Shia-dominated Eastern Province. Culturally or ideologically, there is little else that binds the US to the kingdom. (...) The level of change required for Iran to supplant Saudi Arabia as the US' pre-eminent regional ally is so great that it is by no means inevitable. Yet such are the strategic forces that draw them together that neither is it implausible."

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Financial Times vom 11.11.2014

"Russia is a bigger problem than Isis for Obama"

http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/b469d43a-68c5-11e4-9eeb-00144feabdc0.html?siteedition=intl#axzz3Il6bk8VK

Angesichts der aktuellen Konfrontation mit Russland hält Gideon Rachman die zahlreichen Krisen im Nahen Osten nur noch für einen Nebenkriegsschauplatz. Die US-Regierung sehe dies leider noch nicht so. "The phenomenon of policy makers looking in the wrong direction is certainly not unknown in history. In the month before the outbreak of the first world war, 100 years ago, the British government spent far more time discussing the prospect of civil conflict in Ireland than the threat of war in Europe. (...) It will be up to historians to decide whether the Obama administration got its strategic priorities right, or whether it charged off in the wrong direction at a crucial moment. My own instinct is that Russia is now the most important challenge. The rise of China is hugely significant but, for the moment, it feels like a long-term process – without any immediate risk of conflict with the US."

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Global Post vom 12.11.2014

"Is Washington losing central Europe — or throwing it away?"

http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/europe/141107/washington-central-europe-nato-eu-ukraine-r
ussia

Länder wie Ungarn, Tschechien und Österreich verfolgten eine differenzierte Russland-Politik, die in Washington mit wachsendem Misstrauen beobachtet werde, schreibt Jason Overdorf. Die US-Regierung versuche bisher, die Verbündeten mit einer Rhetorik des Kalten Krieges im eigenen Lager zu halten, eine Taktik, die das Gegenteil bewirken könnte, so Overdorf. "Some believe Washington’s rhetoric have been more threatening than reassuring for them. 'It pushes [Russian President Vladimir] Putin to a more defensive and frankly irrational position,' says John Feffer of the Washington-based Institute for Policy Studies. Outside Budapest, central European leaders are walking a tightrope because of an understanding that despite its tough words, NATO may not be as willing to confront Russia militarily as they once believed, says Carnegie Europe director Jan Techau. 'There's a very strong feeling at the moment, particularly with the Obama administration, that people in Washington don't really care at all about central Europe,' he says."

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Vice vom 10.11.2014

"Why Hasn't Obama Closed Guantanamo?"

http://www.vice.com/read/why-hasnt-obama-closed-guantanamo-632

Marc Ambinder hält es weiterhin für unwahrscheinlich, dass US-Präsident Obama das umstrittene Gefangenenlager in Guantanamo ohne Zustimmung des Kongresses schließen könne. Obama habe zudem versäumt, Schritte einzuleiten, die es seinem Nachfolger erschweren würden, neue Lager wie Guantanamo zu eröffnen. Ambinder ist sicher, dass Obama sein Versprechen sehr kalkuliert gebrochen habe: "I think the President came to realize, quite early on, that closing Guantánamo and rejecting indefinite detention were promises he had to break in order to give the rest of his counter-terrorism policy room to breathe. (...) In order to wage his massive drone war, to expand his surveillance powers, to capture al Qaeda associates away from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan, Obama had to throw the closure of Guantánamo, its detainees, and all it represented, under the bus."

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TomDispatch vom 09.11.2014

"Four Months into Iraq War 3.0, the Cracks Are Showing - on the Battlefield and at the Pentagon"

http://www.tomdispatch.com/blog/175920/tomgram%3A_peter_van_buren%2C_iraq_and_the_battle_of_the_potomac/

Peter Van Buren ist der Überzeugung, dass die Bombenkampagne des US-Militärs gegen den Islamischen Staat in Syrien und Irak bisher mehr Schaden als Nutzen angerichtet habe. Das Pentagon kalkuliere ein Scheitern bereits mit ein und verfolge vor allem das Ziel, jegliche Verantwortung zurückweisen zu können. "Joint Chiefs Chairman General Martin Dempsey has twice made public statements revealing his dissatisfaction with White House policy. In September, he said it would take 12,000 to 15,000 ground troops to effectively go after the Islamic State. Last month, he suggested that American ground troops might, in the future, be necessary to fight IS. Those statements contrast sharply with Obama's insistence that there will never be U.S. combat troops in this war. (...) The Pentagon has laid down its cards and they are clear enough: the White House is mismanaging the war. And its message is even clearer: given the refusal to consider sending in those ground-touching boots, Operation Inherent Resolve will fail. And when that happens, don't blame us; we warned you."

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Süddeutsche Zeitung vom 10.11.2014

"Der alte Fehler der USA"

http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/strategie-gegen-den-is-der-alte-fehler-der-usa-1.2211855

Tomas Avenarius kommentiert die Strategie der USA im Kampf gegen den Islamischen Staat. Auch er verweist darauf, dass diese bereits im Irak-Krieg zu einem Desaster geführt habe. "Der Haken an Obamas Plan ist, dass er die Erfahrungen des letzten Irak-Kriegs ignoriert. Die USA haben Iraks Streitkräfte schon einmal ausbilden lassen, nach 2003. Es sind diese Soldaten, die vor dem IS geflohen sind. Die Streitmacht war von Anfang an falsch aufgestellt. Bagdads schiitisch dominierte Regierung hatte nie Interesse an einer nationalen Armee oder einer nationalen Polizei. Sie wollte ein Machtinstrument für die schiitische Mehrheit, trainiert, finanziert und bewaffnet von den USA. Sunniten wurden in Bagdad weder verantwortliche Minister noch kommandierende Generäle, Kurden auch nicht. Aber während die Kurden die Zeit nutzten, ihre Peschmergas aufzurüsten, liefen die Sunniten zu al-Qaida und dem IS über."

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Asia Times vom 10.11.2014

"Shelf-life expiring for Senkakus myth"

http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/CHIN-01-101114.html

Peter Lee macht in seinem Kommentar zum andauernden Streit zwischen China und Japan um die Senkaku-Inseln darauf aufmerksam, dass die US-Regierung den Souveränitätsanspruch des japanischen Verbündeten keineswegs anerkenne. US-Präsident Nixon habe 1972 entschieden, sich in dieser Frage zugunsten des anderen Verbündeten Taiwan zurückzuhalten, an dieser neutralen Position habe sich bisher offiziell nichts geändert. Sowohl China als auch die USA nutzten diesen Umstand bewusst aus: "I suspect one big reason that the PRC insistently yanks Japan's chain on the Senkaku matter is because it's a point of friction in US-Japan relations, and serves to remind the United States of its 'honest broker' responsibilities in East Asia. And the United States, in order to show it's not entirely in the China-containment bag, makes conciliatory noises about the Senkakus to Beijing. (...) And that, I think, illustrates the reason why the US allows this bizarre state of affairs over Senkaku sovereignty to persist. It gives the United States leverage in East Asia against the PRC and, perhaps more importantly, against its rather headstrong ally in Japan."

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Salon.com vom 09.11.2014

"You don’t protect my freedom: Our childish insistence on calling soldiers heroes deadens real democracy"

http://www.salon.com/2014/11/09/you_dont_protect_my_freedom_our_childish_insistence_on_calling_soldiers_h
eroes_deadens_real_democracy/

David Masciotra setzt sich kritisch mit dem fast schon "obligatorischen" Patriotismus und der Verherrlichung des Militärs in den USA auseinander. Es sei unsinnig, darauf zu bestehen, dass die amerikanische Freiheit in Ländern wie Afghanistan bedroht sei. US-Soldaten seien deshalb keine "Helden", sondern "Opfer" der Außenpolitik, die sie in diese Kriege schicke. "The assignment of heroism, exactly like the literary construct, might have more to do with the assignment of villainy than the actual honoring of 'heroes.' Every hero needs a villain. If the only heroes are armed men fighting the country’s wars on drugs and wars in the Middle East, America’s only villains are criminals and terrorists. If servants of the poor, sick and oppressed are the heroes, then the villains are those who oppress, profit from inequality and poverty, and neglect the sick. If that is the real battle of heroism versus villainy, everyone is implicated, and everyone has a far greater role than repeating slogans, tying ribbons and placing stickers on bumpers."

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Huffington Post vom 04.11.2014

"What a Republican Senate Would Mean for World Politics"

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kevin-a-lees/what-a-republican-senate-_b_6094302.html

Kevin A. Lees glaubt, dass der neue US-Senat Präsident Obama zu einem härteren Vorgehen gegenüber Iran, Syrien und Irak drängen könnte. Ansonsten dürfte der mittlerweile feststehende Sieg der Republikaner bei den Kongresswahlen die amerikanische Außenpolitik aber nicht wesentlich verändern, so Lees. "(...) what exactly would a Republican Senate mean for US foreign policy in the final two years of the Obama administration? Probably not much - and certainly not as much as the American electorate's rebuke of the Bush administration in 2006. That's because the case against the Obama administration is less about foreign policy, or any one issue, than longstanding gripes about the slow pace of economic growth, ongoing unemployment and his handling of everything from the Ebola public health threat to the response to the growth of the Islamic State group in Syria and Iraq."

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Mother Jones vom 03.11.2014

"We Still Don't Have a Real Plan in Iraq"

http://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2014/11/we-still-dont-have-real-plan-iraq

Die US-Regierung will offenbar neue irakische Soldaten für eine im kommenden Frühjahr geplante Großoffensive gegen den Islamischen Staat ausbilden. Kevin Drum zweifelt angesichts der bisherigen Ergebnisse derartiger Ausbildungsprogramme und der fehlenden politischen Strategie an den Erfolgsaussichten des neuen Plans. "Apparently the air campaign against ISIS has been somewhat effective — if not at turning them back, at least at preventing their further spread. But a broader victory requires both the political compromise that evaded us last time, as well as a plan for rebuilding the Iraqi army. We should be very nervous when no one seems able to provide even some routine happy talk about how our 1,400 advisors are going to put Humpty Dumpty back together again. It's hard to see where this goes from here."

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In These Times vom 03.11.2014

"The Long, Shameful History of American Terrorism"

http://inthesetimes.com/article/17311/noam_chomsky_the_worlds_greatest_terrorist_campaign

Für Noam Chomsky ist die Unterstützung der moderaten Rebellen in Syrien durch das US-Militär und die CIA ein weiteres Kapitel in der langen Geschichte des "amerikanischen Terrorismus". In einem Artikel der New York Times seien mit Angola, Nicaragua und Kuba drei andere historische Beispiele für derartige "verdeckte Hilfeleistungen" genannt worden, die allesamt ähnlich negative Konsequenzen gehabt hätten. "Jihadism's most fearsome current manifestation is the Islamic State, or ISIS, which has established its murderous caliphate in large areas of Iraq and Syria. 'I think the United States is one of the key creators of this organization,' reports former CIA analyst Graham Fuller, a prominent commentator on the region. 'The United States did not plan the formation of ISIS,' he adds, 'but its destructive interventions in the Middle East and the War in Iraq were the basic causes of the birth of ISIS.' To this we may add the world's greatest terrorist campaign: Obama's global project of assassination of 'terrorists.' The 'resentment-generating impact' of those drone and special-forces strikes should be too well known to require further comment. This is a record to be contemplated with some awe."

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National Journal vom 05.11.2014

"John McCain Poised to Control Senate's Defense Policy"

http://www.nationaljournal.com/defense/john-mccain-poised-to-control-senate-s-defense-policy-20141105

Der langjährige Obama-Kritiker und außenpolitische "Falke" John McCain dürfte die außenpolitische Ausrichtung des neuen US-Senats entscheidend prägen, erwartet Jordain Carney. "With Republicans gaining the majority in the upper chamber in Tuesday's midterm elections, Sen. John McCain is widely expected to become the next Armed Services Committee chairman in January. (...) As committee chairman, McCain would have an influential role in spearheading defense policy from Capitol Hill. That includes the Senate's version of the National Defense Authorization Act, an annual bill that outlines defense policy and tells the Pentagon what it can and can't spend money on. He'll also gain a megaphone to voice his frequent opposition to the Obama administration on military and national security issues."

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TomDispatch vom 04.11.2014

"The Pressure to Escalate - The Phantasmagoric World of Washington"

http://www.tomdispatch.com/post/175918/tomgram%3A_engelhardt%2C_building_an_escalation_machine/

Der lange Wahlkampf vor den US-Kongresswahlen dieser Woche habe ganz im Zeichen der Isis- und Ebola-Panik gestanden, stellt Tom Engelhardt fest. Die amerikanische Politik sei in einer "Eskalationslogik" gefangen, im Kampf gegen den Islamischen Staat seien deshalb weiterhin vor allem militärische Antworten zu erwarten. "Everyone seems to agree that the prerequisite for any struggle to defeat the Islamic State is a genuine 'unity' government that could begin to woo back the alienated, oppressed Sunni population of northern Iraq. That, however, is simply not in the cards. In response to this fact on the ground, Washington has only one conceivable option: further escalation. It’s the nature of the world that presses in on the White House, even if the phrase the ladder to hell makes no metaphorical sense. Escalation is now a structural fact embedded in the war in the Middle East and the Ebola crisis here at home. It has its constituencies and they are powerful. It is fed by a blend of hysteria and panic that now passes for 'the news,' heightened by the ministrations of the social media. Escalation, it turns out, is in the interest of everyone who matters - except us."

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