In 2007-08 there were a record number of permanent departures
The largest flow is to neighbouring New Zealand, with which Australia has a special arrangement that allows more or less free mobility.
The second largest flow is to the United Kingdom, which partly reflects longstanding linkages having origins in colonial times as well as the new role of London as a global city attracting highly skilled Australians.
The third largest flow is to the United States, and this is the fastest-growing emigrant flow associated with the central role of the destination in the global economy, especially the cities of New York and Los Angeles.
There is a substantial movement to Continental European nations. This is partly return migration of former settlers, but is increasingly involving the Australia-born – especially the second-generation children of former settlers, many of whom have become dual citizens. Again, the movement is overwhelmingly to large cities in Europe.
There is a substantial flow to Asia, primarily directed toward the high-income rapid growth city-states of Hong Kong and Singapore but increasingly, too, to rapidly growing China. The Asian movement is almost totally to the megacities of the region.