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Emigration | Australia (2010) |

Australia Background Information Permanent Migration Temporary Migration Irregular Migration Emigration Population Conclusion References


Graeme Hugo

/ 2 Minuten zu lesen

While Australia is perceived as a quintessential "immigration country", it also experiences significant emigration. Moreover, Australia is one of the few countries that collect detailed and comprehensive information on people leaving the country as well as those entering. The Figure shows that there has been a substantial upturn in permanent movement of Australian residents out of the country.

Permanent Departures of Residents (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/2.0/de

In 2007-08 there were a record number of permanent departures of Australian residents (76.923) of whom 50.8 percent were born in Australia. The numbers of Australia-born leaving permanently has more than doubled: from 17.264 in 1997-98 to 39.144 in 2007-08. Over the same time period the number of resident long-term departures increased from 79.422 to 102.066. The rate of return migration of former settlers varies considerably among particular birthplace categories with especially high rates among those born in New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Japan and the USA. The destinations of recent permanent departures are depicted in the Figure below and it is apparent that the dominant destinations are other developed nations, including the following:

Australia-Born Permanent Departures (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/2.0/de

  • The largest flow is to neighbouring New Zealand, with which Australia has a special arrangement that allows more or less free mobility.

  • The second largest flow is to the United Kingdom, which partly reflects longstanding linkages having origins in colonial times as well as the new role of London as a global city attracting highly skilled Australians.

  • The third largest flow is to the United States, and this is the fastest-growing emigrant flow associated with the central role of the destination in the global economy, especially the cities of New York and Los Angeles.

  • There is a substantial movement to Continental European nations. This is partly return migration of former settlers, but is increasingly involving the Australia-born – especially the second-generation children of former settlers, many of whom have become dual citizens. Again, the movement is overwhelmingly to large cities in Europe.

  • There is a substantial flow to Asia, primarily directed toward the high-income rapid growth city-states of Hong Kong and Singapore but increasingly, too, to rapidly growing China. The Asian movement is almost totally to the megacities of the region.



  1. Permanent departures are permanent residents and citizens of Australia who, when leaving the country, indicate they are leaving permanently. Research has indicated, however, that a significant proportion return (Osborne 2004).

  2. Hugo et al. (2003).

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