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Eine Frau geht an einer Weltkarte, die aus Kinderporträts besteht, am Freitag (18.06.2010) im JuniorMuseum in Köln vorbei.

Canada

Since the 1980s, Canada has accepted more immigrants and refugees for permanent settlement in proportion to its population than any other country in the world. During the twentieth century, the country’s immigration policy was transformed from a mechanism for keeping people of non-European origin out into a tool for selecting a mixture of newcomers – regardless of origin – designed to fuel the country’s economic and demographic growth. Despite consistently high levels of immigration and increasing diversity, especially in urban centers, Canada has not experienced the kind of political backlash against immigration and multiculturalism seen in most European countries during the past decade. (Version from 10/2013)

A television interview with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau plays on a screen as people wait to welcome Syrian refugees Mohammad Kurdi and his family at Vancouver International Airport

Shaina Somers

Canada's Changing Migration, Refugee and Asylum Policies: 2015 Onwards

Since 2015, Justin Trudeau's Liberal government has been bringing changes to Canada's migration, refugee and asylum policy. What do these changes mean four years (and an upcoming election) later?

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Canada

Jennifer Elrick

Background Information

Since the 1980s, Canada has accepted more immigrants and refugees for permanent settlement in proportion to its population than any other country in the world.

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Galizische Einwanderer im Jahr 1911 auf dem Bahnhof von Quebec City.

Jennifer Elrick

Development of Immigration and Immigration Policy since the 19th Century

Canada’s first Immigration Act was passed in 1869, two years after the country’s founding. The law was intended to counteract emigration to the United States and to help settle the country’s western territories.

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Kunden vor einem Fastfood-Wagen in Vancouver.

Jennifer Elrick

Immigration Flows

Despite recent changes, Canada’s immigration policy remains a ‘mass immigration’ policy; yearly inflows have been consistently above the 200,000 mark since 1990, the equivalent of 0.7-0.9 percent of the total population. After reaching a postwar record of 280,691 new permanent residents in 2010, 248,748 were admitted in 2011.

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Skuptur zur Ehre von Einwanderern im Hastings Park, Vancouver.

Jennifer Elrick

The Immigrant Population

For statistical purposes, the immigrant population is defined as people who are, or have ever been, landed immigrants in Canada, i.e. people who have been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities.

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Passanten in Chinatown, Toronto.

Jennifer Elrick

Ethnic Origins

Information on the ethnic origins of the entire population – immigrant and non-immigrant – was collected in the Canadian census from 1901 to 2006. Part of the voluntary NHS in 2011 (see previous section), the procedure for indicating one’s ethnic origins remains the same.

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Eine Verkäuferin an einem Gemüsestand im St. Lawrence Market in Toronto

Jennifer Elrick

Citizenship

Canada encourages permanent immigrants to adopt Canadian citizenship, and naturalization is regarded by the government as "a significant step in the integration process for newcomers because it signifies full participation in Canadian life."[1]

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Älterer Mann auf dem muslimischen Sommerfest 2011 in Ottawa, Kanada.

Jennifer Elrick

Integration Policy

Facilitating access to citizenship is regarded as one of the most important components of Canada’s integration policy; beyond that, the federal government funds settlement services for permanent immigrants, which are designed and carried out by hundreds of immigrant-serving organizations (ISOs) across the country.

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Spanische Tänzerinnen bei einer Veranstaltung in Winnipeg.

Jennifer Elrick

Multiculturalism, Interculturalism and Discrimination

When Canada adopted an official policy of multiculturalism in 1971 it was the first country in the world to do so. At the time, the policy was conceived mainly as a complement to the policy of bilingualism that made English and French Canada’s official languages in 1969.

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Skulptur im kanadischen Montréal.

Jennifer Elrick

Irregular Migration

Unlike in the neighboring United States, mass irregular migration has not been a prominent issue in political or public discourse in Canada. This is due mainly to the country’s relative geographical isolation from all other countries except the United States, which is itself the more established destination for irregular migrants from Mexico and South America.

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Schiff mit Flüchtlingen auf dem Weg von Sri Lanka nach Kanada.

Jennifer Elrick

Refuge and Asylum

Although Canada signed the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to Refugees and its 1967 Protocol in 1969, the Immigration Act of 1976 was the first law to regulate refugee determination procedure in the country.

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Passanten an der Küste von Victoria Island, Vancouver.

Jennifer Elrick

Current Issues and Future Challenges

For the past decade, there has been a growing awareness of employment problems faced by Canada’s immigrants.

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Country Profile 8: Canada

References and Further Reading

Here you can find references and further reading for Country Profile 8: "Canada" by Jennifer Elrick.

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Kurzdossiers

Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl: Aktuelle Themen

Ein Kurzdossier legt komplexe Zusammenhänge aus den Bereichen Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl sowie Integration auf einfache und klare Art und Weise dar. Es bietet einen fundierten Einstieg in eine bestimmte Thematik, in dem es den Hintergrund näher beleuchtet und verschiedene Standpunkte wissenschaftlich und kritisch abwägt. Darüber hinaus enthält es Hinweise auf weiterführende Literatur und Internet-Verweise. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, sich eingehender mit der Thematik zu befassen. Unsere Kurzdossiers erscheinen bis zu 6-mal jährlich.

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