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Eine Frau geht an einer Weltkarte, die aus Kinderporträts besteht, am Freitag (18.06.2010) im JuniorMuseum in Köln vorbei.

Philippines

Emigration has been an enduring feature of the Philippine economy. Global political and economic developments in the last century have greatly influenced how the country’s policies have been shaped to respond to the changing international demand for workers. While colonial ties facilitated much of the flows in the early twentieth century, it was the international economic restructuring towards the end of the last century that has fueled the rapid growth of the flow of Filipino migrant workers. International remittances from increasingly geographically dispersed Filipino workers have helped buoy the economy through economic crises. While immigration to the Philippines is small relative to emigration flows, the country has liberal policies in accepting immigrants even if protectionist economic policies constrain capital ownership and political participation among foreign nationals.

Philippinen

Michael R.M Abrigo

Historical Development

Migration in the Philippines is intimately linked with the economic history of the country. Movement of people to and from the Philippines up to the early years of independence (in 1946) 1 had been facilitated largely by economic, especially trade and colonial, ties with other countries.

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Menschen feiern das Chinesische Neujahr vor der Börse in Manila.

Michael R.M Abrigo

Immigration and Immigration Policies

The 2010 Census of Population registered 177,368 foreign nationals in the Philippines, representing just 0.2 percent of the total population. They are comprised largely by prime aged adults (20 to 59 years old), and by males (cf. Table 1). Countries of citizenship were more diversified in 2010 compared to 40 years ago, when Chinese, Japanese, South Koreans, and US Americans comprised about three quarters of foreign nationals in the country. Top countries of citizenship in 2010 included the US (16.9%), China (16.2%), Japan (6.5%), India (5.1%) and South Korea (3.3%).

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Eine philippinische Bewerberin füllt in einer saudi-arabischen Personalvermittlung in Manila Bewerbungsunterlagen aus.

Michael R.M Abrigo

Emigration and Emigration Policies

In 2011, the Commission on Filipinos Overseas (CFO) estimated that there are around 10.5 million Filipinos in more than 200 territories overseas. Between 1997, when the official migrant stock series was started, and 2011, the average annual growth rate of permanent emigration (5.9 percent) surpassed that of temporary migrant worker flows (3.5 percent) and irregular migration movements (-2.6 percent). The recent world economic crisis in 2008 greatly affected the demand for migrant workers in many countries of the world, resulting in a decline in the stock of Filipinos overseas, specifically that of temporary migrant workers, although later migrant stock estimates show a return to the pre-crisis trend (cf. Figure 1).

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Metallarbeiter in Manila.

Michael R.M Abrigo

Citizenship and Naturalization

Filipino citizenship is provided for in the country’s Constitution (in force since 1899), which has been amended a number of times in the last century (1935, 1973 and 1987). Congress has the power to strip a person of his Philippine citizenship without his voluntary renunciation as provided by law, unlike in the US, after which many provisions of the 1935 Philippine Constitution had been patterned.

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Philippinische Flüchtlinge aus Sabah in ihrer Unterkunft in Bongao.

Michael R.M Abrigo

Refuge and Asylum

Relative to other migration flows, refuge and asylum issues are not very prominent in the Philippines. After the Second World War, the government granted asylum to refugees from Russia, and to individuals of Jewish descent who were fleeing from persecution by the Nazi government. Chinese citizens sought refuge in the country following the communist revolution in 1949. In 1975, the country served an important role in preparing refugees who were affected by the Vietnam War to resettle in North America, Europe and Australia. A small number of Vietnamese who could not be admitted in the United States resettled in the Philippines.

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Chinesische Staatsangehörige vor ihrer Ausweisung in der Einwanderungsbehörde in Manila.

Michael R.M Abrigo

Irregular Migration

Filipino workers who are given work permits in receiving countries, but are not registered as overseas workers in the Philippines are considered undocumented Filipino emigrants. Official estimates show that between 2000 and 2011 the number of Filipino emigrants in irregular status declined by 42 percent. From a high 1.8 million irregular migrant population from the Philippines in 2000, the number settled at 0.6 to 0.7 million between 2005 and 2010, then spiking to 1.1 million in 2011.

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Arbeiter auf einer Baustelle in Manila.

Michael R.M Abrigo

Challenges and Future Development

While immigration issues are not as prominent as those of emigration, largely because of scale, it is important to understand how immigrants and immigration continue to shape the development of the Philippines. As globalization continues to deepen and broaden economic ties among countries, immigration is expected to increase not just in number but also in the variety of reasons. The availability and accessibility of relevant statistics are thus important in order to be able to respond to challenges that this may impose, and to be able to fully harness the economic and social benefits it could bring.

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Country Profile 28: Philippines

References

Here you can find references and further reading for Country Profile 28: "Philippines" by Michael R.M Abrigo

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Kurzdossiers

Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl: Aktuelle Themen

Ein Kurzdossier legt komplexe Zusammenhänge aus den Bereichen Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl sowie Integration auf einfache und klare Art und Weise dar. Es bietet einen fundierten Einstieg in eine bestimmte Thematik, in dem es den Hintergrund näher beleuchtet und verschiedene Standpunkte wissenschaftlich und kritisch abwägt. Darüber hinaus enthält es Hinweise auf weiterführende Literatur und Internet-Verweise. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, sich eingehender mit der Thematik zu befassen. Unsere Kurzdossiers erscheinen bis zu 6-mal jährlich.

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