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Eine Frau geht an einer Weltkarte, die aus Kinderporträts besteht, am Freitag (18.06.2010) im JuniorMuseum in Köln vorbei.

Netherlands

NetherlandsNetherlands Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/2.0/de (bpb)
The Netherlands have attracted migrants for centuries. Initially, they were encouraged to maintain their own cultures. Since the 1990s, however, there has been increasing pressure to assimilate into Dutch culture. Successful integration has become a prerequisite to acquire political rights. The electoral success of anti-immigrant parties since the turn of the millennium has fuelled this development.

PDF-Icon Country Profile Netherlands, November 2014
PDF-Icon Country Profile Netherlands, November 2007

Straßenkünstler in Amsterdam

Evelyn Ersanilli

Introduction

Migrants have been attracted by the relatively high levels of prosperity and religious tolerance in the Netherlands for centuries. Currently, immigrants make up 10.8 percent of the population, and the children of immigrants make up a further 10 percent.

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Niederländische Immigranten bei der Ankunft in Quebec 1910

Evelyn Ersanilli

Historical Trends in Immigration and Emigration

For centuries, the relative freedom and wealth of the Netherlands have attracted significant flows of immigrants. Many Huguenots – Protestants from France - and Jews from Southern and Eastern Europe came to the Low Countries.

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Der niederländische Ministerpräsident Balkenende besucht am 27.11.2002 einen Einbürgerungskurs in Den Haag.

Evelyn Ersanilli

Immigration Policy

The Netherlands have attracted migrants for centuries. Initially, they were encouraged to maintain their own cultures. Since the 1990s, however, there has been increasing pressure to assimilate into Dutch culture. Successful integration has become a prerequisite to acquire political rights. The electoral success of anti-immigrant parties since the turn of the millennium has fuelled this development.

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Marokkanischer Bauarbeiter in Den Haag

Evelyn Ersanilli

Immigrant Population

The Netherlands have attracted migrants for centuries. The immigrant population is very heterogeneous.

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Hindus in Den Haag feiern das Holi-Fest

Evelyn Ersanilli

Integration Policy

The Netherlands have attracted migrants for centuries. Initially, they were encouraged to maintain their own cultures. Since the 1990s, however, there has been increasing pressure to assimilate into Dutch culture. Successful integration has become a prerequisite to acquire political rights. The electoral success of anti-immigrant parties since the turn of the millennium has fuelled this development.

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Einwanderer mit Einbürgerungsverträgen der Stadt Utrecht (1995).

Evelyn Ersanilli

Citizenship

The Netherlands have attracted migrants for centuries. Initially, they were encouraged to maintain their own cultures. Since the 1990s, however, there has been increasing pressure to assimilate into Dutch culture. Successful integration has become a prerequisite to acquire certain rights. This also holds true for citizenship acquisition. Since 2003, applicants for naturalization have to pass a written exam which tests their language proficiency and knowledge of Dutch culture and society.

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Muschelzucht in Yerseke in den Niederlanden.

Evelyn Ersanilli

Immigrant Integration

The Netherlands have attracted migrants for centuries. The immigrant population is very heterogeneous. Population statistics distinguish between autochtonen, that is, native-Dutch people who have two Dutch-born parents, and allochtonen who have at least one foreign-born parent. Immigrants of European (except Turkish), North American, Oceanean, Indonesian or Japanese origin are referred to as western-allochtonen, people from other world regions are called non-western allochtonen.

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Flüchtlinge demonstrieren gegen die Kriminalisierung von Illegalen und die niederländische Einwanderungspolitik in Den Haag (Mai 2013).

Evelyn Ersanilli

Irregular Migration

The Netherlands have attracted migrants for centuries. Not all of them reside in the country legally.

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Asylsuchender in einem Asylbewerberheim in einem Freizeitpark in Duinrell 2013

Evelyn Ersanilli

Refuge and Asylum

The Netherlands have attracted migrants for centuries. Many of them came voluntarily in search for work, prospects for career advancement or family reunification. Other immigrants, however, were forced to leave their country of origin and came to the Netherlands as asylum seekers.

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Polnischer Supermarkt in Den Haag: Die wachsende Zahl der Einwanderer aus den neuen EU-Mitgliedstaaten hat eine Reihe von Ängsten hervorgerufen.

Evelyn Ersanilli

Current Developments and Future Challenges

The Netherlands have attracted migrants for centuries. Initially, they were encouraged to maintain their own cultures. Since the 1990s, however, there has been increasing pressure to assimilate into Dutch culture. Immigrants' rights have become increasingly conditional on successful integration. Migration for family purposes has been restricted over time. The electoral success of anti-immigrant parties since the turn of the millennium has fuelled this development.

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Country profile Netherlands

References and Further Reading

Here you can find references and further reading for Country Profile 11: "Netherlands" by Evelyn Ersanilli.

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Kurzdossiers

Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl: Aktuelle Themen

Ein Kurzdossier legt komplexe Zusammenhänge aus den Bereichen Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl sowie Integration auf einfache und klare Art und Weise dar. Es bietet einen fundierten Einstieg in eine bestimmte Thematik, in dem es den Hintergrund näher beleuchtet und verschiedene Standpunkte wissenschaftlich und kritisch abwägt. Darüber hinaus enthält es Hinweise auf weiterführende Literatur und Internet-Verweise. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, sich eingehender mit der Thematik zu befassen. Unsere Kurzdossiers erscheinen bis zu 6-mal jährlich.

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