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Eine Frau geht an einer Weltkarte, die aus Kinderporträts besteht, am Freitag (18.06.2010) im JuniorMuseum in Köln vorbei.

Russian Federation

International migration in Russia is composed of the inflow of immigrants from other countries of the former Soviet Union and an outflow of emigrants into economically more developed countries. In the country profile on Russia, Dr. Maria Nozhenko gives an overview over the history of Russian migration policy and features Russian particularities, as for instance the repatriation of ethnic Russians and the "ghost towns" emerging in the process of economic transition, or the lack of integration policy, despite significant immigration (version from July 2010).

Russian Federation

Maria Nozhenko

Background Information

The Russian Federation (Russia) is the largest state in the world in terms of territory, occupying more than 11% of the land surface of the Earth, and is located in Eurasia.

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International Migration to and from the Russian Federation

Maria Nozhenko

Historical and recent trends in migration

Major migration trends in Russia have deep historical roots. Population movement during the time of the Tsars and Soviet Period provided the preconditions for the post-Soviet migration. The majority of contemporary migration flows involve the movement of people considered to belong to a particular ethnic group in response to settlement policies, shifting borders and repatriation policies.

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Maria Nozhenko

Migration policy

The basis for Russia´s current migration policy was laid in the early 1990s. Legislative acts in Russia can be differentiated into "concepts" and "laws". Concepts state the general principles of regulations, while laws lay down concrete realizations of such principles. Thus, the importance of concepts is similar to the importance of laws in many other countries, and Russian laws often encompass features that Western states would leave to administrative regulations.

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Maria Nozhenko

Integration policy and measures against xenophobia

Despite its significant immigrant population, Russia lacks a coherent integration policy. One reason for this is that the majority of immigrants come from the FSU countries. They usually know the Russian language and are familiar with the historical and cultural background of the country.

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Maria Nozhenko

Irregular migration

According to a World Bank report, the number of foreigners living irregularly in Russia in 2000 was between 1.3 and 1.5 million. In some experts´ opinion, this number was about 3.7 million in 2008. The Federal Migration Service of Russia places the number at about 5 million.

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Numbers of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the Russian Federation

Maria Nozhenko

Refuge and asylum

The first major influx of refugees into modern Russia took place in the period 1988 to 1989 as a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between Armenians and Azerbaijanians. Other ethnic conflicts (e.g. the Abkhazian conflict 1992-1993, the Ossetin-Ingush conflict 1992, the Chechnya conflict 1994-1996), which took place in the post-Soviet area, increased the number of refugees.

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Maria Nozhenko

Citizenship

The first Law on Citizenship was adopted in November 1991. According to this law, persons who were permanent residents of the Russian Federation before the law came into force in February 1992 were automatically recognized as RSFSR citizens. Russian citizenship could also be acquired by birth, registration, naturalization, restoration of citizenship, opting and following parents´ citizenship.

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Maria Nozhenko

Future Challenges

The main challenge for current Russian migration policy is the global economic crisis. The slowdown in economic growth leads to a substantial quota reduction for labour migrants.75 This reduction was caused by the decline in demand for labour and the attempt to create preferences for Russian citizens in the labour market in the crisis situation.

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Country Profile 20

References

Here you can find a list of references for the Country profile "Russian Federation" by Maria Nozhenko.

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Kurzdossiers

Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl: Aktuelle Themen

Ein Kurzdossier legt komplexe Zusammenhänge aus den Bereichen Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl sowie Integration auf einfache und klare Art und Weise dar. Es bietet einen fundierten Einstieg in eine bestimmte Thematik, in dem es den Hintergrund näher beleuchtet und verschiedene Standpunkte wissenschaftlich und kritisch abwägt. Darüber hinaus enthält es Hinweise auf weiterführende Literatur und Internet-Verweise. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, sich eingehender mit der Thematik zu befassen. Unsere Kurzdossiers erscheinen bis zu 6-mal jährlich.

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