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Canada

Dossier

Since the 1980s, Canada has accepted more immigrants and refugees for permanent settlement in proportion to its population than any other country in the world. During the twentieth century, the country’s immigration policy was transformed from a mechanism for keeping people of non-European origin out into a tool for selecting a mixture of newcomers – regardless of origin – designed to fuel the country’s economic and demographic growth. Despite consistently high levels of immigration and increasing diversity, especially in urban centers, Canada has not experienced the kind of political backlash against immigration and multiculturalism seen in most European countries during the past decade. (Version from 10/2013)

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Background Information

Since the 1980s, Canada has accepted more immigrants and refugees for permanent settlement in proportion to its population than any other country in the world.

Jennifer Elrick

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Immigration Flows

Despite recent changes, Canada’s immigration policy remains a ‘mass immigration’ policy; yearly inflows have been consistently above the 200,000 mark since 1990, the equivalent of 0.7-0.9…

Jennifer Elrick

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The Immigrant Population

For statistical purposes, the immigrant population is defined as people who are, or have ever been, landed immigrants in Canada, i.e. people who have been granted the right to live in Canada…

Jennifer Elrick

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Ethnic Origins

Information on the ethnic origins of the entire population – immigrant and non-immigrant – was collected in the Canadian census from 1901 to 2006. Part of the voluntary NHS in 2011 (see previous…

Jennifer Elrick

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Citizenship

Canada encourages permanent immigrants to adopt Canadian citizenship, and naturalization is regarded by the government as "a significant step in the integration process for newcomers because it…

Jennifer Elrick

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Integration Policy

Facilitating access to citizenship is regarded as one of the most important components of Canada’s integration policy; beyond that, the federal government funds settlement services for permanent…

Jennifer Elrick

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Multiculturalism, Interculturalism and Discrimination

When Canada adopted an official policy of multiculturalism in 1971 it was the first country in the world to do so. At the time, the policy was conceived mainly as a complement to the policy of…

Jennifer Elrick

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Irregular Migration

Unlike in the neighboring United States, mass irregular migration has not been a prominent issue in political or public discourse in Canada. This is due mainly to the country’s relative geographical…

Jennifer Elrick

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Refuge and Asylum

Although Canada signed the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to Refugees and its 1967 Protocol in 1969, the Immigration Act of 1976 was the first law to regulate refugee determination procedure in the…

Jennifer Elrick

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Current Issues and Future Challenges

For the past decade, there has been a growing awareness of employment problems faced by Canada’s immigrants.

Jennifer Elrick

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References and Further Reading

Here you can find references and further reading for Country Profile 8: "Canada" by Jennifer Elrick.

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