Eine Frau geht an einer Weltkarte, die aus Kinderporträts besteht, am Freitag (18.06.2010) im JuniorMuseum in Köln vorbei.

1.9.2010 | Von:
Graeme Hugo

Permanent Migration Program

Contemporary migration is planned in yearly migration programs. The main elements in Australia's current migration program are shown in the figure below.

Permanent program outcomes and temporary entry visa grantsPermanent program outcomes and temporary entry visa grants Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/2.0/de (bpb)
There is an important distinction between the permanent and temporary migration programs, although one third of permanent settlers in 2007-08 were made up of persons granted permanent status after entering Australia on a temporary visa.

While there have been considerable changes in migration-settlement policy following World War II, the current program is highly organised and bureaucratised with four separate streams of permanent settlement:
  1. Skilled workers – groups with training or skills in shortage in the Australian labour market.
  2. Family migrants who are related to earlier generations of migrants.
  3. Refugee-humanitarian migrants who either are recognised under the UNHCR 1952 Convention or are accepted on other humanitarian grounds.
  4. Others, mainly New Zealanders who have more or less free access to settle in Australia.
Each year the federal government carries out consultations with a range of stakeholders in Australia to fix a quota on each of the four categories of migrants.

Skilled migration



The Skilled/Labour Migration part of the immigration program is designed to target skills which will contribute to the Australian economy. A points assessment system has been put in place whereby potential economic/skill settlers are assigned points associated with education/training, work experience, age, English language ability and other labour market attributes. A moving cut-off level (depending on the points scores of migrants in a given year) is recognised above which settlers are accepted. The skill stream in the program comprises several visa categories and has become of increased significance in recent years, as governments have sought to place a stronger emphasis on migration contributing to national economic growth. It now accounts for around 70 percent of the migration program, more than double its share in the early 1990s. Moreover, in 2008-09 the quota of 190.000 was the highest ever, although acknowledgement of the effects of the global financial crisis saw it reduced by 30.000 for 2009-10.

General Skilled Migration Points Test Assessment
CriteriaPoints (maximum)
Skill60
Age30
English Language ability25
Specific Employment10
Australian Employment10
Australian Qualifications25
Occupation in Demand (and Job Offer)20
Designated Language5
Studying and Living in Regional Australia5
Partner Skills5
State/Territory Government Nomination10
Designated Area Sponsership25
Total Skill Points (maximum)230
Each year a "pool mark" is set for each Visa category which gets people into the group to be considered for immigration. A "pass mark" is set which is equivalent to or higher than the pool mark. Changes to the pass and pool marks occur to adress Australia's labour market needs.
Source: DIAC.

Regional migration

In recent years a number of new visa categories have been introduced under the State Specific and Regional Migration Scheme (SSRM), which is part of the Skilled Migration program. Hence SSRM figures are a subset of the Skilled Migration program. The SSRM directs immigrants to settle in particular areas – away from the major metropolitan centres of the east and southeast coastal areas. The essence of the SSRM was to enable employers, state and local governments and families in designated "lagging economic regions" to sponsor immigrants without the immigrants having to fully meet the stringent requirements of the Australian Points Assessment Scheme.

The program began in 1997-98 when 1.753 SSRM settlers arrived in Australia. It has gathered particular momentum since 2003, with State governments like South Australia mounting substantial independent immigration, recruitment and settlement activities. In 2007-08, some 26.162 immigrants came to Australia under this scheme. The SSRM marks two particular shifts from previous Australian immigration policy [1]:
  • The Australian states and territories are becoming increasingly involved in immigration and recruitment ofimmigrants, which, historically, has been almost exclusively the responsibility of the national government.
  • Many of the SSRM migrants enter Australia as temporary residents. Then, after a period (around 2 years) in which they demonstrate that they have successfully adjusted to the labour market and Australia more generally, they are granted permanent residence.

Family migration

The Family Stream of Australia´s migration program is designed to enable the migration of immediate family members such as spouses, children, parents and certain other relatives. Following a deliberate government strategy to relate the migration program to the skill needs of the labour market, the relative significance of family migration in the migration program has declined since the early 1990s: Whereas skilled migrants made up 23.7 percent of the intake in 1993-94, they made up 62.1 percent in 2008-09. As a consequence, the Family Migration Stream has become increasingly restricted over the years. For example, the number of places for parents has been reduced. Nowadays, the program is essentially dominated by married partners who accounted for 80 percent of the 49.870 family migrants in 2007-08.

Fußnoten

1.
Hugo (2005a).

Kurzdossiers

Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl: Aktuelle Themen

Ein Kurzdossier legt komplexe Zusammenhänge aus den Bereichen Zuwanderung, Flucht und Asyl sowie Integration auf einfache und klare Art und Weise dar. Es bietet einen fundierten Einstieg in eine bestimmte Thematik, in dem es den Hintergrund näher beleuchtet und verschiedene Standpunkte wissenschaftlich und kritisch abwägt. Darüber hinaus enthält es Hinweise auf weiterführende Literatur und Internet-Verweise. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, sich eingehender mit der Thematik zu befassen. Unsere Kurzdossiers erscheinen bis zu 6-mal jährlich.

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