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Migration and Migration Policy in Luxembourg | Migration weltweit: Daten - Geschichte - Politik | bpb.de

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Migration aus Bangladesch nach Italien und darüber hinaus Die ägäischen Inseln: von Räumen des Transits zu Räumen der Immobilisierung Schutzsuchende aus den postjugoslawischen Kriegen Nordeuropa Migration in UK nach dem Brexit Ende der Freizügigkeit Commonwealth und EU-Bürger Skandinavische Antworten auf Einwanderung Litauen Irland Estland Lettland Brexit und das Echo der Geschichte Brexit und Freizügigkeit Südamerika Einwanderung und Auswanderung Personenfreizügigkeit Argentinien Vom Sklavenhandel zum Auswanderungsland: Brasilien Chile Kolumbien Kolumbien: Umgang mit Einwanderung Venezuela Ostafrika Äthiopien Lagerpolitik in Kenia Personenfreizügigkeit Südsudanesische Frauen Eritrea Uganda Ostafrika/Horn von Afrika Nordafrika Melilla Westsahara Migration und die Maghreb-Staaten Interview zu Migranten in Libyen Fluchterfahrungen von Selemawi M. Fluchterfahrungen von Awet A. Binnenvertreibung im Sudan Migrationsstaat Ägypten Marokko Hintergrund Historische Entwicklung Emigranten Zuwanderung Irreguläre Migration Integrationspolitik Rücküberweisungen Staatsbürgerschaft Flucht und Asyl Herausforderungen Literatur China Chinas Migrationstrends und -politiken Binnenmigration in China: Kann die städtische Integration gelingen? Länderprofil China 2014 Europäische Union Europawahl 2019: Wie stehen die großen Parteien zu den Themen Migration, Flucht und Asyl? Europäische Asyl- und Flüchtlingspolitik seit 2015 'Schengen', 'Dublin' und die Ambivalenzen der EU-Migrationspolitik. Eine kurze Geschichte Asyl- und Migrationspolitik in der Europäischen Union (2009) Asyl- und Migrationspolitik in der Europäischen Union (2015) Golfstaaten Moderne internationale Arbeitsmigration Arabien vor dem Erdölzeitalter Entwicklungsphasen der Arbeitsmigration Strukturelle Arbeitslosigkeit Arbeitsmärkte Herkunftsländer Geschlechterzusammensetzung Arbeitsmärkte im Vergleich "Arabischer Frühling" und Arbeitsmärkte Staatsangehörigkeit Schlussfolgerungen Literatur Arbeitsmigration aus Südasien in die Golfstaaten: Das Beispiel Pakistan Israel Hintergrund Historische Entwicklung Einwanderungspolitik Integration Staatsangehörigkeit Arbeitsmigration Irregulärer Aufenthalt Aktuelle Entwicklung Literatur Japan Pflegekräfte Japan Historische Entwicklung Aktuelle Entwicklung Migrationspolitik Die Zuwandererbevölkerung Staatsbürgerschaft Integration Flucht und Asyl Irreguläre Migration Entwicklungen / Herausforderungen Literatur/Internet Jordanien Arbeitsmigration aus Jordanien Geschichte, Politik, Wirtschaft Syrische Flüchtlinge Flüchtlingspolitik Kanada Entwicklungen seit 2015 Hintergrund Entwicklung Einwanderungsströme Einwandererbevölkerung Ethnische Zugehörigkeit Staatsbürgerschaft Integrationspolitik Multikulturalismus Irreguläre Migration Flucht und Asyl Aktuelle Entwicklungen Literatur Libanon Libanon – Geschichte und Politik Bestimmungen und Politiken Flüchtlingskrise und UNHCR Palästinenser im Libanon Senegal Aktuelle Politiken, Akteure und Diskurse Hintergrund Historische Entwicklung Politische Entwicklung Auswanderer Staatsbürgerschaft / Illegale Flucht und Asyl Aktuelle Entwicklung Literatur Türkei Syrer in der türkischen Textilindustrie Syrische Geflüchtete in der Türkei EU-Türkei-Flüchtlingsvereinbarung: Bestandsaufnahme und menschenrechtliche Bewertung Flüchtlingsabkommen EU - Türkei Bewertung des Flüchtlingsabkommens Die Asylpolitik der Türkei Situation syrischer Flüchtlinge Hintergrund Entwicklung Zuwanderungspolitik Staatsbürgerschaft Flucht und Asyl Ausländische Bevölkerung Aktuelle Entwicklung Literatur Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika Migrationspolitik: aktuelle Entwicklungen Hintergrund Einwanderungspolitik Aktueller Stand Einwanderung Staatsbürgerschaft Integration Flucht und Asyl Irreguläre Zuwanderung Debatten und Herausforderungen Literatur und Internetquellen English Version: Country Profiles Central America Costa Rica Transit migration in Mexico Mexico Australia and New Zealand Legal transfers of Restrictive Immigration and Asylum Policies Australia History of Migration in Australia and New Zealand Southeast Asia Labour Migration System in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia Philippines Southern Europe Migration in southern Europe: similarities and differences Migration and migration policy in Spain Migration and Migration Policy in Italy Migration and Migration Policy in Portugal Migration and Migration Policy in Greece Emigration from the Western Balkans A "bidesh" called Italy. Migration from Bangladesh to Italy, and beyond Northern Europe UK migration after Brexit Brexit and the Echoes of History Brexit and the end of free movement Ending free movement rights on Commonwealth and EU citizens in the UK Scandinavian responses to immigration Lithuania Ireland Estonia Latvia South America Freedom of Movement Venezuela East Africa Ethiopia Encampment Policy in Kenya South Sudanese Women Eritrea Uganda East and Horn of Africa North Africa Western Sahara Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia Internal Displacement in Sudan The Egyptian Migration State Afghanistan Afghan Refugees in Pakistan Afghan Migration to Germany Afghan Asylum Seekers and the Common European Asylum System The Afghan Taliban and Mujahedin Four Decades of Afghan Displacement Albania Background Information Historical Developments Key Stages Characteristics of Current Migration Flows Irregular Emigration Refugees and Asylum Seekers Immigration since 1990 Irregular Immigrants Refugees and Asylum Seekers Development of Migration-Related Policies Citizenship Current Developments Future Challenges References and Further Reading Argentina Introduction Historical Developments Recent Developments The Immigrant Population Argentines Abroad Legal Frameworks of Immigration Citizenship Refuge and Asylum Challenges and Outlook References and Further Reading Bangladesh The Rohingya Refugee Crisis Bangladesh at a Glance Historical Developments International Migration from Bangladesh Migration Policies International Migration Urbanization, Migration Systems within Bangladesh and Translocal Social Spaces Climate Change and Internal Migration in Bangladesh References Brazil Background Information Historical Development Political development Foreign population Ethnic origin Citizenship Emigration Irregular migration Refuge and asylum Conclusion References Canada 2015 Onwards Background Information Development of Immigration Immigration Flows Immigrant Population Ethnic Origins Citizenship Integration Policy Multiculturalism Irregular Migration Refuge and Asylum Current Issues References China China's Migration Trends and Policies Croatia Background Information Historical Developments Migration Policies The Immigrant Population Citizenship Integration and Integration Policies Flight and Asylum Irregular Migration Current Developments and Future Challenges Links and References European Union Background Information Historical Development Faces of Migration Institutional Basis Immigration Policy Integration Policy Irregular Migration Refuge and Asylum EU Citizenship Future Challenges Literature France Background Information Historical Development Current Migration Trends The Immigrant Population Irregular Immigration Refuge and Asylum Citizenship Current Developments Future Challenges Literature and Further Reading Germany Historical and Current Development of Migration to and from Germany Germany's Migration Policies Integration and Integration Policies in Germany Refuge and Asylum in Germany Current Challenges and Future Developments Greece Current Developments in Greece's Refugee and Asylum Policy Historical Development The Immigrant Population Recent Developments Migration Management Citizenship and Integration Policies Irregular Migration and Asylum Current and Future Challenges References Gulf States Migration Patterns The Arabian Gulf prior to the “oil era” Stages in labor immigration Structural unemployment Labor markets Nationality composition Gender composition Labor markets in comparison "Arab Spring" and labor markets Citizenship Discussion and Conclusions Bibliography Labor migration from South Asia to the Gulf: Pakistan as an example Ireland Background Immigration Migration Policy Irregular Migration Integration Issues Current Issues References Israel Background Information Historical development Immigration policy Integration Citizenship Labour migration Irregular residence Current developments References Italy Introduction Historical Development of Immigration Recent Developments Migration Policies The Immigrant Population Citizenship Immigrant Integration and Integration Policy Irregular Migration Refuge and Asylum Future Challenges Literature and Internet Resources Japan Japan tentatively opens its doors to international care workers Historical Development of Migration Current Development of Migration Migration Policy The Immigrant Population Citizenship Integration Refuge and Asylum Irregular Migration Developments / Challenges References and Further Reading Jordan History, Politics, Economy Syrian Refugees in Jordan Jordanian Refugee Policy Lebanon History and Politics Regulations and Policies Refugee Crisis and UNHCR Palestinians in Lebanon Lithuania Background Information Historical Development Immigrant and Foreign Population Flight and Asylum Integration of Minorities Irregular Migration Current Development References and Further Reading Morocco Background Information Historical Trends Emigrant Population Immigration Irregular Migration Integration Policy Remittances Citizenship Refuge and Asylum Future Challenges Bibliography Netherlands Introduction Historical Trends Immigration Policy Immigrant Population Integration Policy Citizenship Immigrant Integration Irregular Migration Refuge and Asylum Current Developments References and Further Reading Poland Background Information Emigration / Immigration Political Development Immigrant Population Integration / Asylum Citizenship Irregular Migration Current Development References Romania Background Information Historical Trends Immigration/ Emigration Citizenship Refuge and Asylum Irregular Migration Current Issues Future Challenges References Russian Federation Background Trends Migration policy Integration policy Irregular migration Refuge and asylum Citizenship Future Challenges References Senegal Background Information Historical Trends Political Development Emigrant Population Citizenship / Irregular Migration Refuge and Asylum Current Developments References Spain Background Information Historical Development Political Development Foreign Population Refuge and Asylum Citizenship Irregular Migration Future Challenges References Sweden Introduction Historical Development Current Trends Immigration Policy Immigration / Circular Migration Integration Policy Citizenship Asylum and Refugees Irregular Migration Future Challenges References Switzerland Migration and Migration Policy in Switzerland Turkey Syrian Textile Workers in Türkiye Syrians in Turkey Turkey’s Asylum Policy Syrian Refugees in Turkey Background Information Historical Trends Immigration Policy Citizenship Refuge and Asylum Foreign Population Irregular Migration Current Development References United Kingdom Background Information Immigration Policy Immigrant Population Minorities Integration Citizenship Refuge and Asylum Irregular Migration Current Developments References United States of America Actual Migration Policy Changes Background Information Immigration Policy Current Admissions Policy Immigrant Population Citizenship Integration Refuge and Asylum Irregular Migration Current Issues and Future Challenges References Ukraine – Emigration and Displacement in Past and Present Migration and Migration Policy in Luxembourg Migration and migration politics in Austria Migration Politics in East Asia Belgium Ukrainian migrants in Poland Southern Africa Migration in the SADC International Migration in South Africa South Africa Impressum Westafrika Migrationspolitiken in Ostasien

Migration and Migration Policy in Luxembourg

Birte Nienaber Nicole Holzapfel-Mantin Adolfo Sommarribas

/ 10 Minuten zu lesen

Luxembourg has a long history of immigration. Today, almost half of the country’s population are foreign citizens – mostly from other EU member states.

The European Monument in Schengen (Luxembourg): The majority of foreign citizens in Luxembourg are from other member states of the European Union. (© picture-alliance/dpa)

Migration History

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg can look back on a long migratory history since the Middle Ages. Hospices attached to monasteries for pilgrims and the strategic location of Luxembourg’s fortress furthered migration.

In the second half of the 19th century, Luxembourg experienced a large-scale labour immigration of both low and highly skilled workers (mainly Germans). This development can be attributed to Luxembourg’s flourishing steel industry, which in turn coincided with Luxembourg’s joining of the German Customs Union in 1842, the installation of the railway in 1859, as well as the political consolidation and demilitarization following the Treaty of London signed in 1867, which allowed Luxembourg to remain a neutral country. Together these events facilitated cross-border trade and the transport of goods and people. The lack of workforce in the local population, drove qualified workers, such as engineers, from Germany and manual workers from Italy to Luxembourg. The latter, however, rotated in between the neighbouring regions of Lorraine, Luxembourg, and Saarland in search for the best working conditions and highest salaries.

German immigration stopped at the end of World War II, but additional workers were needed for the construction and agricultural sectors. Migration to Luxembourg continued on the basis of bilateral agreements. First, the Luxembourgish government tried to initiate migration from Italy, which was rejected by the Italian government at first. Eventually, a bilateral agreement was concluded in 1948 between Luxembourg and Italy, which was renewed until the creation of the European Economic Community in 1957. Luxembourg also entered into a bilateral labour agreement in 1950 with the Netherlands to recruit agricultural workers. With the entering into force of the Treaty of Rome on 1st January 1958, citizens of the six signatory countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) started to benefit from the free circulation of workers. Since the Mid-1960s, Portuguese migrants who had been working in the French neighbouring province of Lorraine came to work in Luxembourg mainly in the construction and cleaning sector or as domestic workers. In 1970, a bilateral agreement was signed between Portugal and Luxembourg. Luxembourg continued to sign several bilateral agreements on work migration from third countries from outside the EEC (which was later to become the EU), which were however quite restrictive. In 1970, for instance, a bilateral agreement was signed with the former Republic of Yugoslavia, which excluded family reunification to prevent immigration from a “non- catholic” country. For the same reason, bilateral labour agreements with Asian or North African countries were not envisaged.

The development of Luxembourg to a service- and financial centre in the 1980s attracted work migrants from Germany and other European countries. Although the largest share of foreign residents in Luxembourg are EU-citizens, the diversification of migration to Luxembourg has increased over time to include increasing numbers of citizens from third countries. The Cape Verdean community arrived in the wake of Portuguese immigration and has ever since constituted the main community from sub-Saharan Africa. The wars on the territory of the former Republic of Yugoslavia in the 1990s and early 2000s led to refugee movements also to Luxembourg, where an Yugoslav immigrant community was already established. In recent years, many descendants of Luxembourgers who emigrated to Brazil about 100 years ago to build up the steel industry on the other side of the Atlantic are retracing their ancestral roots and immigrate to Luxembourg. Due to the Naturalization law of 2017 which allows the recovery of nationality for immigrants with Luxembourgish ancestors the share of naturalisation of the descendants is quite significant. The diversification of migration is ongoing. On the one hand it is furthered by the needs of the labour market of the Grand Duchy, which is focussed in the financial and services sectors, with the gradual installation of migrants from the US, China and India and on the other hand by the significant arrival of refugees from Syria, Iraq and Eritrea since 2015 and, from February 2022 onwards, Ukrainians fleeing the war in Ukraine.

Recent Migration Structure

Luxembourg’s demographic profile is characterised by a high share of foreign residents. On 1 January 2023, Luxembourg had 660,809 inhabitants, out of which 47,4 percent were foreign nationals. The percentage of foreigners has been increasing constantly over the last years.

The vast majority of foreigners in Luxembourg are EU citizens (78,4 percent). Although the share of third-country nationals is increasing (also due to refugees from Syria, Afghanistan, and Ukraine), the Top 5 foreign nationalities in Luxembourg are EU nationalities with a long migration history to Luxembourg: Portuguese, French, Italian, Belgian, and German. The majority (51,5 percent) of the foreigners are male. Foreign nationals make up more than 50 percent of the main work force (25 to 54 years).

While foreigners reside in all communes in Luxembourg, their geographic distribution is uneven: the proportion of foreign population is highest in the capital Luxembourg City (70.8 percent) and lowest in the rural municipality of Wahl (20.4 percent).

In addition to the significance of Luxembourg’s neighbouring countries, which are already under the Top 5 source countries of foreign nationals, cross-border commuting to Luxembourg from Germany, France, and Belgium (i.e. the Greater Region) plays an extraordinary role. In 2021, 207.530 cross-border workers commuted every weekday to Luxembourg. This represents 47 percent of the overall workforce in Luxembourg and diversifies the population structure during working days even further.

Insights into Luxembourg’s Migration, Integration and Asylum Policies

Luxembourgish legislation on immigration and asylum is shaped by transposed European Directives and also reflects the changing significance of immigration to Luxembourg and its socio-economic impacts. Over time, legislation has become more nuanced and detailed to accommodate the increasing migratory flows to Luxembourg as well as the progressively more diverse profiles of migrants.

The first comprehensive asylum law was introduced in 2006. With the recast of the Directive n° 2013/32/EU, Luxembourg approved the Law on international protection and temporary protection. The revision of the Luxembourgish Constitution in 2023, recognised at Constitutional level the right of asylum, completing the national legal framework on asylum (1951 Geneva Convention, EU acquis, etc.). The new constitutional text entered into force on 1 July 2023.

In Luxembourg the first integration policies were developed in 1993. However, there was not a clear definition of what “integration” meant. The integration of foreign residents follows a mainstreaming approach, and it is managed by different actors at the local and central levels. The integration policy has been developed since the introduction of the Law on the reception and integration of foreigners in 2008, which defined the term “integration” for the first time. This law understands integration as a two-way process involving society as a whole: foreign and national residents alike. Luxembourg’s current integration strategy is set out in the multiannual National Action Plans for Integration (PAN Integration) and it is implemented through two main programmes: the Welcome and Integration Contract (CAI), and the Accompanied Integration Pathway (PIA).

The Luxembourgish Integration Law has been undergoing a comprehensive reform process since 2020. The Ministry of Family Affairs, Integration and the Greater Region consulted a wide range of stakeholders and commissioned the OECD to conduct a study on Luxembourg's integration policies. The new bill aims, inter alia, to replace the current "integration" approach with an approach based on the concept of “intercultural living together”, which is broader as it aims for example at establishing “diversity as a wealth and advantage for the development of an intercultural society”.

Other laws and policies that reflect a more gradual shift regarding how the country perceives immigration are the changes in the nationality law and the electoral law. For instance, in 2008, Luxembourg allowed dual citizenship and in 2017, the requirements for obtaining Luxembourgish citizenship were simplified allowing for naturalisation by option. In 2022, the electoral law was modified to make voting in communal elections more accessible to foreign residents. All foreign citizens legally residing in Luxembourg may now participate in municipal elections, regardless of their nationality and length of residence. The government’s “ultimate goal remains to include our non-Luxembourg citizens in the democratic process” as the right to vote is seen as an essential factor of integration.

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