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Bibliography | The Gulf Cooperation Council States (GCC) |


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Official publications

Kingdom of Bahrain

Central Informatics Organisation (CIO), Statistical Abstract (SA), various issues, Manama.

Central Statistical Organization (CSO) (2011), Population, Housing, Buildings, Establishments and Agriculture Census, Census Summary Result 2010, Manama. Available at: Externer Link:

Central Bank of Bahrain (2011), Statistical Bulletin-November 2011, Manama.

State of Kuwait

Ministry of Planning, Statistics and Information Center, Annual Statistical Abstract, various issues, Kuwait.

Central Bank of Kuwait, Economic Report, various issues, Kuwait.

Sultanate of Oman

Ministry of National Economy (MNE), Statistical Yearbook (SY), various issues, Muscat.

Ministry of National Economy (MNE), Statistics Online, Available at: Externer Link:

Ministry of National Economy (MNE) (2005), Selected Data and Indicators From the Results of General Populations, Housing Units and Establishments Censuses, 1993-2003, Muscat.

Ministry of National Economy (MNE) (2011), The Preliminary Results of the Census 2010, Muscat. Central Bank of Oman (CBO) (2011), Annual Report-2011, Muscat.

State of Qatar

Statistics Authority (SA), Annual [Statistical] Abstract (AA), various issues, Doha.

Statistics Authority (SA) (2010), Census of Population and Housing Establishments-2010, April, Doha.

Statistics Authority (SA) (2011), Labor Force Sample Survey[LFSS]-2011, Doha.

Qatar National Bank, Qatar Economic Review, various issues, Doha.

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

Ministry of Economy and Planning (MEP), Central Department of Statistics and Information, Annual Statistical Yearbook (ASY), various issues, Riyadh.

Ministry of Economy and Planning (MEP) (2009), The Ninth Development Plan, 1431-1435(H), 2010-2014, Riyadh. Ministry of Economy and Planning (MEP) (2011), KSA Econ in Figures-2011 English.xlsx 11/10/2011. Available at: Externer Link:

Central Department of Statistics & Information (CDSI) (2008), Demographic Research Bulletin-1428H [2007]. Available at: Externer Link:

Central Department of Statistics and Information Data (CDSI). Available at: Externer Link:

Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA), Annual Report (AR), various issues, Riyadh.

United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Ministry of Planning, Annual Statistical Abstract, various issues, Abu Dhabi.

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2011), Population Estimates, 2006-2010. Available at: Externer Link:

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (25 December 2010), Population by Age Group, 1975-2005. Available at: Externer Link:

United States (U.S.)

Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI) (2001), U.S. Committee for Refugees World Refugee Survey 2001 – Kuwait. Available at: Externer Link:

Department of State (2008), Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2006, Vol. II. Washington, D.C.

Energy Information Administration (EIA)
International Petroleum Monthly (IPM), Washington, D.C., available at: Externer Link:

The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of Gulf (GCC)

Secretariat General (2012), Statistical Bulletin-2011, Dubai.

OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)

OPEC (2000), Annual Statistical Bulletin, Geneva.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

IMF (2009), Qatar: 2008 Article IV Consultation, IMF Country Report No. 09/28, Washington, D.C., January.

IMF (2011), Saudi Arabia: 2011 Article IV Consultation - Staff Report, IMF Country Report No. 11/292, Washington, D.C., September.

United Nations (UN)

UN, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, International Migration Stock. Available at: Externer Link:

UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) (2007), Country Operation Plan: Executive Committee Summary: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia & Gulf Countries, Riyadh.

UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) (2012), Saudi Arabia. Available at: Externer Link:

UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) (1992), Population Situation in the ESCWA Region-1990, Amman, May.

UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)/League of Arab States/UN Population Fund (UNFPA) (1993), Arab Labour Migration, Meeting of Senior Official and Experts, Amman, April 4-6.

UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) (2010), Bulletin on Population and Vital Statistics in the ESCWA Region, 13th issue, New York.

UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) (2011), Compendium of Social Statistics and Indicators, 2010-2011, Arab Society, New York, December.

UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) (2012), Survey of Economic and Social Developments in the ESCWA Region, 2010-2011, New York.

International Labour Organization (ILO)

ILO (1980), International Migration and Development in the Arab Region, by J.S. Birks and C.A. Sinclair, Geneva.

ILO (1989), International Migration for Employment: Manpower and Population Evolution in the GCC and Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, World Employment Programme Research, Working Paper, by J. S. Birks and C. A. Sinclair, Geneva.

The World Bank

The World Bank Data. Available at: Externer Link:

The World Bank (2011), Migration and Remittances Factbook-2011, 2nd edition, Washington, D.C.

Commercial Publications

Birks, Sinclair & Associates Ltd, GCC Market Report, 1990 and 1992, Durham: Mountjoy Research Centre.

HRD base Ltd., Lloyds Bank Chambers (1987), Socio-Demographic Profiles of Key Arab Countries, Newcastle, May.

Books, Articles and Reports

Awad, Ibrahim (2009), International Labour Migration and Employment in the Arab Region: Origins, Consequences and the Way Forward, paper presented at the Arab Employment Forum, Beirut, 19-21 October. Available at: Externer Link:

Ayubi, Nazih N. (1995), Over-Stating the Arab State: Politics and Society in the Middle East, London and New York: I. B. Tauris Publishers.

Baldwin-Edwards, Martin (2005), Migration in the Middle East and Mediterranean, Penteion University, Athens, Greece, January.

Baldwin-Edwards, Martin (2011), Labour Immigration and Labour Markets in the GCC Countries: National Patterns and Trends, Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the GCC States, No. 15, March.

Beblawi, Hazem/ Luciani, Giacomo (1987), The Rentier state, London : Croom Helm.

Beblawi, Hazem (1990), ‘The Rentier State in the Arab World’, in Giacomo Luciani (ed.), The Arab State, London: Routledge, pp. 85-98.

Berrebi, Claude/Martorell, Francisco/Tanner, Jeffery C. (2009), ‘Qatar’s Labor Markets at a Crucial Crossroad’, The Middle East Journal, 63(3), pp. 421-442.

Bloomberg News. Available at: Externer Link:

Choucri, Nazli (1986), ‘Asians in the Arab World: Labor Migration and Public Policy’, Middle Eastern Studies, 22(2), pp. 252-273.

Dito, Mohammed Ibrahim (2008), GCC Labour Migration Governance, United Nation Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, 20-21 September. UN/POP/EGM/2008/7.

Al-Dosary, Adel S./Masiur Rahman, Syed (2005), ‘Saudization (Localization): A Critical Review’, Human Resource Development International, 8(4), pp. 495-502.

Emirates Centre for Human Rights (ECHR) (2012), The Bidoun of the United Arab emirates. Available at: Externer Link:

Fargues, Philippe (2011), ‘Immigration without Inclusion: Non-Nationals in Nation-Building in the Gulf States’, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 20(3-4), pp. 273-292.

Fargues, Philippe/Brouwer, Imco (2012), ‘GCC Demography and Immigration: Challenges and Policies’, in Steffen Hertog (ed.), National Employment, Migration and Education in the GCC, Berlin and London: Gerlach Press, pp. 231-263.

Foley, Sean (2010), The Arab Gulf States: Beyond Oil and Islam, Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Forstenlechner, Ingo/Rutledge, Emilie (2010), ‘Unemployment in the Gulf: Time to Update the Social Contract’, Middle East Policy, 17(2), pp. 38-51.

Forstenlechner, Ingo/Madi, Mohamed T./Selim, Hassan M./Rutledge, Emilie J. (2012), ‘Emiratisation: Determining the Factors that Influence the Recruitment Decisions of Employers in the UAE’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(2), pp. 406-421.

Gause, Gregory III (1994), Oil Monarchies: Domestic and Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf States, New York: Council on Foreign Relations.

Gray, Matthew (2011), A Theory of “Late Rentierism” in the Arab States of the Gulf, Center for International and Regional Studies, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar, Occasional Paper, No. 7.

Harry, Wes (2007), ‘Employment Creation and Localization: The Crucial Human Resource Issues for the GCC’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(1), pp. 132-146.

Al-Hasan, Hasan Tariq (2012), ‘Labor Market Policies in Bahrain’, in Steffen Hertog (ed.), National Employment, Migration and Education in the GCC, Berlin and London: Gerlach Press, pp. 107-147.

Hertog, Steffen (2012), ‘A Comparative Assessment of Labor Market Nationalization Policies in the GCC’, in Steffen Hertog (ed.), National Employment, Migration and Education in the GCC, Berlin and London: Gerlach Press, pp. 65-106.

Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2003, 2012), ‘Population Statistics: Gulf Cooperation Council States’, Human Rights News. Available at: Externer Link:

Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2011), Country Study: Saudi Arabia, 24 January. Available at: Externer Link:,,,,SAU,,4d3e802327,0.html.

Hvidt, Martin (2009), ‘The Dubai Model: An Outline of Key Development-Process Elements in Dubai’, IJMES, 41, pp. 397-418.

International Organization for Migration (IOM) (2012), Facts & Figures-2012. Available at: Externer Link:

Ismael, Jacqueline S. (1982), Kuwait: Social Change in Historical Perspective, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Kapiszewski, Andrzej (2001), National and Expatriates: Population and Labour Dilemmas of the Gulf Cooperation Council States, Reading: Ithaca Press.

Kapiszewski, Andrzej (2006), Arab Versus Asian Migrant Workers in the GCC Countries, paper presented at United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development in the Arab Region, Beirut, 15-17 May. Available at: Externer Link:

El-Katiri, Laura/Fattouh, Bassam/Segal, Paul (2012), ‘Nationality of an Oil-Based Welfare State: Rent Distribution in Kuwait’, in David Held/Kristian Ulrichsen (eds.), The Transformation of the Gulf, London: Routledge, pp. 165-187.

de Kerros, Tatjana (2011), ‘Saudi Arabia: From National Strategies to Economic Realities’, The Entrepreneurialist. Available at: Externer Link:

Al-Kibsi, Gassan/Benkert, Claus/Schubert, Jörg (2007), ‘Getting Labor Policy to Work in the Gulf’, The McKinsey Quarterly, February, pp. 19-29. Available at: Externer Link:

Longva, Ann Nga (2000), ‘Citizenship in the Gulf States’, in Nils A. Butenschon et al. (eds.), Citizenship and the State in the Middle East: Approaches and Applications, New York: Syracuse University Press, pp. 179-197.

Looney, Robert E. (2004), ‘Saudization and Sound Economic Reforms: Are the Two Compatible?’ Strategic Insights, III(2). Available at: Externer Link:

Mashood, Neelofer/Verhoeven, Helen/Chansarkar, Bal (2009), ‘Emiratisation, Omanisation and Saudisation -Common Causes: Common Solutions?’ Available online at: Externer Link:

MEED (Middle East Economist Digest, Weekly, London).

MEES (Middle East Economic Survey, Weekly, Nicosia).

MEI (Middle East International, Weekly, London).

Michell, Tony (2010), ‘Foreign Workers: New Engine for Economic Dynamism’, The Korean Times, 23 June.

Migration News. Available at: Externer Link:

Naithani, Pranav (2010), ‘Challenges Faced by Expatriate Workers in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries’, International Journal of Business and Management, 5(1), pp. 98-103.

Al-Najjar, Baquer Salman (1993), ‘Population Policies in the Countries of the Gulf Co-operation Council: Politics and Society’, Immigrants & Minorities, 12(2), pp. 200-218.

Naufal, George S. (2011), ‘Labor Migration and Remittances in the GCC’, Labor History, 52(1), pp. 307-322.

Niblock, Tim/Malik, Monica (2007), The Political Economy of Saudi Arabia, London: Routledge.

Okruhlik, Gwenn (2011), ‘Dependence, Disdain, and Distance: State, Labor, and Citizenship in the Arab Gulf States’, in Jean-Francois Seznec/Mimi Kirk (eds.), Industrialization in the Gulf: A Socioeconomic Revolution, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 125-142.

Owen, Roger/Pamuk, Şevket (1999), A History of Middle East Economies in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Parolin, Gianluca P. (2009), Citizenship in the Arab World: Kin, Religion and Nation-State, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Partrick, Neil (2012), ‘Nationalism in the Gulf States’, in David Held/Kristian Ulrichsen (eds.), The Transformation of the Gulf, London: Routledge, pp. 47-65.

Population Reference Bureau (PRB) (2012), World Population Data Sheet-2012, New York.

Ramady, Mohamed A. (2010), The Saudi Economy: Policies, Achievements, and Challenges, 2nd edition. New York: Springer. Randeree, Kasim (2012), Workforce Nationalization in the Gulf Cooperation Council States, Georgetown University, School of foreign Service in Qatar, CIRI (Center for International and Regional Studies).

Richards, Alan/John Waterbury (2008), A Political Economy of the Middle East, 3rd edition. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Rivlin, Paul (2009), Arab Economies in the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ross, Michael L. (2001), ‘Does Oil Hinder Democracy?’ World Politics, Vol. 53, April, pp. 325-361.

Ruhs, Martin (2009), Migrant Rights, Immigration Policy and Hyman Development, Human Development Research Paper 2009/23.

Rutledge, Emilie et al. (2011), ‘Women, Labour Market Nationalization Policies and Human Resource Development in the Arab Gulf States’, Human Resource Development International, 14(2), pp. 183-198.

Saif, Ibrahim (2009), The Oil Boom in the GCC Countries, 2002-2008; Old Challenges, Changing Dynamics, Carnegie Middle East Center, Carnegie Papers, No. 15. Available at: Externer Link:

Salama, Samir (2010), ‘GCC Must Tackle Unemployment’, Gulf News, 2 February 2010.

Scott‐Jackson, William et al. (2010), Maximising Women’s Participation in the GCC Workforce, Oxford Strategic Consulting-Gulf. Available at: Externer Link:

Sfakianakis, John (2011), ‘New Employment Rules to Shake up Saudi Private Sector’, Arab, posted 15 June. Available at: Externer Link:

Shah, Nasra M. (2007), Migration to Kuwait: Trends, Patterns and Policies, paper prepared for the Migration and Refugee Movements in the Middle East and North Africa, The Forced Migration & Refugee Studies Program The American University in Cairo, Egypt, 23-25 October 2007.

Shah, Nasra M. (2008), Recent Labor Immigration Policies in the Oil-Rich Gulf: How Effective Are They Likely To Be?, ILO Asian Regional Programme on Governance of Labour Migration, Working Paper No. 3, Bangkok, January.

Shah, Nasra M. (2009), The Management of Irregular Migration and its Consequence for Development: Gulf Cooperation Council, ILO, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, March 2009.

Shah, Nasra M. (2012), ‘Socio-demographic Transitions among Nationals of GCC Countries: Implications for Migration and Labour Force Trends,’ Migration and Development, 1(1), pp. 138-148.

Shaham, Dahila (2008), ‘Foreign Labor in the Arab Gulf: Challenges to Nationalization’, Al-Nakhlah, pp. 1-14.

El-Shalakani, Mostafa H. and Amal Y. A. al-Sabah (1993), ‘Population Spatial Distribution Policies in Kuwait,’ in ESCWA, Population Spatial Distribution, Amman, ESCWA, pp. 106-136.

Al-Sulami, Muhammad (2011), ‘New Saudization Plan in Two Weeks’, Arab News, 26 March.

Wilson, Rodney et al. (2004), Economic Development in Saudi Arabia, London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon.

Winckler, Onn (2009), Arab Political Demography: Population Growth, Labor Migration and Natalist Policies, 2nd edition, Brighton and Portland: Sussex Academic Press.

Winckler, Onn (2010), ‘Labor Migration to the GCC States: Patterns, Scale and Policies’, in Migration and the Gulf, Washington, D.C: The Middle East Institute, pp. 9-12.

Zovighian, Diana (2012), ‘Gulf Women’s Participation in the Labor Market: Paid Labor, Care and Social Protection in Patriarchal Systems’, in Steffen Hertog (ed.), National Employment, Migration and Education in the GCC, Berlin and London: Gerlach Press, pp. 183-230.

Sources for figures 1-4:

The State of Kuwait, CSO, Annual Statistical Abstract, various issues (Kuwait);
The State (Kingdom) of Bahrain, CSO, Statistical Abstract, various issues (Manama);
Central Bank of Bahrain, Statistical Bulletin-November 2011 (Manama);
Sultanate of Oman, Ministry of National Economy, Statistical Yearbook, various issues (Muscat);
Sultanate of Oman, MNE (2005);
Sultanate of Oman, MNE, (2011);
KSA, MEP, Statistical Yearbook, various issues (Riyadh);
KSA, MEP, Central Department of Statistics and Information Data [Externer Link:];
KSA, MEP (2011);
State of Qatar, SA, Annual Statistical Abstract, various issues (Doha);
State of Qatar, SA, Labor Force Sample Survey, various issues (Doha);
Qatar National Bank,
Qatar Economic Review, various issues (Doha);
UAE, NBS (2010);
GCC (2012);
ILO (1980; 1989);
ESCWA (1992; 1993);
HRD base Ltd. (1987);
Birks, Sinclair & Associates Ltd. (1990; 1992);
Kapiszewski (2001);
Winckler (2009; 2010).