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Poland

Dossier

The history of migration in Poland is characterised largely by emigration. Because of its geographic location between Eastern and Western Europe, Poland frequently serves as a transit country for migrants. In addition to this, it is developing into a destination country, primarily for migrants from neighbouring countries (Ukraine, Belarus, Russia) on its eastern border, and from other parts of the former Soviet Union. (Version from 1/2008)

Erscheinungsdatum:

Background Information

The history of migration in Poland is characterised largely by emigration. Until the end of the 20th century, emigration took place both in large waves and in continual yearly movements.

Stefan Alscher

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The Emigration/Immigration Balance

If we look simply at the "numbers", emigration clearly outweighs immigration. However, the multicultural nature of some districts of Warsaw and other major cities indicates that immigration is on the…

Stefan Alscher

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Political and Legal Developments

Until the mid-1990s, there was no clear legal framework for dealing with migration and immigrants. Since 1997, the Polish Aliens Act, along with further reforms in 2001 and 2003, aims to regulate the…

Stefan Alscher

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The Immigrant Population

It is extremely difficult to quantify Poland's foreign population as there is hardly any official data. In 2002 the most widely represented nationalities were Ukrainians, Russians, Germans,…

Stefan Alscher

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Integration Policy

Aside from ethnic Polish repatriates Poland's integration policy applies only to refugees and, since 2007, to foreigners who hold statutory temporary suspensions of deportation.

Stefan Alscher

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Citizenship

Polish citizenship is acquired at birth if at least one of the parents already possesses citizenship. Naturalisation is possible after a minimum of five years of legal residency in Poland. Although it…

Stefan Alscher

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Irregular Migration

Since the 1990s, Poland has developed into a transit country for irregular migration from east to west. The destination country of those departing or transiting illegally was most often Germany.

Stefan Alscher

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Current Developments and Future Challenges

The main topics in the discussion on migration are the emigration of professionals in certain fields (brain drain) and the relations with Poland's neighbouring countries to the east.

Stefan Alscher

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References

Here you can find references and further reading for Country Profile 3: "Poland" by Stefan Alscher.

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