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Northern Europe |

The history of the Northern Europe region is marked by migration. People moved across borders and sometimes borders across people. Today, some Northern European countries attract large numbers of immigrants, while other countries experience extensive emigration.


Brexit and the end of free movement

The withdrawal of the UK from the EU has brought the border and immigration controls into the lives of millions of mobile UK and EU citizens who lost their free movement rights.

Michaela Benson

/ 7 Minuten zu lesen

Brexit and the Echoes of History

Looking at post-war immigration narratives reveals that immigration is a controversial issue in the United Kingdom, which contributed to the end of free movement schemes – today and 40 years ago.

Chris Billing

/ 13 Minuten zu lesen

Scandinavian responses to immigration

How have Denmark, Norway and Sweden approached international immigration in the post-war period? What similarities and differences can we see across the countries and how can they be explained? What…

Karin Borevi

/ 7 Minuten zu lesen

Current Trends of Migration in Lithuania

Throughout its recent history, Lithuania has been a country of emigration. Migration and integration policies are selective as they favour return migration of Lithuanian citizens and immigration of…

Giedrė Blažytė

/ 11 Minuten zu lesen

Migration and Migration Policy in Ireland

For most of its history, Ireland was a country of emigration. In the last twenty-five years, however, it has gone from being a largely homogenous country to an increasingly heterogenous country in…

Irial Glynn

/ 11 Minuten zu lesen

Immigration to and Emigration from Estonia

In its history, Estonia has been part of various empires before (re)gaining independence. People have moved across borders – and sometimes borders have moved across them. The legacies of the past…

Mari-Liis Jakobson

/ 8 Minuten zu lesen

Latvia – Immigration, Emigration, Diaspora

Throughout its history, Latvia has experienced both periods of immigration and emigration. The latter has dominated in recent years. At the same time, negative attitudes towards immigration are…

Inta Mierina

/ 12 Minuten zu lesen

Further articles on migration in Northern Europe



Traditionally Ireland has been a country marked by a declining population and high rates of emigration. Within the last two decades this situation has reversed dramatically. Immigration has increased…



Lithuania, the biggest of the three Baltic states, lies on the eastern border of the EU, to which it was admitted in 2004. Since regaining independence in 1990, Lithuania has been strongly affected by…



Sweden is a country with a long tradition of immigration. Already in the 1960s, when, against the backdrop of an economic upswing, foreign labor was recruited, Sweden did not regard immigrants solely…


United Kingdom

The United Kingdom became a country of immigration after the Second World War. Currently, the large number of immigrants leads to much controversy. For the first time in the country’s history,…