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Characteristics of Current Migration Flows | Albania |

Albania Background Information Historical Developments Key Stages Characteristics of Current Migration Flows Irregular Emigration Refugees and Asylum Seekers Immigration since 1990 Irregular Immigrants Refugees and Asylum Seekers Development of Migration-Related Policies Citizenship Current Developments Future Challenges References and Further Reading

Characteristics of Current Migration Flows

Julie Vullnetari

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First, there are fewer irregular migrants than in the 1990s, primarily as a consequence of the regularization schemes in Greece (1998, 2001, 2005 and 2007) and Italy (1995, 1997 and 2002), where a considerable number of Albanians participated successfully. Family reunification followed on a large scale.

Secondly, the migration destinations have diversified; although Greece and Italy remain the top countries in terms of stocks, flows to the UK and the USA have been increasing (Interner Link: Table 1).

Thirdly, the typology of individual migrants has transformed from one where young males dominated, to one where families are the norm rather than the exception. As Albanian migration has reached the phase of settlement on orientation towards integration, the second-generation group has consolidated itself. Fourthly, a substantial intellectual loss has occurred: during the 1990s half of all the country's academics and scientists emigrated, while it is not sure if and how many Albanian students at universities abroad will ever return. Finally, although most migrants have settled in their countries of destination, there is parallel temporary seasonal and return migration, especially to Greece.

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Julie Vullnetari is post-doctoral researcher at the Sussex Centre for Migration Research, School of Global Studies of the University of Sussex in the UK. Email: E-Mail Link: