The global economic and financial crisis has underpinned and reinforced the problems of democracies worldwide. In Europe the financial crisis has influenced citizens’ faith in current political leaders, with levels of trust in European and national institutions dramatically decreasing in a number of countries. At the same time, the 'Arab Spring' showed how the combination of an authoritarian and corrupt state with economic and social inequality can lead to mass protest and initial steps towards a democratic transformation of state and society. Crucial questions in this context are: What role can citizenship education play to maintain and enhance democracy and social cohesion? Is 'participatory citizenship' as described in a recent study of the EU Commission a solution for the problems of distrust in Europe? How can protest movements be transformed into long-term and effective forms of political participation?
Interner Link: Azelarabe Lahkim Bennani, University of Fez (Morocco)
Interner Link: Pablo Oñate, University of Valencia (Spain)
Introduction & Moderation:
Ondrej Matejka, Civic Education Centre (Czech Republic)
Interner Link: Muna Bur, The Danish Egyptian Dialogue Institute (Egypt)