Democratic values such as political and citizenship equality depend on a foundation of socio-economic equality, which has been undermined in a growing number of European societies in recent years. Many observers point to a radical acceleration of inequality even in many European welfare states. As a consequence (youth) movements (in particular in countries like Spain) have started a rebellion against the political class, which is perceived as powerless and not willing to rein in the global market forces. Social and economic problems were also, not least, the triggers of massive protests in the Arab world, leading ultimately to the supersession of regimes. Crucial questions in this context are: How can citizenship education contribute to a new discourse and a new political debate on the long-term political consequences of 'inequality'? Are we in need of a new ‘social contract’ in these times of uncertainty? How can the new Arab governments keep their promises for a more equal and just society?
Noha El-Mikawy, Ford Foundation (Egypt)
Fernando Vallespin, Instituto Universitario José Ortega y Gasset (Spain)
Introduction & Moderation:
Fernando Vallespín, Instituto Universitario José Ortega y Gasset (Spain)*
Interner Link: Yordanka Evgenieva, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Bulgaria)