Meine Merkliste Geteilte Merkliste

"Together We Are Stronger" – On Self-Organization of Women* Refugees

Kurzdossiers "Paradise Left Behind" – Begleitmaterial zum Film "Es geht um differenzierte Bilder." – Ein Gespräch über Paradise Left Behind Die ägäischen Inseln: von Räumen des Transits zu Räumen der Immobilisierung 'Schengen', 'Dublin' und die Ambivalenzen der EU-Migrationspolitik. Eine kurze Geschichte Paradise Left Behind Migration und Wirtschaft Die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Zuwanderung Wie sich Migration auf die Herkunftsländer auswirkt Migrantische Ökonomien in Deutschland Fachkräfteengpässe und Arbeitsmigration nach Deutschland Migration und Handwerk – kurze Geschichte einer langen Verbindung Migration und Handwerk: Fachkräftemangel und integratives Potenzial Zugehörigkeit und Zusammenhalt in der Migrationsgesellschaft Was ist Heimat? Warum es so viel leichter ist über Nudelsalat zu reden als über Rassismus Die blinden Flecken antirassistischer Diskurse Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Konfliktbearbeitung ist der Klebstoff der Demokratie Sozialer Zusammenhalt und das Gefühl, fremd im eigenen Land zu sein Die Gruppe der Ostdeutschen als Teil postmigrantischer Integrationsfragen Kommunale Migrations- und Flüchtlingspolitik Der "local turn" in der Migrations- und Asylpolitik Kommunen und ihre Rolle bei der Flüchtlingsaufnahme Kommunale Aufnahme von Flüchtlingen Interview: Migrations- und integrationspolitische Debatten im Deutschen Städtetag Kommunale Integrationspolitik in Deutschland: Teilhabe vor Ort ermöglichen Zufluchtsstädte im amerikanischen Einwanderungsföderalismus Migration in städtischen und ländlichen Räumen Geflüchtete in ländlichen Räumen Perspektive Geflüchteter auf das Leben auf dem Land Landlust oder Landfrust? Fleischindustrie Migrantische Arbeitskräfte in der malaysischen Palmölindustrie (Il)legal? Migrant_innen in der spanischen Landwirtschaft Das Wachstum der Städte durch Migration Migration und Männlichkeit Männlichkeit im Migrationskontext Muslimische Männlichkeit Väterlichkeiten Intersektionale Diskriminierung Sozialisation junger Muslime Migration – Kriminalität – Männlichkeit Migration und Sicherheit Einführung Migration und menschliche Sicherheit Foreign Fighters "Gefährder" Smart Borders Grenzkontrollen: Einblicke in die grenzpolizeiliche Praxis Die Polizei in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft Interview Radikalisierung in der Migrationsgesellschaft Schlepper: Dekonstruktion eines Mythos "Racial Profiling", institutioneller Rassismus und Interventionsmöglichkeiten Migration und Klimawandel Umwelt- und Klimamigration: Begriffe und Definitionen Zur Prognose des Umfangs klimabedingter Migrationen Der Zusammenhang zwischen Klimawandel und Migration Indikator für Verwundbarkeit oder Resilienz? Klimawandel, Migration und Geschlechterverhältnisse Rechtliche Schutzmöglichkeiten für "Klimaflüchtlinge" Interview mit Ulf Neupert Frauen in der Migration Migration qualifizierter Frauen in der EU Selbstorganisation geflüchteter Frauen* "Gastarbeiterinnen" in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Ein Überblick in Zahlen Migration und Geschlechterrollen Frauen auf der Flucht Interview Zahlenwerk: Frauen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland Integrationskurse Geschlechtsbezogene Verfolgung – Rechtlicher Schutz Geflüchtete Frauen in Deutschland Kinder- und Jugendmigration Zahlenwerk Kindertransporte Die "Schwabenkinder" Kinder- und Jugendmigration aus GB Menschenrechte von Kindermigranten Third Culture Kids Kindersoldat_Innen Adoption und Kindermigration Kinderhandel Lebensborn e.V. Grenzzäune und -mauern Mauern und Zäune Integrationspolitik Integrationsmonitoring Integrationstheorien Interview mit Andreas Zick Integration in superdiverse Nachbarschaften Migration und Entwicklung Entwicklung und Migration, Umsiedlung und Klimawandel Migration und Entwicklung – eine neue Perspektive? Stand der Forschung Rücküberweisungen Diaspora als Impulsgeberin für Entwicklung Landgrabbing Interview mit Roman Herre Strukturumbrüche und Transformation Diaspora Was ist eine Diaspora? Exil, Diaspora, Transmigration Diaspora: Leben im Spannungsfeld Türkeistämmige in Deutschland Postsowjetische Migranten Polnische Diaspora Vietnamesische Diaspora Kurdische Diaspora Diaspora als Akteur der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Russlanddeutsche und andere postsozialistische Migranten Wer sind die Russlanddeutschen? Aussiedler Politische Partizipation von Russlanddeutschen Russlanddeutsches Verbandswesen Religiosität unter Russlanddeutschen Interview mit Peter Dück Russlanddeutsche in Russland Russlanddeutsche transnational Jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge und Russlanddeutsche Transnationalismus als Beheimatungsstrategie Aushandlungen der Zugehörigkeit russlanddeutscher Jugendlicher Mediennutzung der russischen Diaspora in Deutschland 'Russische' Supermärkte und Restaurants in Deutschland Perspektiven auf die Integration von Geflüchteten in Deutschland Arbeitsmarktperspektiven von Geflüchteten Interview mit Gesa Hune Meinung: Geflüchtete fördern - oder es kann teuer werden Effekte der Fluchtmigration - Interview mit Prof. Dr. Herbert Brücker "Die müssen die Sprache lernen" Fremd- bzw. Zweitspracherwerb von Geflüchteten Die Arbeitsmarktintegration Geflüchteter in der Vergangenheit "Wohnst Du schon – oder wirst Du noch untergebracht?" Inklusion in das Schulsystem Ein Jahr Integrationsgesetz Interview mit Prof. Dr. Julia von Blumenthal Über die Zusammenhänge von Religion und Integration Interview: Digitale Bildungsangebote als Chance für Integration Innerafrikanische Migrationen Konsequenzen der Auslagerung der EU-Grenzen Kindermigration in Burkina Faso Flucht und Vertreibung Migranten als Akteure der Globalisierung Migrations- und Fluchtpfade Marokko Libyen Abschiebungen nach Afrika Leben nach der Abschiebung Flüchtlingslager Begriff und Geschichte des Lagers Orte der dauerhaften Vorläufigkeit: Flüchtlingslager im globalen Süden "Das Leben im Flüchtlingslager wird zur Normalität" Urbanisierungsprozesse Kleine Geschichte der Flüchtlingslager Lager in der Weimarer Republik Schlotwiese Uelzen-Bohldamm Friedland Zirndorf Marienfelde Das Jahr 2016: Ein Rückblick Globale Flüchtlingskrise hält weiter an Diskussion um kriminelle Geflüchtete Europa Literatur Resettlement Was ist Resettlement? Historische Entwicklung Resettlement durch UNHCR Resettlement im Vergleich zu anderen Aufnahmeprogrammen Aufnahme und Integration EU und Resettlement Deutschland Zukunft des Resettlements Literatur Akteure im (inter-)nationalen (Flucht-)Migrationsregime Akteure in Migrationsregimen und das Aushandeln von Migration Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge Die Europäische Grenzschutzagentur Frontex Die Asylagentur der Europäischen Union: neue Agentur, alte Herausforderungen UNHCR UNRWA – das UN-Hilfswerk für Palästina-Flüchtlinge im Nahen Osten Die Internationale Organisation für Migration (IOM) "Migration ist ein globales Thema, auf das es auch globale Antworten geben sollte." Flucht und Asyl: Grundlagen Abschiebung in der Geschichte Deutschlands Wie ist das Asylrecht entstanden? Das Asylverfahren in Deutschland Schutzanspruch im deutschen Asylverfahren? Sichere Herkunftsländer Das Konzept "sichere Herkunftsstaaten" Definition für Duldung und verbundene Rechte Flüchtlingsaufnahme und ihre Folgen Fluchtziel Deutschland Freiwillige Rückkehr Unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete Abschiebung – Ausweisung – Dublin-Überstellung Begriff und Figur des Flüchtlings in historischer Perspektive Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement Ehrenamtliches Engagement von Geflüchteten Interview mit J. Olaf Kleist Engagement in der Migrationsgesellschaft Politische Proteste von Geflüchteten Proteste gegen Abschiebungen Zivilgesellschaft und Integration Städte der Solidarität – ein Interview Beim Kirchenasyl geht es um den Schutz des Einzelnen. Ein Gespräch. Zivilgesellschaftliche Initiativen für sichere Fluchtwege – ein Überblick Migrantenorganisationen – vielfältige Akteurinnen gesamtgesellschaftlicher Integration (Flucht-)Migration und Gesundheit Medizinische Versorgung Interview David Zimmermann Definition von Migration Gesundheitszustand von Migranten Barrieren/ Prävention Erklärungsmodelle Schlussfolgerungen Literatur Das Jahr 2015: Ein Rückblick Fluchtmigration: Hintergründe Verwaltungs- und Infrastrukturkrise EU: Reaktionen auf die Fluchtzuwanderung Flüchtlingszahlen weltweit Internationale Studierende Einleitung Bildungsmigration Internationale Studierende Internationale Studierende in Deutschland Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt Literatur Migration und Pflege Einführung Altern in der Migrationsgesellschaft Interview mit Helma Lutz Deutsche Asylpolitik und EU-Flüchtlingsschutz Einleitung Flüchtlingsrecht Asylrecht, Flüchtlingspolitik, humanitäre Zuwanderung Flucht und Asyl als europäisiertes Politikfeld Asyl und Asylpolitik Ausblick Literatur Integration in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft Einleitung Die postmigrantische Gesellschaft Paradigmenwandel Brauchen wir den Integrationsbegriff noch? Integration als Metanarrativ Notwendigkeit eines neuen Leitbildes Literatur Lifestyle Migration Was ist Lifestyle Migration? Briten in Spanien Einen neuen Lebensstil entdecken Folgen des Residenztourismus Zusammenfassung Literatur Wahlrecht und Partizipation von Migranten Einleitung Politische Rechte und Kommunalwahlrecht Wahlrecht für Drittstaatsangehörige Einbürgerung Aktuelle Entwicklungen Schlussbemerkungen Literatur Frontex und das Grenzregime der EU Einleitung Frontex – Fragen und Antworten Die Entwicklung des europäischen Grenzregimes Externalisierung Technologisierung Grenzwirtschaft/border economies Auf der anderen Seite des Grenzzauns Ist Einwanderung ein Risiko? Literatur Demografischer Wandel und Migration Einleitung Demografischer Übergang Deutschland und Europa Internationale Wanderung Integration und Reproduktionsverhalten Wanderungspolitik Regionale Muster Literatur Glossar English Version: Policy Briefs "Having a nationality is not a given, it is a privilege" Sanctuary and Anti-Sanctuary Immigration Law in the United States Migrant Smugglers Urbanizing Skilled Female Migrants in the EU Self-Organization of Women* Refugees Impact of Migration Revisited Child and Youth Migration Human Rights Protections Migration from the United Kingdom Adoption and Child Migration Third Culture Kids Trafficking in Children Actors in National and International (Flight)Migration Regimes UNHCR UNRWA International Organization for Migration The International Organization for Migration (IOM) German Asylum Policy and EU Refugee Protection Introduction Refugee Law Asylum Law, Refugee Policy, Humanitarian Migration Flight and Asylum Current Developments Current and Future Challenges References Integration in a Post-Migrant Society Introduction Post-Migrant Society Paradigm Shift Do We Still Need the Concept of Integration? Integration as a Metanarrative Need for a New Concept References Lifestyle Migration What Is Lifestyle Migration? British in Spain Realizing a New Style of Life Outcomes of Lifestyle Migration Conclusion References Voting rights and political participation Introduction Political and Municipal Voting Rights Voting Rights for Nationals of Non-EU States Naturalization Recent Developments Conclusions References Frontex and the EU Border Regime Introduction Frontex — Questions and Answers The Development of a European Border Regime Externalization Technologization Border Economies On the Other Side of the Border Fence Is Migration a Risk? References Demographic Change and Migration in Europe Introduction Demographic Transition Germany and Europe International Migration Reproductive Behavior Migration Policy Regional Patterns Glossary Further Reading Global Migration in the Future Introduction Increase of the World Population Growth of Cities Environmental Changes Conclusion: Political Migration References Germans Abroad Introduction Germans Abroad Expatriates in Hong Kong and Thailand Human Security Concerns of German Expatriates Conclusions References Migrant Organizations What Are Migrant Organizations? Number and Structure Their Role in Social Participation Multidimensionality and the Dynamic Character Interaction with their Environments Between the Countries of Origin and Arrival Conclusion References EU Internal Migration EU Internal Migration East-West Migration after the EU Enlargement Ireland United Kingdom Spain Portugal Greece Italy Germany Assessment of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Introduction Evolution of the Accreditation Debate The Importance of Accreditation Basic Principles Thus Far of the Accreditation of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Actors in the Accreditation Practice Reasons for Establishing a New Legal Framework The Professional Qualifications Assessment Act What Is Being Criticized? The Accreditation System in Transition Conclusion References From Home country to Home country? Context Motives Immigration and Integration in Turkey Identification Emigration or Return? References Integration in Figures Approaches Development Six Approaches Conclusion References Climate Change Introduction Estimates Affected areas Environmental migration Conclusion References Dual citizenship Discourse Classic objections Current debate Rule of law Conclusion References Female Labour Migration The labour market Dominant perceptions Skilled female migration Issues Conclusion References How Healthy are Migrants? Definition The Health Status Prevention/Barriers Migration and Health Conclusions References Networks Spain Migrant networks Effects of networks Romanian networks Conclusion References Integration Policy Introduction Demographic situation Economic conditions Labour market The case in Stuttgart Integration measures Evaluation Outlook References Irregular Migration Introduction The phenomenon Political approaches Controlling Sanctions Proposed directive Conclusions References Integration Courses Introduction The Netherlands France Germany United Kingdom Conclusions References Recruitment of Healthcare Professionals Introduction The Situation Health Worker Migration Costs and Benefits Perspectives and Conclusion References Triggering Skilled Migration Introduction Talking about mobility Legal framework Coming to Germany Mobility of scientists Other factors Conclusions References Remittances Introduction The Term Remittance Figures and Trends Effects Conclusion References EU Expansion and Free Movement Introduction Transitional Arrangements Economic Theory The Scale The Results Continued Restrictions Conclusion References The German "Green Card" Introduction Background Green Card regulation Success? Conclusion References Does Germany Need Labour Migration? Introduction Labour shortages Labourmarket Conclusion Labourmigration References Dutch Integration Model The "Dutch model"? The end? Intention and reality A new view Where next? References Impressum

"Together We Are Stronger" – On Self-Organization of Women* Refugees

/ 7 Minuten zu lesen

The non-profit organization “Women in Exile & Friends” is mainly run by refugee women*. What are the aims of the organization and why is self-organization important? An interview.

Interner Link: Deutsche Version des Artikels

A Syrian woman and her two children at the port of Athens, having disembarked a ship carrying refugees from Lesbos. (September 2018) (© picture-alliance, NurPhoto)

In 2002, refugee women* in Brandenburg decided to establish an initiative to fight discriminative laws and bad conditions in large accommodation facilities for asylum seekers in Germany. Since 2011 " Women in Exile" has been a registered association. The same year, the group Externer Link: “Women in Exile & Friends” was founded. The organization is financed by private donations; some of their projects are funded by refugee relief organizations. "Women in Exile & Friends" aim at informing a broad public about the living conditions of women* refugees and their daily experiences with life in Germany. Moreover, they try to empower refugee women* e.g. in the framework of workshops that provide helpful information regarding refugees' rights, health issues or possibilities to find assistance when confronted with discrimination and sexual harassment.

Elizabeth Ngari is one of the founders of the initiative “Women in Exile” and still an active member of the non-profit-organization. In 1996, she came as an asylum seeker from Kenya to Germany where she lived in a large refugee shelter (which she calls "camp") for almost six years.

Miss Ngari, why did you found the initiative and who was involved in its foundation?

It was an idea of women* from different countries who lived in camps in Germany in 2002 and were already fighting alongside male* refugees against the bad conditions refugees were subjected to. However, we felt that women's* issues were not enough recognized. For women*, living in bad conditions means sexual harassment, a lack of privacy, isolation and conflicts between women* and men* and among women* themselves. We realized that refugee women* are victims in a double sense – as women* and as refugees in the asylum system. We realized that we have to wake up to fight for our rights as women* and as refugees. Therefore, we see ourselves as an intersection of the refugee and the women's* movement.

Could you explain in more detail what that means?

It means that we are fighting for refugee rights and are networking with other groups who also fight for the same cause, but we are also fighting as women* because we see us as women* who are disadvantaged in their living conditions. We would like to have jobs, permission to work and access to school like everybody else. Women* in this country have been fighting for women's* rights for more than a hundred years now. It is a pity that we still have to fight for rights that they have already been granted. We are women* of this society, too!

Why is it important for refugee women* to get together, develop forms of self-organization and – as you write on your homepage – get loud?

I think we are women* in this society, and we have to fight together for our rights to live here not just as refugees, but as women*. From experience we have learnt that women* can relate to each other, regardless of their differences regarding age, origin, religion, status, sexual orientation or other factors. Women* can make an impact together. Together we develop strategies to achieve political change and take our protest against the inhumane living conditions of refugee women* into the public.

Is that the reason why you decided to include also women* who are no refugees in your work?

In Germany, we are refugees and we do not know the system very well. Therefore, it is an advantage to have someone knowing the system. Furthermore, we believe that women* should demonstrate solidarity. There are women* in our group who do not have refugee background, but also have experienced discrimination, e.g. because of their sexuality. Now we fight together and together we are more, together we are stronger!

Which objectives does "Women in Exile & Friends" pursue?

We want to fight sexism, racism and other forms of discrimination against refugees and women*. These objectives are intersected: You cannot talk about racism without talking about discrimination, and you cannot talk about discrimination without talking about sexism. We have to fight together because these forms of discrimination affect different people in the same way.

Did the objectives change since the founding of the organization?

Our core objectives did not change because we still have to face discrimination and we still have to fight against it. What has changed is the scope of our fight: First we fought to get out of the camps and were trying to mobilize and empower women* to bring their stories into the open. Now we are located in Berlin and Brandenburg and are trying to organize women* all across the country.

We want deportations to stop. We want everybody who came to Germany as a refugee to be allowed to stay. They left their home because they had to face problems. When you leave your country, you do not know what is going to happen or if you ever come back. This means that you have a good reason why you leave or run away and search for a place where you are better off or where you may live safely.

How does the organization try to achieve its objectives?

We empower women* in workshops, and we demonstrate, issue press releases or give interviews like this one to make our work public. We have a newsletter and a web-blog which are reaching a lot of people. We want to raise awareness of our issues in society because there are so many people who do not even know what goes on. They do not know about the situation of people living in camps. As women* we are faced with sexism and racist borders which expose us to all types of prejudice. As refugee women* we confront multiple inner and outer borders during and after the flight. Society blames refugees for all of their problems. We want to raise awareness that this is not true. Besides, there are other problems affecting society which are more acute.

Between 15 and 45 women* participate in your monthly meetings in Berlin or Potsdam. Most of them are refugees. What importance does participation have for refugee women?

To be part of our organization is a way for women* refugees to leave the camps for a while, exchange ideas and talk to others. They feel, they are not alone in their situation.

What does everyday life look like for many of your members who are refugees?

In general, they live in fear: They fear deportation, racist attacks and not knowing what their life will be like tomorrow. They are living in great uncertainty: They do not know if they might be deported tomorrow or the day after or whether they may stay. This insecurity and fear make most of them depressed. They have the feeling of not being worthy of being alive.

Is that why empowerment plays an important role in your work?

We have to empower the women* to be able to cope with everyday life. Empowerment helps them to talk about their problems and to become aware of the fact that they have rights. We also help them to find assistance.

Since the so-called “summer of migration” in 2015 there has been much political and public debate about the admission of refugees. What do you think about this debate?

There are people, in 2015 especially from Syria, who had to leave their home country because there is a war. They did not want to stay and get killed. Before complaining about refugees, countries should stop to deport arms into countries where there are wars or conflicts. If they did, there would not be so many people forced to leave their homes.

Moreover, when German media talked about New Year´s Eve in Cologne 2015 it was like every male* refugee got criminalized because some men* who are refugees attacked some women*. That is criminal, but it does not mean that the whole community is criminal. Those who commit crimes like those men* on New Year's Eve should be brought before the court. In a democratic and constitutional state, a criminal person is tried, and the judges impose a sentence without criminalizing the whole community. The public views refugees as the main problem of society, but they are not.

By criminalizing refugees, arrest and deportation are justified. People who cannot proof their identity are regarded as criminals, but I do not think they are criminal. They just do not have an ID.

What difficulties are you facing as a refugee since 2015 beside being criminalized?

It is not just since 2015 that refugees are exposed among many other things to mistreat or institutional racism. There is a residence obligation which does not allow them to move where they want. The laws governing refugees keep changing and are becoming stricter. “Anker lager” have been introduced: “Prisons” which accommodate hundreds of refugees and restrict the asylum seekers from any possibility of integration into society because the complete asylum procedure takes place inside these camps. Their movement is restricted, and it has become easier to carry out deportations. In every political discussion or voting, refugees and migrants have become a central issue. This does not only foster hostilities within society, but it is being used by right-wing groups to gain popularity. Some European politicians and leaders are blaming refugees for all existing problems. But refugees are not the problem; it is policies of exclusion, isolation and deportation.

What are your hopes for the future?

I hope that at least some of the restrictive laws, especially the ones on deportations, will change. I want people to have the freedom to choose where they want to live and for refugee women* to have the same choices other women* in this society have.

The interview was conducted by Laura Hartmann.

Fussnoten

Fußnoten

  1. The interviewee uses a * behind gender attributions (women* or men*) to question a binary gender order. Thus, she opens the space to include diverse sexualities and gender identities that are not present and / or invisible due to the binary gender structure of languages. The aim is to make marginalized subject positions visible. (Herrmann 2003: Performing the Gap – Queere Gestalten und geschlechtliche Aneignungen. In: arranca! Nr.28, Aneignung I, Berlin, pp. 22-26.)

Lizenz

Dieser Text ist unter der Creative Commons Lizenz "CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 DE - Namensnennung - Nicht-kommerziell - Keine Bearbeitung 3.0 Deutschland" veröffentlicht.
Urheberrechtliche Angaben zu Bildern / Grafiken / Videos finden sich direkt bei den Abbildungen.
Sie wollen einen Inhalt von bpb.de nutzen?