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Realizing a New Style of Life: "You Can Be Who You Want to Be"

Kurzdossiers "Paradise Left Behind" – Begleitmaterial zum Film "Es geht um differenzierte Bilder." – Ein Gespräch über Paradise Left Behind Die ägäischen Inseln: von Räumen des Transits zu Räumen der Immobilisierung 'Schengen', 'Dublin' und die Ambivalenzen der EU-Migrationspolitik. Eine kurze Geschichte Paradise Left Behind Migration und Wirtschaft Die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Zuwanderung Wie sich Migration auf die Herkunftsländer auswirkt Migrantische Ökonomien in Deutschland Fachkräfteengpässe und Arbeitsmigration nach Deutschland Migration und Handwerk – kurze Geschichte einer langen Verbindung Migration und Handwerk: Fachkräftemangel und integratives Potenzial Zugehörigkeit und Zusammenhalt in der Migrationsgesellschaft Was ist Heimat? Warum es so viel leichter ist über Nudelsalat zu reden als über Rassismus Die blinden Flecken antirassistischer Diskurse Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Konfliktbearbeitung ist der Klebstoff der Demokratie Sozialer Zusammenhalt und das Gefühl, fremd im eigenen Land zu sein Die Gruppe der Ostdeutschen als Teil postmigrantischer Integrationsfragen Kommunale Migrations- und Flüchtlingspolitik Der "local turn" in der Migrations- und Asylpolitik Kommunen und ihre Rolle bei der Flüchtlingsaufnahme Kommunale Aufnahme von Flüchtlingen Interview: Migrations- und integrationspolitische Debatten im Deutschen Städtetag Kommunale Integrationspolitik in Deutschland: Teilhabe vor Ort ermöglichen Zufluchtsstädte im amerikanischen Einwanderungsföderalismus Migration in städtischen und ländlichen Räumen Geflüchtete in ländlichen Räumen Perspektive Geflüchteter auf das Leben auf dem Land Landlust oder Landfrust? Fleischindustrie Migrantische Arbeitskräfte in der malaysischen Palmölindustrie (Il)legal? Migrant_innen in der spanischen Landwirtschaft Das Wachstum der Städte durch Migration Migration und Männlichkeit Männlichkeit im Migrationskontext Muslimische Männlichkeit Väterlichkeiten Intersektionale Diskriminierung Sozialisation junger Muslime Migration – Kriminalität – Männlichkeit Migration und Sicherheit Einführung Migration und menschliche Sicherheit Foreign Fighters "Gefährder" Smart Borders Grenzkontrollen: Einblicke in die grenzpolizeiliche Praxis Die Polizei in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft Interview Radikalisierung in der Migrationsgesellschaft Schlepper: Dekonstruktion eines Mythos "Racial Profiling", institutioneller Rassismus und Interventionsmöglichkeiten Migration und Klimawandel Umwelt- und Klimamigration: Begriffe und Definitionen Zur Prognose des Umfangs klimabedingter Migrationen Der Zusammenhang zwischen Klimawandel und Migration Indikator für Verwundbarkeit oder Resilienz? Klimawandel, Migration und Geschlechterverhältnisse Rechtliche Schutzmöglichkeiten für "Klimaflüchtlinge" Interview mit Ulf Neupert Frauen in der Migration Migration qualifizierter Frauen in der EU Selbstorganisation geflüchteter Frauen* "Gastarbeiterinnen" in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Ein Überblick in Zahlen Migration und Geschlechterrollen Frauen auf der Flucht Interview Zahlenwerk: Frauen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland Integrationskurse Geschlechtsbezogene Verfolgung – Rechtlicher Schutz Geflüchtete Frauen in Deutschland Kinder- und Jugendmigration Zahlenwerk Kindertransporte Die "Schwabenkinder" Kinder- und Jugendmigration aus GB Menschenrechte von Kindermigranten Third Culture Kids Kindersoldat_Innen Adoption und Kindermigration Kinderhandel Lebensborn e.V. Grenzzäune und -mauern Mauern und Zäune Integrationspolitik Integrationsmonitoring Integrationstheorien Interview mit Andreas Zick Integration in superdiverse Nachbarschaften Migration und Entwicklung Entwicklung und Migration, Umsiedlung und Klimawandel Migration und Entwicklung – eine neue Perspektive? Stand der Forschung Rücküberweisungen Diaspora als Impulsgeberin für Entwicklung Landgrabbing Interview mit Roman Herre Strukturumbrüche und Transformation Diaspora Was ist eine Diaspora? Exil, Diaspora, Transmigration Diaspora: Leben im Spannungsfeld Türkeistämmige in Deutschland Postsowjetische Migranten Polnische Diaspora Vietnamesische Diaspora Kurdische Diaspora Diaspora als Akteur der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Russlanddeutsche und andere postsozialistische Migranten Wer sind die Russlanddeutschen? Aussiedler Politische Partizipation von Russlanddeutschen Russlanddeutsches Verbandswesen Religiosität unter Russlanddeutschen Interview mit Peter Dück Russlanddeutsche in Russland Russlanddeutsche transnational Jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge und Russlanddeutsche Transnationalismus als Beheimatungsstrategie Aushandlungen der Zugehörigkeit russlanddeutscher Jugendlicher Mediennutzung der russischen Diaspora in Deutschland 'Russische' Supermärkte und Restaurants in Deutschland Perspektiven auf die Integration von Geflüchteten in Deutschland Arbeitsmarktperspektiven von Geflüchteten Interview mit Gesa Hune Meinung: Geflüchtete fördern - oder es kann teuer werden Effekte der Fluchtmigration - Interview mit Prof. Dr. Herbert Brücker "Die müssen die Sprache lernen" Fremd- bzw. Zweitspracherwerb von Geflüchteten Die Arbeitsmarktintegration Geflüchteter in der Vergangenheit "Wohnst Du schon – oder wirst Du noch untergebracht?" Inklusion in das Schulsystem Ein Jahr Integrationsgesetz Interview mit Prof. Dr. Julia von Blumenthal Über die Zusammenhänge von Religion und Integration Interview: Digitale Bildungsangebote als Chance für Integration Innerafrikanische Migrationen Konsequenzen der Auslagerung der EU-Grenzen Kindermigration in Burkina Faso Flucht und Vertreibung Migranten als Akteure der Globalisierung Migrations- und Fluchtpfade Marokko Libyen Abschiebungen nach Afrika Leben nach der Abschiebung Flüchtlingslager Begriff und Geschichte des Lagers Orte der dauerhaften Vorläufigkeit: Flüchtlingslager im globalen Süden "Das Leben im Flüchtlingslager wird zur Normalität" Urbanisierungsprozesse Kleine Geschichte der Flüchtlingslager Lager in der Weimarer Republik Schlotwiese Uelzen-Bohldamm Friedland Zirndorf Marienfelde Das Jahr 2016: Ein Rückblick Globale Flüchtlingskrise hält weiter an Diskussion um kriminelle Geflüchtete Europa Literatur Resettlement Was ist Resettlement? Historische Entwicklung Resettlement durch UNHCR Resettlement im Vergleich zu anderen Aufnahmeprogrammen Aufnahme und Integration EU und Resettlement Deutschland Zukunft des Resettlements Literatur Akteure im (inter-)nationalen (Flucht-)Migrationsregime Akteure in Migrationsregimen und das Aushandeln von Migration Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge Die Europäische Grenzschutzagentur Frontex Die Asylagentur der Europäischen Union: neue Agentur, alte Herausforderungen UNHCR UNRWA – das UN-Hilfswerk für Palästina-Flüchtlinge im Nahen Osten Die Internationale Organisation für Migration (IOM) "Migration ist ein globales Thema, auf das es auch globale Antworten geben sollte." Flucht und Asyl: Grundlagen Abschiebung in der Geschichte Deutschlands Wie ist das Asylrecht entstanden? Das Asylverfahren in Deutschland Schutzanspruch im deutschen Asylverfahren? Sichere Herkunftsländer Das Konzept "sichere Herkunftsstaaten" Definition für Duldung und verbundene Rechte Flüchtlingsaufnahme und ihre Folgen Fluchtziel Deutschland Freiwillige Rückkehr Unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete Abschiebung – Ausweisung – Dublin-Überstellung Begriff und Figur des Flüchtlings in historischer Perspektive Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement Ehrenamtliches Engagement von Geflüchteten Interview mit J. Olaf Kleist Engagement in der Migrationsgesellschaft Politische Proteste von Geflüchteten Proteste gegen Abschiebungen Zivilgesellschaft und Integration Städte der Solidarität – ein Interview Beim Kirchenasyl geht es um den Schutz des Einzelnen. Ein Gespräch. Zivilgesellschaftliche Initiativen für sichere Fluchtwege – ein Überblick Migrantenorganisationen – vielfältige Akteurinnen gesamtgesellschaftlicher Integration (Flucht-)Migration und Gesundheit Medizinische Versorgung Interview David Zimmermann Definition von Migration Gesundheitszustand von Migranten Barrieren/ Prävention Erklärungsmodelle Schlussfolgerungen Literatur Das Jahr 2015: Ein Rückblick Fluchtmigration: Hintergründe Verwaltungs- und Infrastrukturkrise EU: Reaktionen auf die Fluchtzuwanderung Flüchtlingszahlen weltweit Internationale Studierende Einleitung Bildungsmigration Internationale Studierende Internationale Studierende in Deutschland Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt Literatur Migration und Pflege Einführung Altern in der Migrationsgesellschaft Interview mit Helma Lutz Deutsche Asylpolitik und EU-Flüchtlingsschutz Einleitung Flüchtlingsrecht Asylrecht, Flüchtlingspolitik, humanitäre Zuwanderung Flucht und Asyl als europäisiertes Politikfeld Asyl und Asylpolitik Ausblick Literatur Integration in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft Einleitung Die postmigrantische Gesellschaft Paradigmenwandel Brauchen wir den Integrationsbegriff noch? Integration als Metanarrativ Notwendigkeit eines neuen Leitbildes Literatur Lifestyle Migration Was ist Lifestyle Migration? Briten in Spanien Einen neuen Lebensstil entdecken Folgen des Residenztourismus Zusammenfassung Literatur Wahlrecht und Partizipation von Migranten Einleitung Politische Rechte und Kommunalwahlrecht Wahlrecht für Drittstaatsangehörige Einbürgerung Aktuelle Entwicklungen Schlussbemerkungen Literatur Frontex und das Grenzregime der EU Einleitung Frontex – Fragen und Antworten Die Entwicklung des europäischen Grenzregimes Externalisierung Technologisierung Grenzwirtschaft/border economies Auf der anderen Seite des Grenzzauns Ist Einwanderung ein Risiko? Literatur Demografischer Wandel und Migration Einleitung Demografischer Übergang Deutschland und Europa Internationale Wanderung Integration und Reproduktionsverhalten Wanderungspolitik Regionale Muster Literatur Glossar English Version: Policy Briefs "Having a nationality is not a given, it is a privilege" Sanctuary and Anti-Sanctuary Immigration Law in the United States Migrant Smugglers Urbanizing Skilled Female Migrants in the EU Self-Organization of Women* Refugees Impact of Migration Revisited Child and Youth Migration Human Rights Protections Migration from the United Kingdom Adoption and Child Migration Third Culture Kids Trafficking in Children Actors in National and International (Flight)Migration Regimes UNHCR UNRWA International Organization for Migration The International Organization for Migration (IOM) German Asylum Policy and EU Refugee Protection Introduction Refugee Law Asylum Law, Refugee Policy, Humanitarian Migration Flight and Asylum Current Developments Current and Future Challenges References Integration in a Post-Migrant Society Introduction Post-Migrant Society Paradigm Shift Do We Still Need the Concept of Integration? Integration as a Metanarrative Need for a New Concept References Lifestyle Migration What Is Lifestyle Migration? British in Spain Realizing a New Style of Life Outcomes of Lifestyle Migration Conclusion References Voting rights and political participation Introduction Political and Municipal Voting Rights Voting Rights for Nationals of Non-EU States Naturalization Recent Developments Conclusions References Frontex and the EU Border Regime Introduction Frontex — Questions and Answers The Development of a European Border Regime Externalization Technologization Border Economies On the Other Side of the Border Fence Is Migration a Risk? References Demographic Change and Migration in Europe Introduction Demographic Transition Germany and Europe International Migration Reproductive Behavior Migration Policy Regional Patterns Glossary Further Reading Global Migration in the Future Introduction Increase of the World Population Growth of Cities Environmental Changes Conclusion: Political Migration References Germans Abroad Introduction Germans Abroad Expatriates in Hong Kong and Thailand Human Security Concerns of German Expatriates Conclusions References Migrant Organizations What Are Migrant Organizations? Number and Structure Their Role in Social Participation Multidimensionality and the Dynamic Character Interaction with their Environments Between the Countries of Origin and Arrival Conclusion References EU Internal Migration EU Internal Migration East-West Migration after the EU Enlargement Ireland United Kingdom Spain Portugal Greece Italy Germany Assessment of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Introduction Evolution of the Accreditation Debate The Importance of Accreditation Basic Principles Thus Far of the Accreditation of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Actors in the Accreditation Practice Reasons for Establishing a New Legal Framework The Professional Qualifications Assessment Act What Is Being Criticized? The Accreditation System in Transition Conclusion References From Home country to Home country? Context Motives Immigration and Integration in Turkey Identification Emigration or Return? References Integration in Figures Approaches Development Six Approaches Conclusion References Climate Change Introduction Estimates Affected areas Environmental migration Conclusion References Dual citizenship Discourse Classic objections Current debate Rule of law Conclusion References Female Labour Migration The labour market Dominant perceptions Skilled female migration Issues Conclusion References How Healthy are Migrants? Definition The Health Status Prevention/Barriers Migration and Health Conclusions References Networks Spain Migrant networks Effects of networks Romanian networks Conclusion References Integration Policy Introduction Demographic situation Economic conditions Labour market The case in Stuttgart Integration measures Evaluation Outlook References Irregular Migration Introduction The phenomenon Political approaches Controlling Sanctions Proposed directive Conclusions References Integration Courses Introduction The Netherlands France Germany United Kingdom Conclusions References Recruitment of Healthcare Professionals Introduction The Situation Health Worker Migration Costs and Benefits Perspectives and Conclusion References Triggering Skilled Migration Introduction Talking about mobility Legal framework Coming to Germany Mobility of scientists Other factors Conclusions References Remittances Introduction The Term Remittance Figures and Trends Effects Conclusion References EU Expansion and Free Movement Introduction Transitional Arrangements Economic Theory The Scale The Results Continued Restrictions Conclusion References The German "Green Card" Introduction Background Green Card regulation Success? Conclusion References Does Germany Need Labour Migration? Introduction Labour shortages Labourmarket Conclusion Labourmigration References Dutch Integration Model The "Dutch model"? The end? Intention and reality A new view Where next? References Impressum

Realizing a New Style of Life: "You Can Be Who You Want to Be"

Karen O'Reilly

/ 6 Minuten zu lesen

The term lifestyle migration refers to the mobility of relatively affluent people who search for "the good life" and therefore move to places which offer them the possibility for self-realization or a better quality of life. Their migration is driven by this quest and not by other reasons such as career advancement or family reunification.

Country estate in Mallorca: Lifestyle migrants are often looking for idyllic rural areas. (© picture alliance / blickwinkel/I. Weber )

One clear unifying theme in case studies of lifestyle migration is that of self-realization. This is most clearly identified in the work of Brian Hoey (2005), who studied Americans moving within the United States, and Michaela Benson (2011), who lived among the British in rural France, in Mari Korpela’s (2009) work with Westerners in Goa and Varanasi, India, and in my own study of British in Spain . In most lifestyle migration case studies, the migrants portray themselves as active agents transforming their lives through migration, and their stories are peppered with accounts of new beginnings, fresh starts and making dreams come true. They see themselves as having a pioneering spirit and their migration as giving them the opportunity to be true to their "real selves" in places that have cultures and environments with which they share an affinity. They contend that by moving they are free to be the person they want to be and to live the lives they value.

However, the potential style of life that is imagined differs according to destinations. Some seek a slower and more tranquil life; they may desire to "get back to the land" (e.g. British in France, and some US-Americans in Latin America ). Some talk of escape from a fast-pace, consumption-driven, amoral West (e.g. Westerners in Varanasi ). They may see their move as escape from a crime-ridden, depressing, grey future (e.g. British in Spain). They may believe rural areas are more authentic or pure (e.g. with urban to rural Australian migration ). They often want to protect their children from the materialism, excessive consumption and insecurity of Western or other modern lifestyles . There are also lifestyle migrants who are drawn by the imaginative pull, the cultural and lifestyle attractions, of a global city such as Berlin . In this latter case, of course, the migrant is less likely to be relatively wealthy in relation to the destination country, but still has the relative wealth to choose migration for cultural rather than economic reasons. Below, I will describe three numerically significant forms, identified by Benson and O’Reilly (2009) from among a very diverse range of lifestyle migrants around the world: Bourgeois Bohemianism, Residential Tourism, and The Rural Idyll.

Bourgeois Bohemianism, Residential Tourism, and the Rural Idyll

Some migrants seek alternative lifestyles in spaces that signify what we might define as bohemian ideals. Bourgeois Bohemianism, then, seeks destinations characterized by spiritual, artistic, or creative aspirations and by unique "cultural" experiences. Jacqueline Waldren’s (1996) account of the outsiders – foreign literary personalities, artists and musicians – of Deía, Mallorca is the seminal text on these bohemian migrants. Relatedly, Pola Bousiou (2008, p. 3) describes the Mykoniots d’élection, who return over and again to the island of Mykonos, Greece, and are able to perform an alternative identity through "living, acting, working and creating in a tourist space". This form of lifestyle migration has also been examined and elaborated by Mari Korpela (2009) in relation to her study of Westerners living part of the year in Varanasi, India, in search of "the good vibes". Alternatively, many lifestyle migrants are attracted to mass tourist (often seaside) destinations, such as in Turkey, Spain and Greece, pursuing Residential Tourism. These associate their lifestyle migration destinations with sun, sea and holiday, but are not attracted by high-spending hedonism so much as peace, tranquility and freedom. The first contact many of these migrants have had with their migration destination is as tourists, and tourism socially and physically constructs places, creating physical and social spaces for leisure and pleasure. Tourism brochures, and other marketing, furthermore construct destinations in the imagination as places for certain pursuits. These migrants therefore attempt to extend tourism sojourns into a way of life. Some are seasonal migrants, but many settle permanently. They may work, but this is as a means to an end. The main goal is to get away from the fast pace of living in their home countries and to earn enough to have a good life, no more. The archetypal residential tourists are the many nationalities living in the Mediterranean, but other important flows include American and Canadian "snowbirds" (who spend a large proportion of the winter enjoying the warmer climate in places such as California and Florida), and the increasing numbers of Americans who have settled permanently in Panama, Mexico and Costa Rica .

Those lifestyle migrants in search of the Rural Idyll migrate in search of a tranquil life. Rural locations are here imagined to offer lifestyle migrants a sense of stepping back in time, getting back to the land, the simple or good life, as well as a sense of community spirit. The narratives of those who move to the countryside often stress the unique and embodied relationship that they have with the landscape. Michaela Benson (2011, p. 84) for example, says of the British in France: "(they) presented their new surroundings in a variety of ways: as the rural idyll, with its unspoilt countryside and rustic homes; as a space for leisure; but also as a place where they were able to physically engage with the land and get their hands dirty". On the other hand, for middle-class Americans "downsizing" to rural Michigan: "relocation to romanticized rural places high in natural amenities, in which they have frequently vacationed, is a moral project concerned with 'starting over' and ‘finding themselves’ through purposeful place attachment".

The Cultural Narratives and Global Inequalities That Shape Lifestyle Migration

While lifestyle migration is viewed as an individualistic search for the "good life", the places selected and the nature of the experience are shaped by wider factors. Literally or figuratively, places imply certain ways of living. Americans relocating to the mid-west are seeking places that are seen as therapeutic ; lifestyle migrants moving to rural landscapes believe they will become part of local communities that live off the land or will find more authenticity ; Westerners in Varanasi believe by moving they will come closer to their spiritual selves ; and, for some Canadians, living "off grid" in remote landscapes provides something of a metaphorical island - with stillness, quiet, and seclusion. These are not individual ideals, but shared cultural narratives, shaped sometimes by those wishing to market places, shrouded in myth and imagination, and enabled by physical geography and built environment. As Noel Salazar has so eloquently emphasized, lifestyle migration is inspired and guided by diverse social imaginaries: "culturally shared and socially transmitted representational assemblages that interact with people’s personal imaginings and are used as meaning-making devices and world-shaping devices".

It is difficult to ignore the historically-formed, global inequalities that facilitate and shape lifestyle migration in parts of the world: lifestyle migration is enabled by relative wealth. In many cases these migrants are buying second homes, or better first homes than they could afford at home. Many are living leisured lives, often living on earnings made or on capital invested in the west, or on good pensions established over decades of working in a wealthier economy. They may not be wealthy in terms of the society they left , but lifestyle migrants often benefit from the fact they reside in countries (or rural areas) with a lower level of income. In many cases, places are wealthy in relation to other places because of the global history of colonialism and resulting power and wealth asymmetries. It is no accident that many of these lifestyle migration flows follow the routes of prior colonial flows. Many lifestyle migration destinations (e.g. Malaysia, South Africa, Thailand) were previously colonies and/or had been occupied by Western powers in their recent histories, with the result that current hierarchies, in cases where migrants are from the prior colonizing county, are built on historically shaped inequalities. There are often colonial continuities, in the shape of legal regimes and possession of forms of capital, in the ways in which people are able to move to some places (e.g. visas and permits that permit travel in one direction and not another), how they are perceived and treated when they get there (the privilege that often attends a white body), and how they are even intentionally attracted by those who seek wealthy migrants as a development tool.

Interner Link: This text is part of the policy brief on lifestyle migration.

Dr. Karen O'Reilly is Professor of Sociology and Head of the Social Sciences Department of Loughborough University, UK. She is especially interested in social anthropology and has been studying lifestyle migration for almost 20 years.
Email: E-Mail Link: K.OReilly@lboro.ac.uk