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Figures and trends

Kurzdossiers "Paradise Left Behind" – Begleitmaterial zum Film "Es geht um differenzierte Bilder." – Ein Gespräch über Paradise Left Behind Die ägäischen Inseln: von Räumen des Transits zu Räumen der Immobilisierung 'Schengen', 'Dublin' und die Ambivalenzen der EU-Migrationspolitik. Eine kurze Geschichte Paradise Left Behind Migration und Wirtschaft Die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Zuwanderung Wie sich Migration auf die Herkunftsländer auswirkt Migrantische Ökonomien in Deutschland Fachkräfteengpässe und Arbeitsmigration nach Deutschland Migration und Handwerk – kurze Geschichte einer langen Verbindung Migration und Handwerk: Fachkräftemangel und integratives Potenzial Zugehörigkeit und Zusammenhalt in der Migrationsgesellschaft Was ist Heimat? Warum es so viel leichter ist über Nudelsalat zu reden als über Rassismus Die blinden Flecken antirassistischer Diskurse Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Konfliktbearbeitung ist der Klebstoff der Demokratie Sozialer Zusammenhalt und das Gefühl, fremd im eigenen Land zu sein Die Gruppe der Ostdeutschen als Teil postmigrantischer Integrationsfragen Kommunale Migrations- und Flüchtlingspolitik Der "local turn" in der Migrations- und Asylpolitik Kommunen und ihre Rolle bei der Flüchtlingsaufnahme Kommunale Aufnahme von Flüchtlingen Interview: Migrations- und integrationspolitische Debatten im Deutschen Städtetag Kommunale Integrationspolitik in Deutschland: Teilhabe vor Ort ermöglichen Zufluchtsstädte im amerikanischen Einwanderungsföderalismus Migration in städtischen und ländlichen Räumen Geflüchtete in ländlichen Räumen Perspektive Geflüchteter auf das Leben auf dem Land Landlust oder Landfrust? Fleischindustrie Migrantische Arbeitskräfte in der malaysischen Palmölindustrie (Il)legal? Migrant_innen in der spanischen Landwirtschaft Das Wachstum der Städte durch Migration Migration und Männlichkeit Männlichkeit im Migrationskontext Muslimische Männlichkeit Väterlichkeiten Intersektionale Diskriminierung Sozialisation junger Muslime Migration – Kriminalität – Männlichkeit Migration und Sicherheit Einführung Migration und menschliche Sicherheit Foreign Fighters "Gefährder" Smart Borders Grenzkontrollen: Einblicke in die grenzpolizeiliche Praxis Die Polizei in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft Interview Radikalisierung in der Migrationsgesellschaft Schlepper: Dekonstruktion eines Mythos "Racial Profiling", institutioneller Rassismus und Interventionsmöglichkeiten Migration und Klimawandel Umwelt- und Klimamigration: Begriffe und Definitionen Zur Prognose des Umfangs klimabedingter Migrationen Der Zusammenhang zwischen Klimawandel und Migration Indikator für Verwundbarkeit oder Resilienz? Klimawandel, Migration und Geschlechterverhältnisse Rechtliche Schutzmöglichkeiten für "Klimaflüchtlinge" Interview mit Ulf Neupert Frauen in der Migration Migration qualifizierter Frauen in der EU Selbstorganisation geflüchteter Frauen* "Gastarbeiterinnen" in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Ein Überblick in Zahlen Migration und Geschlechterrollen Frauen auf der Flucht Interview Zahlenwerk: Frauen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland Integrationskurse Geschlechtsbezogene Verfolgung – Rechtlicher Schutz Geflüchtete Frauen in Deutschland Kinder- und Jugendmigration Zahlenwerk Kindertransporte Die "Schwabenkinder" Kinder- und Jugendmigration aus GB Menschenrechte von Kindermigranten Third Culture Kids Kindersoldat_Innen Adoption und Kindermigration Kinderhandel Lebensborn e.V. Grenzzäune und -mauern Mauern und Zäune Integrationspolitik Integrationsmonitoring Integrationstheorien Interview mit Andreas Zick Integration in superdiverse Nachbarschaften Migration und Entwicklung Entwicklung und Migration, Umsiedlung und Klimawandel Migration und Entwicklung – eine neue Perspektive? Stand der Forschung Rücküberweisungen Diaspora als Impulsgeberin für Entwicklung Landgrabbing Interview mit Roman Herre Strukturumbrüche und Transformation Diaspora Was ist eine Diaspora? Exil, Diaspora, Transmigration Diaspora: Leben im Spannungsfeld Türkeistämmige in Deutschland Postsowjetische Migranten Polnische Diaspora Vietnamesische Diaspora Kurdische Diaspora Diaspora als Akteur der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Russlanddeutsche und andere postsozialistische Migranten Wer sind die Russlanddeutschen? Aussiedler Politische Partizipation von Russlanddeutschen Russlanddeutsches Verbandswesen Religiosität unter Russlanddeutschen Interview mit Peter Dück Russlanddeutsche in Russland Russlanddeutsche transnational Jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge und Russlanddeutsche Transnationalismus als Beheimatungsstrategie Aushandlungen der Zugehörigkeit russlanddeutscher Jugendlicher Mediennutzung der russischen Diaspora in Deutschland 'Russische' Supermärkte und Restaurants in Deutschland Perspektiven auf die Integration von Geflüchteten in Deutschland Arbeitsmarktperspektiven von Geflüchteten Interview mit Gesa Hune Meinung: Geflüchtete fördern - oder es kann teuer werden Effekte der Fluchtmigration - Interview mit Prof. Dr. Herbert Brücker "Die müssen die Sprache lernen" Fremd- bzw. Zweitspracherwerb von Geflüchteten Die Arbeitsmarktintegration Geflüchteter in der Vergangenheit "Wohnst Du schon – oder wirst Du noch untergebracht?" Inklusion in das Schulsystem Ein Jahr Integrationsgesetz Interview mit Prof. Dr. Julia von Blumenthal Über die Zusammenhänge von Religion und Integration Interview: Digitale Bildungsangebote als Chance für Integration Innerafrikanische Migrationen Konsequenzen der Auslagerung der EU-Grenzen Kindermigration in Burkina Faso Flucht und Vertreibung Migranten als Akteure der Globalisierung Migrations- und Fluchtpfade Marokko Libyen Abschiebungen nach Afrika Leben nach der Abschiebung Flüchtlingslager Begriff und Geschichte des Lagers Orte der dauerhaften Vorläufigkeit: Flüchtlingslager im globalen Süden "Das Leben im Flüchtlingslager wird zur Normalität" Urbanisierungsprozesse Kleine Geschichte der Flüchtlingslager Lager in der Weimarer Republik Schlotwiese Uelzen-Bohldamm Friedland Zirndorf Marienfelde Das Jahr 2016: Ein Rückblick Globale Flüchtlingskrise hält weiter an Diskussion um kriminelle Geflüchtete Europa Literatur Resettlement Was ist Resettlement? Historische Entwicklung Resettlement durch UNHCR Resettlement im Vergleich zu anderen Aufnahmeprogrammen Aufnahme und Integration EU und Resettlement Deutschland Zukunft des Resettlements Literatur Akteure im (inter-)nationalen (Flucht-)Migrationsregime Akteure in Migrationsregimen und das Aushandeln von Migration Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge Die Europäische Grenzschutzagentur Frontex Die Asylagentur der Europäischen Union: neue Agentur, alte Herausforderungen UNHCR UNRWA – das UN-Hilfswerk für Palästina-Flüchtlinge im Nahen Osten Die Internationale Organisation für Migration (IOM) "Migration ist ein globales Thema, auf das es auch globale Antworten geben sollte." Flucht und Asyl: Grundlagen Abschiebung in der Geschichte Deutschlands Wie ist das Asylrecht entstanden? Das Asylverfahren in Deutschland Schutzanspruch im deutschen Asylverfahren? Sichere Herkunftsländer Das Konzept "sichere Herkunftsstaaten" Definition für Duldung und verbundene Rechte Flüchtlingsaufnahme und ihre Folgen Fluchtziel Deutschland Freiwillige Rückkehr Unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete Abschiebung – Ausweisung – Dublin-Überstellung Begriff und Figur des Flüchtlings in historischer Perspektive Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement Ehrenamtliches Engagement von Geflüchteten Interview mit J. Olaf Kleist Engagement in der Migrationsgesellschaft Politische Proteste von Geflüchteten Proteste gegen Abschiebungen Zivilgesellschaft und Integration Städte der Solidarität – ein Interview Beim Kirchenasyl geht es um den Schutz des Einzelnen. Ein Gespräch. Zivilgesellschaftliche Initiativen für sichere Fluchtwege – ein Überblick Migrantenorganisationen – vielfältige Akteurinnen gesamtgesellschaftlicher Integration (Flucht-)Migration und Gesundheit Medizinische Versorgung Interview David Zimmermann Definition von Migration Gesundheitszustand von Migranten Barrieren/ Prävention Erklärungsmodelle Schlussfolgerungen Literatur Das Jahr 2015: Ein Rückblick Fluchtmigration: Hintergründe Verwaltungs- und Infrastrukturkrise EU: Reaktionen auf die Fluchtzuwanderung Flüchtlingszahlen weltweit Internationale Studierende Einleitung Bildungsmigration Internationale Studierende Internationale Studierende in Deutschland Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt Literatur Migration und Pflege Einführung Altern in der Migrationsgesellschaft Interview mit Helma Lutz Deutsche Asylpolitik und EU-Flüchtlingsschutz Einleitung Flüchtlingsrecht Asylrecht, Flüchtlingspolitik, humanitäre Zuwanderung Flucht und Asyl als europäisiertes Politikfeld Asyl und Asylpolitik Ausblick Literatur Integration in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft Einleitung Die postmigrantische Gesellschaft Paradigmenwandel Brauchen wir den Integrationsbegriff noch? Integration als Metanarrativ Notwendigkeit eines neuen Leitbildes Literatur Lifestyle Migration Was ist Lifestyle Migration? Briten in Spanien Einen neuen Lebensstil entdecken Folgen des Residenztourismus Zusammenfassung Literatur Wahlrecht und Partizipation von Migranten Einleitung Politische Rechte und Kommunalwahlrecht Wahlrecht für Drittstaatsangehörige Einbürgerung Aktuelle Entwicklungen Schlussbemerkungen Literatur Frontex und das Grenzregime der EU Einleitung Frontex – Fragen und Antworten Die Entwicklung des europäischen Grenzregimes Externalisierung Technologisierung Grenzwirtschaft/border economies Auf der anderen Seite des Grenzzauns Ist Einwanderung ein Risiko? Literatur Demografischer Wandel und Migration Einleitung Demografischer Übergang Deutschland und Europa Internationale Wanderung Integration und Reproduktionsverhalten Wanderungspolitik Regionale Muster Literatur Glossar English Version: Policy Briefs "Having a nationality is not a given, it is a privilege" Sanctuary and Anti-Sanctuary Immigration Law in the United States Migrant Smugglers Urbanizing Skilled Female Migrants in the EU Self-Organization of Women* Refugees Impact of Migration Revisited Child and Youth Migration Human Rights Protections Migration from the United Kingdom Adoption and Child Migration Third Culture Kids Trafficking in Children Actors in National and International (Flight)Migration Regimes UNHCR UNRWA International Organization for Migration The International Organization for Migration (IOM) German Asylum Policy and EU Refugee Protection Introduction Refugee Law Asylum Law, Refugee Policy, Humanitarian Migration Flight and Asylum Current Developments Current and Future Challenges References Integration in a Post-Migrant Society Introduction Post-Migrant Society Paradigm Shift Do We Still Need the Concept of Integration? Integration as a Metanarrative Need for a New Concept References Lifestyle Migration What Is Lifestyle Migration? British in Spain Realizing a New Style of Life Outcomes of Lifestyle Migration Conclusion References Voting rights and political participation Introduction Political and Municipal Voting Rights Voting Rights for Nationals of Non-EU States Naturalization Recent Developments Conclusions References Frontex and the EU Border Regime Introduction Frontex — Questions and Answers The Development of a European Border Regime Externalization Technologization Border Economies On the Other Side of the Border Fence Is Migration a Risk? References Demographic Change and Migration in Europe Introduction Demographic Transition Germany and Europe International Migration Reproductive Behavior Migration Policy Regional Patterns Glossary Further Reading Global Migration in the Future Introduction Increase of the World Population Growth of Cities Environmental Changes Conclusion: Political Migration References Germans Abroad Introduction Germans Abroad Expatriates in Hong Kong and Thailand Human Security Concerns of German Expatriates Conclusions References Migrant Organizations What Are Migrant Organizations? Number and Structure Their Role in Social Participation Multidimensionality and the Dynamic Character Interaction with their Environments Between the Countries of Origin and Arrival Conclusion References EU Internal Migration EU Internal Migration East-West Migration after the EU Enlargement Ireland United Kingdom Spain Portugal Greece Italy Germany Assessment of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Introduction Evolution of the Accreditation Debate The Importance of Accreditation Basic Principles Thus Far of the Accreditation of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Actors in the Accreditation Practice Reasons for Establishing a New Legal Framework The Professional Qualifications Assessment Act What Is Being Criticized? The Accreditation System in Transition Conclusion References From Home country to Home country? Context Motives Immigration and Integration in Turkey Identification Emigration or Return? References Integration in Figures Approaches Development Six Approaches Conclusion References Climate Change Introduction Estimates Affected areas Environmental migration Conclusion References Dual citizenship Discourse Classic objections Current debate Rule of law Conclusion References Female Labour Migration The labour market Dominant perceptions Skilled female migration Issues Conclusion References How Healthy are Migrants? Definition The Health Status Prevention/Barriers Migration and Health Conclusions References Networks Spain Migrant networks Effects of networks Romanian networks Conclusion References Integration Policy Introduction Demographic situation Economic conditions Labour market The case in Stuttgart Integration measures Evaluation Outlook References Irregular Migration Introduction The phenomenon Political approaches Controlling Sanctions Proposed directive Conclusions References Integration Courses Introduction The Netherlands France Germany United Kingdom Conclusions References Recruitment of Healthcare Professionals Introduction The Situation Health Worker Migration Costs and Benefits Perspectives and Conclusion References Triggering Skilled Migration Introduction Talking about mobility Legal framework Coming to Germany Mobility of scientists Other factors Conclusions References Remittances Introduction The Term Remittance Figures and Trends Effects Conclusion References EU Expansion and Free Movement Introduction Transitional Arrangements Economic Theory The Scale The Results Continued Restrictions Conclusion References The German "Green Card" Introduction Background Green Card regulation Success? Conclusion References Does Germany Need Labour Migration? Introduction Labour shortages Labourmarket Conclusion Labourmigration References Dutch Integration Model The "Dutch model"? The end? Intention and reality A new view Where next? References Impressum

Figures and trends

Stefanie Hertlein Florin Vadean

/ 7 Minuten zu lesen

Along with foreign direct investments , remittances represent the most significant flow of capital into developing countries.

Bankautomat (© picture-alliance/dpa)

According to figures recently published by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), remittances totalling US$172 billion flowed into developing countries in 2004, approximately 13% more than the previous year . This dramatic rise can be traced back to a growing number of migrants, an increase in the use of official transfer mechanisms and a weaker dollar. The relative share of remittances in the total capital flows to developing countries has increased steadily in recent years, from around 20% in the 1990s to about 28% in 2004. By contrast, direct investments accounted for 41%, portfolio investments for 19% and official development assistance for 12% of capital flows by 2004. In Figure 1, the anti-cyclical nature of remittances can be seen as well. While direct and portfolio investments fell dramatically between the end of the 1990s and 2002, because of the financial crisis in Asia (1997/1998) and the September 11th terrorist attacks, remittances increased significantly during that time.

In order to comprehend the actual extent of remittances, one must take into account that the balance of payments completely disregards money transferred by informal means. Expert estimates put this cash flow well above that of official channels.

Data analysis

According to the definition of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), migrants' remittances are reported in the balance of payments statistics under three categories:

  • Compensation of Employees, i.e. gross earnings of workers residing abroad for less than 12 months;

  • Workers' Remittances, i.e. the value of monetary transfers sent home by workers residing abroad for more than one year; and

  • Migrants' Transfers, i.e. the net wealth of migrants who move from one country of employment to another.

Many central banks, however, do not follow the IMF's definition and report migrants' remittances under other categories as well, most commonly as Other Transfers of Other Sectors. In its report entitled Global Economic Prospects 2006, the World Bank identified a number of countries where migrants' remittances fall under this category: Algeria, China, Gambia, Iran, Kenya, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mauritius, Nigeria, Serbia and Montenegro, and Vietnam . Therefore, in the case of these countries, the authors of the World Bank publication added the category Other Transfers of Other Sectors to the Compensation of Employees, Workers' Remittances and Migrants' Transfers categories in order to estimate the overall size of remittance flows. However, the World Bank estimate does not take into account that a lot of transition countries (e.g. Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine) and some industrial countries (e.g. Germany and the UK ) also report migrants' remittances completely or partly under Other Transfers of Other Sectors.

Top 10 Remittance Receiving Countries in 2004 (nominal) (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/2.0/de

There are several problems linked to estimates of international remittance flows and to comparisons between countries. First of all, estimating migrants' remittances as the sum of Compensation of Employees, Workers' Remittances and Migrants' Transfers definitely underestimates the real flows (see above). However, by adding Other Transfers of Other Sectors money flows are included that are definitely not linked to workers' remittances, e.g. humanitarian aid from NGOs, pension payments, insurance and reinsurance benefits, transfers to and from investment funds or to and from savings accounts held in banks outside the country of residence, and even some transfers from illegal activities. In this policy brief, we define remittance flows as the Compensation of Employees plus an estimated fraction of the "total private current transfers" (i.e. the sum of Workers' Remittances and Other Transfers of Other Sectors) . Based on the analysis of the balance of payments statistics of numerous countries, we assume workers' remittances to account for 50% of the private current transfers in the case of high-income countries and for 80% of the private current transfers in the case of middle and low- income countries, which have less liberalised financial markets and thus less in- and outflows of other transfers.

Second, some small industrialised countries like Luxembourg and Switzerland have labour markets extending into bordering regions of neighbouring countries. As a result, a considerable part of the work force consists of commuters residing in a neighbouring country. Consequently, these countries report high flows of Compensation of Employees going to other countries. In order to correct for this "cross-border commuter effect", we exclude these flows from the calculation of migrants´ remittances for these two countries.

Top 10 Remittance Receiving Countries in 2004 (percentage of GDP) (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/2.0/de

Finally, the total migrants' remittances outflows worldwide do not match with the total migrants' remittances inflows worldwide. Following the definition described above, in 2004 the total migrants´ remittances outflows worldwide amounted to US$225.1 billion while the total migrants´ remittances inflows worldwide amounted to US$278.6 billion. This is manly due to the fact that source countries and destination countries of remittances count private transfers under different categories of their balance of payments (e.g. as a foreign investment outflow in the source country, but as a workers' remittance inflow in the destination country).

All data on migrants' remittances, including those in this policy brief, must be therefore interpreted with caution.

Where does the money go?

In terms of nominal amounts, China (US$21.4 billion), India (US$20.1 billion) and Mexico (US$15.2 billion) were the main recipients of remittance payments in 2004. However, the Philippines (see Box), with migrant labourers spread worldwide, also registered a noteworthy sum of US$10.0 billion. Populous India and China have the largest diaspora communities, which are based in numerous countries, whereas emigration from Mexico is mainly directed at the USA. Remittance payments from migrants tend to represent a more significant percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP) in small or low-income national economies.

Altogether, remittances amount to 2.2% of the GDP of all developing countries. The Republic of Moldova, the poorest country in Europe, is the country with the highest inflow of remittances as a percentage of GDP (29.0%). However, according to estimates, due to payments made through informal channels and real assets, the remittances are twice as high as the GDP. A large percentage of the population works abroad due to the precarious economic and political situation in the country. Tonga, a small archipelago country in the South Pacific, is ranked second. More than half of its population lives abroad and 28.7% of its GDP is made up of remittances . In terms of remittances as a percentage of GDP, Lesotho (26.1%) and the Palestinian territories (23.7%) rank third and fourth in the world, respectively. This ranking order is not solely based on the value of remittances; the current economic situation in a given recipient country, as reflected by the GDP, is also a crucial factor.

Top 10 Remittance Source Countries (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/2.0/de

Opposite the recipients are the remittance source countries, which primarily consist of industrialized nations . With a total remittance outflow of US$43.5 billion in 2004, the USA stands alone as the most significant remittance source country. The majority of immigrants to the US come from Mexico, India and other Southeast Asian countries and the Caribbean. The most significant remittance source countries in Europe are Germany (US$14.6 billion), the UK (US$12.3 billion), France (US$10.6 billion), Italy (US$7.4 billion), Switzerland (US$7.3 billion) and Belgium (US$5.5 billion).

InfoCollective remittances

An individual migrant's support for his family back home no longer represents the only form of remittance. Monetary flows from immigrant organisations in host countries to communities back home are becoming more commonplace. As connections between internationally scattered diaspora communities increase and their identification with the home country intensifies, support for collective financial strategies increases. In France alone there were 1000 immigrant associations in the year 2000. Such associations have financed the improvement and expansion of infrastructure as well as prestigious projects such as the building of mosques in Senegal, Mali and Mauritania. As a result, remittances have benefited communities and the general public, not simply individual households.

However, the inflow of money from abroad brings with it the danger of creating additional dependency, as the push for development is not endogenous. As a result, many projects are either not carried through or not maintained following their completion.

Having learned from such mishaps, the Mexican province of Zacatecas created a state-run initiative called Tres por uno (Three for One). It attempts to channel remittance funds into productive enterprises. Together with the community, the local and national governments contribute one dollar each for every dollar migrant organisations spend on community projects. The real benefit of this initiative is not simply the mixed financing that results from it, but rather the increasing cooperation between migrant associations (so-called hometown associations) abroad, the community and local government. The co-operation, founded in 1986, has always placed an emphasis on collaboration at the social and political level. They have profited most from the synergies and learning processes that have arisen from meetings between interested parties. Unfortunately, lasting economic growth has not yet been generated, despite the successful realisation of civil works projects.

Fussnoten

Fußnoten

  1. Direct investment' is defined as financial involvement on the part of an organisation (or a person) directed at an organisation in another country and intended, depending on the type and extent of support, to have a lasting impact on the business policy of the recipient. According to the IMF definition, 'lasting impact' is usually expected when the support given amounts to at least 10% of the recipient's total capital. If the support represents less than 10%, the term 'portfolio investment' is used.

  2. The figures have not been price adjusted. The growth of remittance revenues includes inflation in the remittance source countries (i.e. USA, Saudi Arabia, EU countries, etc.). Changes in currency exchange rates between remittance source countries can also affect remittance revenues. Because all data is represented in US$, the amounts are lower when the dollar is strong and higher during a weak dollar, respectively. They have been expressed in US$ for ease of comparison.

  3. This was due to the increased surveillance of unofficial transfers following September 11th, 2001.

  4. Defined here as the sum of remittances, direct investments, portfolio investments and official development assistance.

  5. Other Transfers of Other Sectors are the second subcategory of private transfers besides Workers' Remittances.

  6. See World Bank (2006).

  7. The German Federal Bank reports only cash transfers as Workers' Remittances. It further supplements these data with estimates on the basis of statistics from the German Federal Employment Agency on the number of employed and unemployed foreign nationals who are subject to social insurance contribution (see IMF 2005). This, however, results in a strong underestimation, because neither migrants who have entered into employment without the full social insurance benefits nor those who were naturalised in Germany are included in the statistics. Migrants´ remittances transferred by banks and all remittances of naturalised migrants are reported under the category Other Transfers of Other Sectors.

  8. In the Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook neither Workers' Remittances nor Other Transfers of Other Sectors are reported for the UK. We estimated the sum of the two by subtracting the General Government transfers from the total Current Transfers.

  9. As done by the World Bank (2006) for selected developing countries and by Straubhaar and Vadean (2006) for all developing countries.

  10. Migrants' Transfers have been disregarded in our calculations, because they are not explicitly reported in the Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook. However, Migrants' transfers currently represent only a very small amount (US$1.5 billion in 2004; source: World Bank) in comparison to the estimated total remittance flows (US$225.1 billion).

  11. The Moldovan Intelligence and Security Service estimates that between 600,000 to one million Moldovan citizens (almost 25% of a population of some 4.4 million) are working abroad.

  12. See Small and Dixon (2004).

  13. Unlike in the case of developing countries, only the guest workers' employee compensation and workers' remittances were added. Other private transfers were not credited, since, as a rule, the central banks of industrialized countries add other financial flows to their balance sheets.

Stefanie Hertlein studies Geography, Economic Policy and Ethnology at the University of Freiburg.

Florin Vadean is a member of the Migration Research Group at the Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI), a Ph.D. candidate in economics at the University of Hamburg and a Research Fellow at the Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis (RIIM), Vancouver, Canada.