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The Results Two Years after Enlargement: Preliminary Results

Kurzdossiers "Paradise Left Behind" – Begleitmaterial zum Film "Es geht um differenzierte Bilder." – Ein Gespräch über Paradise Left Behind Die ägäischen Inseln: von Räumen des Transits zu Räumen der Immobilisierung 'Schengen', 'Dublin' und die Ambivalenzen der EU-Migrationspolitik. Eine kurze Geschichte Paradise Left Behind Migration und Wirtschaft Die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Zuwanderung Wie sich Migration auf die Herkunftsländer auswirkt Migrantische Ökonomien in Deutschland Fachkräfteengpässe und Arbeitsmigration nach Deutschland Migration und Handwerk – kurze Geschichte einer langen Verbindung Migration und Handwerk: Fachkräftemangel und integratives Potenzial Zugehörigkeit und Zusammenhalt in der Migrationsgesellschaft Was ist Heimat? Warum es so viel leichter ist über Nudelsalat zu reden als über Rassismus Die blinden Flecken antirassistischer Diskurse Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Konfliktbearbeitung ist der Klebstoff der Demokratie Sozialer Zusammenhalt und das Gefühl, fremd im eigenen Land zu sein Die Gruppe der Ostdeutschen als Teil postmigrantischer Integrationsfragen Kommunale Migrations- und Flüchtlingspolitik Der "local turn" in der Migrations- und Asylpolitik Kommunen und ihre Rolle bei der Flüchtlingsaufnahme Kommunale Aufnahme von Flüchtlingen Interview: Migrations- und integrationspolitische Debatten im Deutschen Städtetag Kommunale Integrationspolitik in Deutschland: Teilhabe vor Ort ermöglichen Zufluchtsstädte im amerikanischen Einwanderungsföderalismus Migration in städtischen und ländlichen Räumen Geflüchtete in ländlichen Räumen Perspektive Geflüchteter auf das Leben auf dem Land Landlust oder Landfrust? Fleischindustrie Migrantische Arbeitskräfte in der malaysischen Palmölindustrie (Il)legal? Migrant_innen in der spanischen Landwirtschaft Das Wachstum der Städte durch Migration Migration und Männlichkeit Männlichkeit im Migrationskontext Muslimische Männlichkeit Väterlichkeiten Intersektionale Diskriminierung Sozialisation junger Muslime Migration – Kriminalität – Männlichkeit Migration und Sicherheit Einführung Migration und menschliche Sicherheit Foreign Fighters "Gefährder" Smart Borders Grenzkontrollen: Einblicke in die grenzpolizeiliche Praxis Die Polizei in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft Interview Radikalisierung in der Migrationsgesellschaft Schlepper: Dekonstruktion eines Mythos "Racial Profiling", institutioneller Rassismus und Interventionsmöglichkeiten Migration und Klimawandel Umwelt- und Klimamigration: Begriffe und Definitionen Zur Prognose des Umfangs klimabedingter Migrationen Der Zusammenhang zwischen Klimawandel und Migration Indikator für Verwundbarkeit oder Resilienz? Klimawandel, Migration und Geschlechterverhältnisse Rechtliche Schutzmöglichkeiten für "Klimaflüchtlinge" Interview mit Ulf Neupert Frauen in der Migration Migration qualifizierter Frauen in der EU Selbstorganisation geflüchteter Frauen* "Gastarbeiterinnen" in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Ein Überblick in Zahlen Migration und Geschlechterrollen Frauen auf der Flucht Interview Zahlenwerk: Frauen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland Integrationskurse Geschlechtsbezogene Verfolgung – Rechtlicher Schutz Geflüchtete Frauen in Deutschland Kinder- und Jugendmigration Zahlenwerk Kindertransporte Die "Schwabenkinder" Kinder- und Jugendmigration aus GB Menschenrechte von Kindermigranten Third Culture Kids Kindersoldat_Innen Adoption und Kindermigration Kinderhandel Lebensborn e.V. Grenzzäune und -mauern Mauern und Zäune Integrationspolitik Integrationsmonitoring Integrationstheorien Interview mit Andreas Zick Integration in superdiverse Nachbarschaften Migration und Entwicklung Entwicklung und Migration, Umsiedlung und Klimawandel Migration und Entwicklung – eine neue Perspektive? Stand der Forschung Rücküberweisungen Diaspora als Impulsgeberin für Entwicklung Landgrabbing Interview mit Roman Herre Strukturumbrüche und Transformation Diaspora Was ist eine Diaspora? Exil, Diaspora, Transmigration Diaspora: Leben im Spannungsfeld Türkeistämmige in Deutschland Postsowjetische Migranten Polnische Diaspora Vietnamesische Diaspora Kurdische Diaspora Diaspora als Akteur der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Russlanddeutsche und andere postsozialistische Migranten Wer sind die Russlanddeutschen? Aussiedler Politische Partizipation von Russlanddeutschen Russlanddeutsches Verbandswesen Religiosität unter Russlanddeutschen Interview mit Peter Dück Russlanddeutsche in Russland Russlanddeutsche transnational Jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge und Russlanddeutsche Transnationalismus als Beheimatungsstrategie Aushandlungen der Zugehörigkeit russlanddeutscher Jugendlicher Mediennutzung der russischen Diaspora in Deutschland 'Russische' Supermärkte und Restaurants in Deutschland Perspektiven auf die Integration von Geflüchteten in Deutschland Arbeitsmarktperspektiven von Geflüchteten Interview mit Gesa Hune Meinung: Geflüchtete fördern - oder es kann teuer werden Effekte der Fluchtmigration - Interview mit Prof. Dr. Herbert Brücker "Die müssen die Sprache lernen" Fremd- bzw. Zweitspracherwerb von Geflüchteten Die Arbeitsmarktintegration Geflüchteter in der Vergangenheit "Wohnst Du schon – oder wirst Du noch untergebracht?" Inklusion in das Schulsystem Ein Jahr Integrationsgesetz Interview mit Prof. Dr. Julia von Blumenthal Über die Zusammenhänge von Religion und Integration Interview: Digitale Bildungsangebote als Chance für Integration Innerafrikanische Migrationen Konsequenzen der Auslagerung der EU-Grenzen Kindermigration in Burkina Faso Flucht und Vertreibung Migranten als Akteure der Globalisierung Migrations- und Fluchtpfade Marokko Libyen Abschiebungen nach Afrika Leben nach der Abschiebung Flüchtlingslager Begriff und Geschichte des Lagers Orte der dauerhaften Vorläufigkeit: Flüchtlingslager im globalen Süden "Das Leben im Flüchtlingslager wird zur Normalität" Urbanisierungsprozesse Kleine Geschichte der Flüchtlingslager Lager in der Weimarer Republik Schlotwiese Uelzen-Bohldamm Friedland Zirndorf Marienfelde Das Jahr 2016: Ein Rückblick Globale Flüchtlingskrise hält weiter an Diskussion um kriminelle Geflüchtete Europa Literatur Resettlement Was ist Resettlement? Historische Entwicklung Resettlement durch UNHCR Resettlement im Vergleich zu anderen Aufnahmeprogrammen Aufnahme und Integration EU und Resettlement Deutschland Zukunft des Resettlements Literatur Akteure im (inter-)nationalen (Flucht-)Migrationsregime Akteure in Migrationsregimen und das Aushandeln von Migration Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge Die Europäische Grenzschutzagentur Frontex Die Asylagentur der Europäischen Union: neue Agentur, alte Herausforderungen UNHCR UNRWA – das UN-Hilfswerk für Palästina-Flüchtlinge im Nahen Osten Die Internationale Organisation für Migration (IOM) "Migration ist ein globales Thema, auf das es auch globale Antworten geben sollte." Flucht und Asyl: Grundlagen Abschiebung in der Geschichte Deutschlands Wie ist das Asylrecht entstanden? Das Asylverfahren in Deutschland Schutzanspruch im deutschen Asylverfahren? Sichere Herkunftsländer Das Konzept "sichere Herkunftsstaaten" Definition für Duldung und verbundene Rechte Flüchtlingsaufnahme und ihre Folgen Fluchtziel Deutschland Freiwillige Rückkehr Unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete Abschiebung – Ausweisung – Dublin-Überstellung Begriff und Figur des Flüchtlings in historischer Perspektive Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement Ehrenamtliches Engagement von Geflüchteten Interview mit J. Olaf Kleist Engagement in der Migrationsgesellschaft Politische Proteste von Geflüchteten Proteste gegen Abschiebungen Zivilgesellschaft und Integration Städte der Solidarität – ein Interview Beim Kirchenasyl geht es um den Schutz des Einzelnen. Ein Gespräch. Zivilgesellschaftliche Initiativen für sichere Fluchtwege – ein Überblick Migrantenorganisationen – vielfältige Akteurinnen gesamtgesellschaftlicher Integration (Flucht-)Migration und Gesundheit Medizinische Versorgung Interview David Zimmermann Definition von Migration Gesundheitszustand von Migranten Barrieren/ Prävention Erklärungsmodelle Schlussfolgerungen Literatur Das Jahr 2015: Ein Rückblick Fluchtmigration: Hintergründe Verwaltungs- und Infrastrukturkrise EU: Reaktionen auf die Fluchtzuwanderung Flüchtlingszahlen weltweit Internationale Studierende Einleitung Bildungsmigration Internationale Studierende Internationale Studierende in Deutschland Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt Literatur Migration und Pflege Einführung Altern in der Migrationsgesellschaft Interview mit Helma Lutz Deutsche Asylpolitik und EU-Flüchtlingsschutz Einleitung Flüchtlingsrecht Asylrecht, Flüchtlingspolitik, humanitäre Zuwanderung Flucht und Asyl als europäisiertes Politikfeld Asyl und Asylpolitik Ausblick Literatur Integration in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft Einleitung Die postmigrantische Gesellschaft Paradigmenwandel Brauchen wir den Integrationsbegriff noch? Integration als Metanarrativ Notwendigkeit eines neuen Leitbildes Literatur Lifestyle Migration Was ist Lifestyle Migration? Briten in Spanien Einen neuen Lebensstil entdecken Folgen des Residenztourismus Zusammenfassung Literatur Wahlrecht und Partizipation von Migranten Einleitung Politische Rechte und Kommunalwahlrecht Wahlrecht für Drittstaatsangehörige Einbürgerung Aktuelle Entwicklungen Schlussbemerkungen Literatur Frontex und das Grenzregime der EU Einleitung Frontex – Fragen und Antworten Die Entwicklung des europäischen Grenzregimes Externalisierung Technologisierung Grenzwirtschaft/border economies Auf der anderen Seite des Grenzzauns Ist Einwanderung ein Risiko? Literatur Demografischer Wandel und Migration Einleitung Demografischer Übergang Deutschland und Europa Internationale Wanderung Integration und Reproduktionsverhalten Wanderungspolitik Regionale Muster Literatur Glossar English Version: Policy Briefs "Having a nationality is not a given, it is a privilege" Sanctuary and Anti-Sanctuary Immigration Law in the United States Migrant Smugglers Urbanizing Skilled Female Migrants in the EU Self-Organization of Women* Refugees Impact of Migration Revisited Child and Youth Migration Human Rights Protections Migration from the United Kingdom Adoption and Child Migration Third Culture Kids Trafficking in Children Actors in National and International (Flight)Migration Regimes UNHCR UNRWA International Organization for Migration The International Organization for Migration (IOM) German Asylum Policy and EU Refugee Protection Introduction Refugee Law Asylum Law, Refugee Policy, Humanitarian Migration Flight and Asylum Current Developments Current and Future Challenges References Integration in a Post-Migrant Society Introduction Post-Migrant Society Paradigm Shift Do We Still Need the Concept of Integration? Integration as a Metanarrative Need for a New Concept References Lifestyle Migration What Is Lifestyle Migration? British in Spain Realizing a New Style of Life Outcomes of Lifestyle Migration Conclusion References Voting rights and political participation Introduction Political and Municipal Voting Rights Voting Rights for Nationals of Non-EU States Naturalization Recent Developments Conclusions References Frontex and the EU Border Regime Introduction Frontex — Questions and Answers The Development of a European Border Regime Externalization Technologization Border Economies On the Other Side of the Border Fence Is Migration a Risk? References Demographic Change and Migration in Europe Introduction Demographic Transition Germany and Europe International Migration Reproductive Behavior Migration Policy Regional Patterns Glossary Further Reading Global Migration in the Future Introduction Increase of the World Population Growth of Cities Environmental Changes Conclusion: Political Migration References Germans Abroad Introduction Germans Abroad Expatriates in Hong Kong and Thailand Human Security Concerns of German Expatriates Conclusions References Migrant Organizations What Are Migrant Organizations? Number and Structure Their Role in Social Participation Multidimensionality and the Dynamic Character Interaction with their Environments Between the Countries of Origin and Arrival Conclusion References EU Internal Migration EU Internal Migration East-West Migration after the EU Enlargement Ireland United Kingdom Spain Portugal Greece Italy Germany Assessment of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Introduction Evolution of the Accreditation Debate The Importance of Accreditation Basic Principles Thus Far of the Accreditation of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Actors in the Accreditation Practice Reasons for Establishing a New Legal Framework The Professional Qualifications Assessment Act What Is Being Criticized? The Accreditation System in Transition Conclusion References From Home country to Home country? Context Motives Immigration and Integration in Turkey Identification Emigration or Return? References Integration in Figures Approaches Development Six Approaches Conclusion References Climate Change Introduction Estimates Affected areas Environmental migration Conclusion References Dual citizenship Discourse Classic objections Current debate Rule of law Conclusion References Female Labour Migration The labour market Dominant perceptions Skilled female migration Issues Conclusion References How Healthy are Migrants? Definition The Health Status Prevention/Barriers Migration and Health Conclusions References Networks Spain Migrant networks Effects of networks Romanian networks Conclusion References Integration Policy Introduction Demographic situation Economic conditions Labour market The case in Stuttgart Integration measures Evaluation Outlook References Irregular Migration Introduction The phenomenon Political approaches Controlling Sanctions Proposed directive Conclusions References Integration Courses Introduction The Netherlands France Germany United Kingdom Conclusions References Recruitment of Healthcare Professionals Introduction The Situation Health Worker Migration Costs and Benefits Perspectives and Conclusion References Triggering Skilled Migration Introduction Talking about mobility Legal framework Coming to Germany Mobility of scientists Other factors Conclusions References Remittances Introduction The Term Remittance Figures and Trends Effects Conclusion References EU Expansion and Free Movement Introduction Transitional Arrangements Economic Theory The Scale The Results Continued Restrictions Conclusion References The German "Green Card" Introduction Background Green Card regulation Success? Conclusion References Does Germany Need Labour Migration? Introduction Labour shortages Labourmarket Conclusion Labourmigration References Dutch Integration Model The "Dutch model"? The end? Intention and reality A new view Where next? References Impressum

The Results Two Years after Enlargement: Preliminary Results

Michael Heinen and Anna Pegels

/ 6 Minuten zu lesen

According to a report issued by the European Commission in February 2006 on the first phase of the transitional arrangements, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Sweden found that the free movement of workers from the EU8 had had a positive effect on their economies in general.

Polish shop in Derby, England. (© picture alliance / empics )

Given the low number of EU8 migrants that have entered Sweden since May 2004 , the following analysis will concentrate on the United Kingdom and, to a more limited extent, Ireland.

How Many Migrant Workers Have Arrived From the EU8?

Available data in the United Kingdom and Ireland make it difficult to determine exactly how many migrant workers have arrived in those countries from the EU8 since May 2004. In order to monitor the employment activities of migrant workers from the EU8, the United Kingdom introduced the Worker Registration Scheme (WRS), with which workers from the EU8 are required to register within 30 days of entering employment. Between May 2004 and December 2005, 344,635 EU8 workers registered with the WRS. However, or several reasons, this figure cannot be taken as representative of the number of EU8 migrants entering the UK following accession. First, workers are required to register for each new job, which means that migrants who change jobs can be recorded multiple times in the WRS. Second, migrants are not required to deregister if they leave their job or the country. Third, once an EU8 worker has been legally employed for a period of 12 months, they are no longer required to register with the WRS. Finally, according to one UK report, 26% of workers registered with the WRS by December 2004 had reported being in the UK prior to accession, and a further 12% did not give details on their date of arrival . This means that many people recorded in the WRS were living and/or working in the UK prior to accession and registered a change of job after 1 May 2004. And so, the total number of WRS registrations most likely overestimates the inflow of EU8 labour migrants following accession.

The number of EU8 migrants registered in the United Kingdom amounted to only 0.4% of the total working age population in the periods from May 2004 to September 2005. Contrary to predictions, the UK did not experience a sudden and uncontrollable influx of migrant labour from the new EU member states.

In Ireland, the number of Personal Public Service (PPS) Numbers issued has been used as an indicator of the numbers of labour migrants that have arrived from the EU8 following accession. Between May 2004 and November 2005, 160,853 PPS numbers were issued to people from the EU8. As with the WRS in the UK, however, these figures overestimate the number of actual labour migrants, as the numbers are also issued to accompanying family members for social security and health care purposes. Additionally, it is possible that a number of these migrants were present in Ireland prior to accession. From May to December 2004 the number of PPS numbers issued amounted to 1.9% of the working age population; this percentage rose to 3.8% from January to September 2005. Although Ireland has received the highest number of EU8 migrants proportional to its working age population since May 2004, the large number has to be seen as part of the significant rise in immigration that has taken place there since the mid-1990s , and not only as a consequence of the country´s application of the free movement of workers principle.

What Type of Labour Migrants Have Arrived From the EU8?

In terms of demographic characteristics, data show that labour migrants from the EU8 states are typically young and single. In the United Kingdom, 83% of the 344,635 workers who registered with the WRS between May 2004 and December 2005 were aged 18 to 34, and only 6% were accompanied by their families. The majority came from Poland, Lithuania and Estonia.

The migrants hold a mixture of low-, moderate- and high-level qualifications. Notably, the United Kingdom and Ireland experienced an influx of dentists, nurses, doctors and other professionals. The report prepared by the European Commission on the first phase of the transitional arrangements examined the skill levels of EU8 nationals (plus those from Cyprus and Malta), in reference to the EU15 as a whole. It found that 57% of EU8 nationals in the EU15 in 2005 held medium-level qualifications , a further 21% were considered low-skilled and 22% were considered highly-skilled. Therefore, according to the report, 79% of labour migrants from the EU8 states (plus Cyprus and Malta) belong to either the moderately- or highly- skilled category.

What Effect Have EU8 Labour Migrants Had on the Economy?

According to various analysts and the European Commission, EU8 labour migrants have had a positive economic impact in the United Kingdom and Ireland in general. Due to the greater availability of data on the effect of these migrants on the United Kingdom's economy, this section will concentrate on developments in that country. Of particular interest here is the effect this migration has had on employment rates and wages.

With regard to employment rates, there was a substantial increase in the employment level of EU8 workers following the introduction of free movement, and it has even surpassed the employment level of UK-born workers. The most significant aspect of these findings, however, is that this increase did not take place to the detriment of UK-born workers, whose employment rate has remained constant. Theoretically, this could be the result of EU8 migrants finding employment in sectors – such as agriculture, hospitality and administration – that have been experiencing labour shortages. It could also be the result of the types of qualifications and skills the EU8 migrants have brought with them (see above). According to the European Commission's report, the medium-level qualifications possessed by the majority of EU8 migrants are precisely the level of qualification most often lacking in EU15 countries, therefore; the new arrivals would tend to complement the UK-born workforce rather than compete for the same jobs.

EU8 Migrant and UK-Born Employment Rates 2000-2005 (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/2.0/de

Another explanation for the trend in employment rates could be the legalisation of formerly unofficial employment by EU8 migrants present in the United Kingdom before accession. Some migrants residing and working in the country prior to the enlargement may have taken advantage of their new status to register their employment activities with the authorities.

Average Earnings Index in the Agriculture and Fishing Industry and the Whole Economy (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/2.0/de

In the United Kingdom, average earnings have risen steadily, which runs contrary to fears that an influx of workers from the EU8 countries would lower wages due to increased competition. This is even observed in the agricultural sector, where a large number of these workers found employment. In theory, this could be due to the fact that young labour migrants in general – as the majority of EU8 migrants are – tend to be highly motivated. This may lead to higher productivity and, in turn, to higher wages. The rising wages may also be the result of increasing consumer demand from the migrant population itself.

Beyond these positive developments in employment levels and wages, the British government placed the net economic gain due to labour migration from the EU8 countries in the first eleven months after accession at approximately 500 million pounds.

Fussnoten

Fußnoten

  1. See European Commission (2006).

  2. The data contained in the European Commission's report places the number of EU-10 (EU8 plus Cyprus and Malta) migrants that entered Sweden from May to December 2004 at 3,514, or 0.1% of the working age population (WAP) aged 15-64. See European Commission (2006).

  3. See Portes and French (2005).

  4. The number of work permits issued to non-Irish migrant workers rose from less than 6,000 in 1999 to approximately 50,000 in 2003. For an overview of recent immigration to Ireland see Ruhs (2004).

  5. According to the report, medium-level qualifications "include upper secondary education and specialised vocational training." See European Commission (2006).

  6. See for example Home Office (2005), Portes and French (2005) and Traser (2005).

Michael Heinen and Anna Pegels are doctoral students in international economic relations at the Ruhr-University of Bochum.