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Third Culture Kids – Citizens of the World or Somewhere in Between?

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Konfliktbearbeitung ist der Klebstoff der Demokratie Sozialer Zusammenhalt und das Gefühl, fremd im eigenen Land zu sein Die Gruppe der Ostdeutschen als Teil postmigrantischer Integrationsfragen Kommunale Migrations- und Flüchtlingspolitik Der "local turn" in der Migrations- und Asylpolitik Kommunen und ihre Rolle bei der Flüchtlingsaufnahme Kommunale Aufnahme von Flüchtlingen Interview: Migrations- und integrationspolitische Debatten im Deutschen Städtetag Kommunale Integrationspolitik in Deutschland: Teilhabe vor Ort ermöglichen Zufluchtsstädte im amerikanischen Einwanderungsföderalismus Migration in städtischen und ländlichen Räumen Geflüchtete in ländlichen Räumen Perspektive Geflüchteter auf das Leben auf dem Land Landlust oder Landfrust? Fleischindustrie Migrantische Arbeitskräfte in der malaysischen Palmölindustrie (Il)legal? Migrant_innen in der spanischen Landwirtschaft Das Wachstum der Städte durch Migration Migration und Männlichkeit Männlichkeit im Migrationskontext Muslimische Männlichkeit Väterlichkeiten Intersektionale Diskriminierung Sozialisation junger Muslime Migration – Kriminalität – Männlichkeit Migration und Sicherheit Einführung Migration und menschliche Sicherheit Foreign Fighters "Gefährder" Smart Borders Grenzkontrollen: Einblicke in die grenzpolizeiliche Praxis Die Polizei in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft Interview Radikalisierung in der Migrationsgesellschaft Schlepper: Dekonstruktion eines Mythos "Racial Profiling", institutioneller Rassismus und Interventionsmöglichkeiten Migration und Klimawandel Umwelt- und Klimamigration: Begriffe und Definitionen Zur Prognose des Umfangs klimabedingter Migrationen Der Zusammenhang zwischen Klimawandel und Migration Indikator für Verwundbarkeit oder Resilienz? Klimawandel, Migration und Geschlechterverhältnisse Rechtliche Schutzmöglichkeiten für "Klimaflüchtlinge" Interview mit Ulf Neupert Frauen in der Migration Migration qualifizierter Frauen in der EU Selbstorganisation geflüchteter Frauen* "Gastarbeiterinnen" in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Ein Überblick in Zahlen Migration und Geschlechterrollen Frauen auf der Flucht Interview Zahlenwerk: Frauen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland Integrationskurse Geschlechtsbezogene Verfolgung – Rechtlicher Schutz Geflüchtete Frauen in Deutschland Kinder- und Jugendmigration Zahlenwerk Kindertransporte Die "Schwabenkinder" Kinder- und Jugendmigration aus GB Menschenrechte von Kindermigranten Third Culture Kids Kindersoldat_Innen Adoption und Kindermigration Kinderhandel Lebensborn e.V. Grenzzäune und -mauern Mauern und Zäune Integrationspolitik Integrationsmonitoring Integrationstheorien Interview mit Andreas Zick Integration in superdiverse Nachbarschaften Migration und Entwicklung Entwicklung und Migration, Umsiedlung und Klimawandel Migration und Entwicklung – eine neue Perspektive? Stand der Forschung Rücküberweisungen Diaspora als Impulsgeberin für Entwicklung Landgrabbing Interview mit Roman Herre Strukturumbrüche und Transformation Diaspora Was ist eine Diaspora? Exil, Diaspora, Transmigration Diaspora: Leben im Spannungsfeld Türkeistämmige in Deutschland Postsowjetische Migranten Polnische Diaspora Vietnamesische Diaspora Kurdische Diaspora Diaspora als Akteur der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Russlanddeutsche und andere postsozialistische Migranten Wer sind die Russlanddeutschen? Aussiedler Politische Partizipation von Russlanddeutschen Russlanddeutsches Verbandswesen Religiosität unter Russlanddeutschen Interview mit Peter Dück Russlanddeutsche in Russland Russlanddeutsche transnational Jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge und Russlanddeutsche Transnationalismus als Beheimatungsstrategie Aushandlungen der Zugehörigkeit russlanddeutscher Jugendlicher Mediennutzung der russischen Diaspora in Deutschland 'Russische' Supermärkte und Restaurants in Deutschland Perspektiven auf die Integration von Geflüchteten in Deutschland Arbeitsmarktperspektiven von Geflüchteten Interview mit Gesa Hune Meinung: Geflüchtete fördern - oder es kann teuer werden Effekte der Fluchtmigration - Interview mit Prof. Dr. Herbert Brücker "Die müssen die Sprache lernen" Fremd- bzw. Zweitspracherwerb von Geflüchteten Die Arbeitsmarktintegration Geflüchteter in der Vergangenheit "Wohnst Du schon – oder wirst Du noch untergebracht?" Inklusion in das Schulsystem Ein Jahr Integrationsgesetz Interview mit Prof. Dr. Julia von Blumenthal Über die Zusammenhänge von Religion und Integration Interview: Digitale Bildungsangebote als Chance für Integration Innerafrikanische Migrationen Konsequenzen der Auslagerung der EU-Grenzen Kindermigration in Burkina Faso Flucht und Vertreibung Migranten als Akteure der Globalisierung Migrations- und Fluchtpfade Marokko Libyen Abschiebungen nach Afrika Leben nach der Abschiebung Flüchtlingslager Begriff und Geschichte des Lagers Orte der dauerhaften Vorläufigkeit: Flüchtlingslager im globalen Süden "Das Leben im Flüchtlingslager wird zur Normalität" Urbanisierungsprozesse Kleine Geschichte der Flüchtlingslager Lager in der Weimarer Republik Schlotwiese Uelzen-Bohldamm Friedland Zirndorf Marienfelde Das Jahr 2016: Ein Rückblick Globale Flüchtlingskrise hält weiter an Diskussion um kriminelle Geflüchtete Europa Literatur Resettlement Was ist Resettlement? Historische Entwicklung Resettlement durch UNHCR Resettlement im Vergleich zu anderen Aufnahmeprogrammen Aufnahme und Integration EU und Resettlement Deutschland Zukunft des Resettlements Literatur Akteure im (inter-)nationalen (Flucht-)Migrationsregime Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge UNHCR UNRWA Internationale Organisation für Migration Die Internationale Organisation für Migration (IOM) UNRWA – das UN-Hilfswerk für Palästina-Flüchtlinge im Nahen Osten Akteure in Migrationsregimen und das Aushandeln von Migration Die Europäische Grenzschutzagentur Frontex Flucht und Asyl: Grundlagen Abschiebung in der Geschichte Deutschlands Wie ist das Asylrecht entstanden? Das Asylverfahren in Deutschland Schutzanspruch im deutschen Asylverfahren? Sichere Herkunftsländer Das Konzept "sichere Herkunftsstaaten" Definition für Duldung und verbundene Rechte Flüchtlingsaufnahme und ihre Folgen Fluchtziel Deutschland Freiwillige Rückkehr Unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete Abschiebung – Ausweisung – Dublin-Überstellung Begriff und Figur des Flüchtlings in historischer Perspektive Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement Ehrenamtliches Engagement von Geflüchteten Interview mit J. Olaf Kleist Engagement in der Migrationsgesellschaft Politische Proteste von Geflüchteten Proteste gegen Abschiebungen Zivilgesellschaft und Integration Städte der Solidarität – ein Interview Beim Kirchenasyl geht es um den Schutz des Einzelnen. Ein Gespräch. Zivilgesellschaftliche Initiativen für sichere Fluchtwege – ein Überblick Migrantenorganisationen – vielfältige Akteurinnen gesamtgesellschaftlicher Integration (Flucht-)Migration und Gesundheit Medizinische Versorgung Interview David Zimmermann Definition von Migration Gesundheitszustand von Migranten Barrieren/ Prävention Erklärungsmodelle Schlussfolgerungen Literatur Das Jahr 2015: Ein Rückblick Fluchtmigration: Hintergründe Verwaltungs- und Infrastrukturkrise EU: Reaktionen auf die Fluchtzuwanderung Flüchtlingszahlen weltweit Internationale Studierende Einleitung Bildungsmigration Internationale Studierende Internationale Studierende in Deutschland Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt Literatur Migration und Pflege Einführung Altern in der Migrationsgesellschaft Interview mit Helma Lutz Deutsche Asylpolitik und EU-Flüchtlingsschutz Einleitung Flüchtlingsrecht Asylrecht, Flüchtlingspolitik, humanitäre Zuwanderung Flucht und Asyl als europäisiertes Politikfeld Asyl und Asylpolitik Ausblick Literatur Integration in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft Einleitung Die postmigrantische Gesellschaft Paradigmenwandel Brauchen wir den Integrationsbegriff noch? Integration als Metanarrativ Notwendigkeit eines neuen Leitbildes Literatur Lifestyle Migration Was ist Lifestyle Migration? Briten in Spanien Einen neuen Lebensstil entdecken Folgen des Residenztourismus Zusammenfassung Literatur Wahlrecht und Partizipation von Migranten Einleitung Politische Rechte und Kommunalwahlrecht Wahlrecht für Drittstaatsangehörige Einbürgerung Aktuelle Entwicklungen Schlussbemerkungen Literatur Frontex und das Grenzregime der EU Einleitung Frontex – Fragen und Antworten Die Entwicklung des europäischen Grenzregimes Externalisierung Technologisierung Grenzwirtschaft/border economies Auf der anderen Seite des Grenzzauns Ist Einwanderung ein Risiko? Literatur Demografischer Wandel und Migration Einleitung Demografischer Übergang Deutschland und Europa Internationale Wanderung Integration und Reproduktionsverhalten Wanderungspolitik Regionale Muster Literatur Glossar English Version: Policy Briefs "Having a nationality is not a given, it is a privilege" Sanctuary and Anti-Sanctuary Immigration Law in the United States Migrant Smugglers Urbanizing Skilled Female Migrants in the EU Self-Organization of Women* Refugees Impact of Migration Revisited Child and Youth Migration Human Rights Protections Migration from the United Kingdom Adoption and Child Migration Third Culture Kids Trafficking in Children Actors in National and International (Flight)Migration Regimes UNHCR UNRWA International Organization for Migration The International Organization for Migration (IOM) German Asylum Policy and EU Refugee Protection Introduction Refugee Law Asylum Law, Refugee Policy, Humanitarian Migration Flight and Asylum Current Developments Current and Future Challenges References Integration in a Post-Migrant Society Introduction Post-Migrant Society Paradigm Shift Do We Still Need the Concept of Integration? Integration as a Metanarrative Need for a New Concept References Lifestyle Migration What Is Lifestyle Migration? British in Spain Realizing a New Style of Life Outcomes of Lifestyle Migration Conclusion References Voting rights and political participation Introduction Political and Municipal Voting Rights Voting Rights for Nationals of Non-EU States Naturalization Recent Developments Conclusions References Frontex and the EU Border Regime Introduction Frontex — Questions and Answers The Development of a European Border Regime Externalization Technologization Border Economies On the Other Side of the Border Fence Is Migration a Risk? References Demographic Change and Migration in Europe Introduction Demographic Transition Germany and Europe International Migration Reproductive Behavior Migration Policy Regional Patterns Glossary Further Reading Global Migration in the Future Introduction Increase of the World Population Growth of Cities Environmental Changes Conclusion: Political Migration References Germans Abroad Introduction Germans Abroad Expatriates in Hong Kong and Thailand Human Security Concerns of German Expatriates Conclusions References Migrant Organizations What Are Migrant Organizations? Number and Structure Their Role in Social Participation Multidimensionality and the Dynamic Character Interaction with their Environments Between the Countries of Origin and Arrival Conclusion References EU Internal Migration EU Internal Migration East-West Migration after the EU Enlargement Ireland United Kingdom Spain Portugal Greece Italy Germany Internal Migration in China Introduction Terminology Urban-Rural Disparity and Registration System Patterns of Migration Areas of Employment Second Generation Migration and Urbanization Migrants in China’s Cities Summary and Conclusions References Assessment of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Introduction Evolution of the Accreditation Debate The Importance of Accreditation Basic Principles Thus Far of the Accreditation of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Actors in the Accreditation Practice Reasons for Establishing a New Legal Framework The Professional Qualifications Assessment Act What Is Being Criticized? The Accreditation System in Transition Conclusion References From Home country to Home country? Context Motives Immigration and Integration in Turkey Identification Emigration or Return? References Integration in Figures Approaches Development Six Approaches Conclusion References Climate Change Introduction Estimates Affected areas Environmental migration Conclusion References Dual citizenship Discourse Classic objections Current debate Rule of law Conclusion References Female Labour Migration The labour market Dominant perceptions Skilled female migration Issues Conclusion References How Healthy are Migrants? Definition The Health Status Prevention/Barriers Migration and Health Conclusions References Networks Spain Migrant networks Effects of networks Romanian networks Conclusion References Integration Policy Introduction Demographic situation Economic conditions Labour market The case in Stuttgart Integration measures Evaluation Outlook References Irregular Migration Introduction The phenomenon Political approaches Controlling Sanctions Proposed directive Conclusions References Integration Courses Introduction The Netherlands France Germany United Kingdom Conclusions References Recruitment of Healthcare Professionals Introduction The Situation Health Worker Migration Costs and Benefits Perspectives and Conclusion References Triggering Skilled Migration Introduction Talking about mobility Legal framework Coming to Germany Mobility of scientists Other factors Conclusions References Remittances Introduction The Term Remittance Figures and Trends Effects Conclusion References EU Expansion and Free Movement Introduction Transitional Arrangements Economic Theory The Scale The Results Continued Restrictions Conclusion References The German "Green Card" Introduction Background Green Card regulation Success? Conclusion References Does Germany Need Labour Migration? Introduction Labour shortages Labourmarket Conclusion Labourmigration References Dutch Integration Model The "Dutch model"? The end? Intention and reality A new view Where next? References Impressum

Third Culture Kids – Citizens of the World or Somewhere in Between?

Anastasia Aldelina Lijadi

/ 7 Minuten zu lesen

They have been coined as Third Culture Kids: children and youth with a high mobility lifestyle. Who are these global nomads and what challenges do they face?

Bild der zwölfjährigen Desiree Nicole Wolfsgruber, Tochter der Autorin, das den Abschied von ihren Cousins in Frankreich zeigt, als die Familie nach Macau aufbricht. Desiree ist ein Third Culture Kid. (© Desiree Nicole Wolfsgruber)

Early in the 1960s, sociologists/anthropologists Ruth Hill Useem and her husband John Useem conducted a year of ethnographic research on American expatriate families living and working in India, predominantly as Foreign Service officers, missionaries, technological specialists, businessmen, educators, and journalists. The couple discovered that the children accompanying their parents abroad showed a bewildering attitude –consenting their differences compared to local children, confusion stemming from not knowing where "home" lies and finding it difficult to fit in once back in the U.S. The children found comfort and validation in the "third culture", the way of life they shared with individuals from different groups undergoing the same life experience of geographical displacement, having to live outside their country of origin; and facing the need to communicate across cultural boundaries. The Useems coined them as "third culture kids" (TCKs), as the children who accompanied their parents into other societies, had in some ways internalised norms and values of three different types of cultures simultaneously: the culture of their country of origin (called their "passport country"), any and all countries where they had lived, and the global trans- and interstitial-culture, namely the "third culture", in which they had become competent.

What is Culture?

There is no common definition of the term culture. In their research on TCKs, scholars David C. Pollock and Ruth E. Van Reken, well-known for their international bestseller "Third Culture Kids: Growing Up Among Worlds", make reference to Paul Hiebert's definition of culture and define it as "a system of shared concepts, beliefs, and values" that provides "the framework from which we interpret and make sense of life and the world around us". They agree with Hiebert that culture "is learned rather than instinctive – something caught from, as well as taught by, the surrounding environment and passed on from one generation to the next" (p. 41).

Becoming Third Culture Kids

The described experiences of expatriate families in India are in fact observed around the world. Parents of TCKs take on overseas assignments for career advancement, better remuneration and other benefits, even though the destination might not always have been desirable. The sponsoring organizations, including the major multinational industries, foreign affairs, military, missionary office, are relevant to the creation of TCKs. The length of overseas assignments vary according to the discretion of the sponsoring organization. Most TCK families enjoy some kind of relocation assistance provided by the sponsoring organisation, such as a basic language training, moving of personal goods, and assistance for making living arrangements and schooling for the children. The TCK families have diverse living arrangements. The petrochemical and manufacturing facilities are often located in rural areas, with a living compound provided for employees that are close to work, but removed from the local community. Similarly, military personnel live within a compound overseas, which is built to replicate the living conditions of the military back home. The TCKs thus grow up together with other TCKs living within the premises, removed from the local communities. The TCKs focus on life in their communities, as opposed to interacting with locals to learn the host culture and its day-to-day practices.

The families of TCKs who are permitted to choose their own living arrangements often end up living within expatriate communities, close to international schools, which are convenient for their daily lives, especially if young children are involved. Most TCKs go to international schools as these schools cater to the needs of expatriate families in terms of language (most international schools offer English as the first or second language) and ensure international accreditation. Alternatively, some families leave their children with relatives in the country of origin, or send them to boarding schools if they are dissatisfied with the education system in the host country and a suitable international school is unavailable.

The self-initiated, expatriate families of TCKs benefit from rapid development in technology, communication and transportation, seeking improvement of their quality of life outside their passport country. These families proactively seek aids and support in their transition to move overseas, in particular with the expatriate community, and if time permits, learn the local culture and language. Most of them pay great attention to the well-being of all family members; which includes adhering to immigration clearance for their spouse and children, ensuring options for their spouse to pursue a career or other interests, as well as scheduling their relocation at the end of school year to minimize disruption in the academic calendar.

Challenges of a Mobile Lifestyle

With more research on high mobility populations, the benefits and challenges of a globe-trotting lifestyle are being identified and awareness of the TCK phenomenon is raised. The TCKs are claimed to be future world leaders, as they possess a high level of cross-cultural understanding and adaptability, multilingualism, and tolerance of diversity, which are key characteristics of a leader in multinational companies. However, the notion of maturity and cultural savvy of TCKs might be overrated, as the TCKs may know the daily and common practices of many cultures, but without necessarily having internalised any one culture. Depending on the length of stay and living arrangements in the host country, the TCKs may or may not pick up local practices, languages and behaviours that may ease their interaction with locals. TCKs learn to be "cultural chameleons", who have sufficient know-how to act in accordance with the dominant culture.

The most drastic experience in moving to a new place is to lose touch with the people closest to us. The life disruptions experienced by TCKs in their adolescence – the stage in life that psychologists describe as a crucial period in finding one’s identity – most likely affect their social relationships later in their adult life. The losses (such as friends, familiar routines and places, pets, and possessions), may result in unresolved grief that makes it difficult for TCKs to define their identity. In particular, this holds true for existential losses that are linked to losing certainty about who we think we are . Family become the only constant and prominent social figures throughout the series of geographical displacements during their developmental years. Thus, it is crucial for parents of TCKs to maintain a strong bond within the family. TCKs find less stability in relationships with their peers and society since they are constantly changing. The lack of depth in social relationships with peers affects the development of intimacy, social connectedness and causes confusion for TCKs in staying committed to social relationships.

In short, growing up living in a "temporary mode", TCKs often have to leave tasks unfinished or are unexpectedly left by close friends. In their adult years, these commitment uncertainties become apparent. TCKs are reported to change their major more than once while attending university; to experience higher rates of unsuccessful marriages; to struggle committing to a career, changing jobs frequently; and to develop a wanderlust. TCKs may be annoyed – and this may be a source of insecurity – because they are never able to respond in any coherent manner to the question of “where do you come from?” or “where do you belong?” Although the place of birth or the passport country might serve as tangible indicators of their ancestry, the TCKs may never establish a feeling of attachment to that country. After repatriating, the passport country may even be perceived as the least desirable place to live due to reverse culture shock and other adjustment challenges faced by TCKs and their parents.

In our globalized world, people are constantly in negotiation with culture through, for example, intercultural marriage, migration, and mobility. The world is constantly changing, with burgeoning multicultural cities that cater to the needs and lifestyle of TCKs. It is therefore likely that the number of people who share the experience of constantly being uprooted, having people come and go, meeting and saying goodbye to people from many cultures, not knowing when and where to go next will continue to grow and with it the phenomenon of TCKs.

References

Cottrell, A. B. (2002). 'Educational and occupational choices of American adult third culture kids'. Ender, Morten G. (ed.). Military brats and other global nomads: Growing up in organization families, pp. 229-254.

Gilbert, Kathleen R. (2008). 'Loss and grief between and among cultures: The experience of Third Culture Kids'. Illness, Crisis & Loss, Vol. 6, Issue 2, pp. 93-109, Externer Link: https://doi.org/10.2190/IL.16.2.a (accessed: 6-4-2018).

Jokinen, Tiina/Brewster, Chris/Suutari, Vesa (2008). 'Career capital during international work experiences: contrasting self-initiated expatriate experiences and assigned expatriation'. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 19, Issue 6, pp. 979-998, Externer Link: https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190802051279 (accessed: 6-4-2018).

Peltrokorpi, Vesa/Froese, Fabian J. (2009). 'Organizational expatriates and self-initiated expatriates: who adjusts better to work and life in Japan?' International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 20, Issue 5, pp. 1096-1112, Externer Link: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09585190902850299 (accessed: 6-4-2018).

Pollock, David C./Van Reken, Ruth E. (2017): Third Culture Kids: The Experience of Growing Up Among Worlds. 3rd edition. London/Boston 2017.

Further Readings

Bell-Vilada, G. H./Sichel, N./Eidse, F./Orr, E. N (eds.) (2011). Writing out of limbo: International childhoods, global nomads and third culture kids. Newcastle upon Tyne.

Lijadi, Anastasia A./Van Schalkwyk, Gertina J. (2017). 'Place identity construction of Third Culture Kids: Eliciting voices of children with high mobility lifestyle'. Geoforum, Vol. 81, pp. 120-128, Externer Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/ (accessed: 6-4-2018).


Interner Link: Deutsche Version des Artikels

This article is part of the policy brief on Interner Link: Child and Youth Migration.

Fussnoten

Fußnoten

  1. See the findings about adjustment among self-initiated expatriates in Japan by Peltokorpi & Froese (2009) and in Finland by Jokinen, Brewster & Suutari (2008).

  2. See the seminal work of Pollock & Van Reken, 1999 and latest 3rd edition in 2017, among others empirical studies.

  3. Gilbert (2008) explored the loss and grief experienced by TCKs, and claimed that existential losses (loosing social status, social recognition, social acceptance) are the hardest to cope with.

  4. Based on the work of Cottrell (2002) with 600 TCKs.

Anastasia Aldelina Lijadi is a Research Scholar with the World Population Program (POP) at the Wittgenstein Centre, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Externer Link: www.iiasa.ac.at), Vienna, Austria. Her doctoral thesis on the place identity construction of Third Culture Kids won the top ATLAS TI 2015 award for PhD level for qualitative research.