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What Is Being Criticized?

Kurzdossiers "Paradise Left Behind" – Begleitmaterial zum Film "Es geht um differenzierte Bilder." – Ein Gespräch über Paradise Left Behind Die ägäischen Inseln: von Räumen des Transits zu Räumen der Immobilisierung 'Schengen', 'Dublin' und die Ambivalenzen der EU-Migrationspolitik. Eine kurze Geschichte Paradise Left Behind Migration und Wirtschaft Die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Zuwanderung Wie sich Migration auf die Herkunftsländer auswirkt Migrantische Ökonomien in Deutschland Fachkräfteengpässe und Arbeitsmigration nach Deutschland Migration und Handwerk – kurze Geschichte einer langen Verbindung Migration und Handwerk: Fachkräftemangel und integratives Potenzial Zugehörigkeit und Zusammenhalt in der Migrationsgesellschaft Was ist Heimat? Warum es so viel leichter ist über Nudelsalat zu reden als über Rassismus Die blinden Flecken antirassistischer Diskurse Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Konfliktbearbeitung ist der Klebstoff der Demokratie Sozialer Zusammenhalt und das Gefühl, fremd im eigenen Land zu sein Die Gruppe der Ostdeutschen als Teil postmigrantischer Integrationsfragen Kommunale Migrations- und Flüchtlingspolitik Der "local turn" in der Migrations- und Asylpolitik Kommunen und ihre Rolle bei der Flüchtlingsaufnahme Kommunale Aufnahme von Flüchtlingen Interview: Migrations- und integrationspolitische Debatten im Deutschen Städtetag Kommunale Integrationspolitik in Deutschland: Teilhabe vor Ort ermöglichen Zufluchtsstädte im amerikanischen Einwanderungsföderalismus Migration in städtischen und ländlichen Räumen Geflüchtete in ländlichen Räumen Perspektive Geflüchteter auf das Leben auf dem Land Landlust oder Landfrust? Fleischindustrie Migrantische Arbeitskräfte in der malaysischen Palmölindustrie (Il)legal? Migrant_innen in der spanischen Landwirtschaft Das Wachstum der Städte durch Migration Migration und Männlichkeit Männlichkeit im Migrationskontext Muslimische Männlichkeit Väterlichkeiten Intersektionale Diskriminierung Sozialisation junger Muslime Migration – Kriminalität – Männlichkeit Migration und Sicherheit Einführung Migration und menschliche Sicherheit Foreign Fighters "Gefährder" Smart Borders Grenzkontrollen: Einblicke in die grenzpolizeiliche Praxis Die Polizei in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft Interview Radikalisierung in der Migrationsgesellschaft Schlepper: Dekonstruktion eines Mythos "Racial Profiling", institutioneller Rassismus und Interventionsmöglichkeiten Migration und Klimawandel Umwelt- und Klimamigration: Begriffe und Definitionen Zur Prognose des Umfangs klimabedingter Migrationen Der Zusammenhang zwischen Klimawandel und Migration Indikator für Verwundbarkeit oder Resilienz? Klimawandel, Migration und Geschlechterverhältnisse Rechtliche Schutzmöglichkeiten für "Klimaflüchtlinge" Interview mit Ulf Neupert Frauen in der Migration Migration qualifizierter Frauen in der EU Selbstorganisation geflüchteter Frauen* "Gastarbeiterinnen" in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Ein Überblick in Zahlen Migration und Geschlechterrollen Frauen auf der Flucht Interview Zahlenwerk: Frauen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland Integrationskurse Geschlechtsbezogene Verfolgung – Rechtlicher Schutz Geflüchtete Frauen in Deutschland Kinder- und Jugendmigration Zahlenwerk Kindertransporte Die "Schwabenkinder" Kinder- und Jugendmigration aus GB Menschenrechte von Kindermigranten Third Culture Kids Kindersoldat_Innen Adoption und Kindermigration Kinderhandel Lebensborn e.V. Grenzzäune und -mauern Mauern und Zäune Integrationspolitik Integrationsmonitoring Integrationstheorien Interview mit Andreas Zick Integration in superdiverse Nachbarschaften Migration und Entwicklung Entwicklung und Migration, Umsiedlung und Klimawandel Migration und Entwicklung – eine neue Perspektive? Stand der Forschung Rücküberweisungen Diaspora als Impulsgeberin für Entwicklung Landgrabbing Interview mit Roman Herre Strukturumbrüche und Transformation Diaspora Was ist eine Diaspora? Exil, Diaspora, Transmigration Diaspora: Leben im Spannungsfeld Türkeistämmige in Deutschland Postsowjetische Migranten Polnische Diaspora Vietnamesische Diaspora Kurdische Diaspora Diaspora als Akteur der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Russlanddeutsche und andere postsozialistische Migranten Wer sind die Russlanddeutschen? Aussiedler Politische Partizipation von Russlanddeutschen Russlanddeutsches Verbandswesen Religiosität unter Russlanddeutschen Interview mit Peter Dück Russlanddeutsche in Russland Russlanddeutsche transnational Jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge und Russlanddeutsche Transnationalismus als Beheimatungsstrategie Aushandlungen der Zugehörigkeit russlanddeutscher Jugendlicher Mediennutzung der russischen Diaspora in Deutschland 'Russische' Supermärkte und Restaurants in Deutschland Perspektiven auf die Integration von Geflüchteten in Deutschland Arbeitsmarktperspektiven von Geflüchteten Interview mit Gesa Hune Meinung: Geflüchtete fördern - oder es kann teuer werden Effekte der Fluchtmigration - Interview mit Prof. Dr. Herbert Brücker "Die müssen die Sprache lernen" Fremd- bzw. Zweitspracherwerb von Geflüchteten Die Arbeitsmarktintegration Geflüchteter in der Vergangenheit "Wohnst Du schon – oder wirst Du noch untergebracht?" Inklusion in das Schulsystem Ein Jahr Integrationsgesetz Interview mit Prof. Dr. Julia von Blumenthal Über die Zusammenhänge von Religion und Integration Interview: Digitale Bildungsangebote als Chance für Integration Innerafrikanische Migrationen Konsequenzen der Auslagerung der EU-Grenzen Kindermigration in Burkina Faso Flucht und Vertreibung Migranten als Akteure der Globalisierung Migrations- und Fluchtpfade Marokko Libyen Abschiebungen nach Afrika Leben nach der Abschiebung Flüchtlingslager Begriff und Geschichte des Lagers Orte der dauerhaften Vorläufigkeit: Flüchtlingslager im globalen Süden "Das Leben im Flüchtlingslager wird zur Normalität" Urbanisierungsprozesse Kleine Geschichte der Flüchtlingslager Lager in der Weimarer Republik Schlotwiese Uelzen-Bohldamm Friedland Zirndorf Marienfelde Das Jahr 2016: Ein Rückblick Globale Flüchtlingskrise hält weiter an Diskussion um kriminelle Geflüchtete Europa Literatur Resettlement Was ist Resettlement? Historische Entwicklung Resettlement durch UNHCR Resettlement im Vergleich zu anderen Aufnahmeprogrammen Aufnahme und Integration EU und Resettlement Deutschland Zukunft des Resettlements Literatur Akteure im (inter-)nationalen (Flucht-)Migrationsregime Akteure in Migrationsregimen und das Aushandeln von Migration Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge Die Europäische Grenzschutzagentur Frontex Die Asylagentur der Europäischen Union: neue Agentur, alte Herausforderungen UNHCR UNRWA – das UN-Hilfswerk für Palästina-Flüchtlinge im Nahen Osten Die Internationale Organisation für Migration (IOM) "Migration ist ein globales Thema, auf das es auch globale Antworten geben sollte." Flucht und Asyl: Grundlagen Abschiebung in der Geschichte Deutschlands Wie ist das Asylrecht entstanden? Das Asylverfahren in Deutschland Schutzanspruch im deutschen Asylverfahren? Sichere Herkunftsländer Das Konzept "sichere Herkunftsstaaten" Definition für Duldung und verbundene Rechte Flüchtlingsaufnahme und ihre Folgen Fluchtziel Deutschland Freiwillige Rückkehr Unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete Abschiebung – Ausweisung – Dublin-Überstellung Begriff und Figur des Flüchtlings in historischer Perspektive Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement Ehrenamtliches Engagement von Geflüchteten Interview mit J. Olaf Kleist Engagement in der Migrationsgesellschaft Politische Proteste von Geflüchteten Proteste gegen Abschiebungen Zivilgesellschaft und Integration Städte der Solidarität – ein Interview Beim Kirchenasyl geht es um den Schutz des Einzelnen. Ein Gespräch. Zivilgesellschaftliche Initiativen für sichere Fluchtwege – ein Überblick Migrantenorganisationen – vielfältige Akteurinnen gesamtgesellschaftlicher Integration (Flucht-)Migration und Gesundheit Medizinische Versorgung Interview David Zimmermann Definition von Migration Gesundheitszustand von Migranten Barrieren/ Prävention Erklärungsmodelle Schlussfolgerungen Literatur Das Jahr 2015: Ein Rückblick Fluchtmigration: Hintergründe Verwaltungs- und Infrastrukturkrise EU: Reaktionen auf die Fluchtzuwanderung Flüchtlingszahlen weltweit Internationale Studierende Einleitung Bildungsmigration Internationale Studierende Internationale Studierende in Deutschland Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt Literatur Migration und Pflege Einführung Altern in der Migrationsgesellschaft Interview mit Helma Lutz Deutsche Asylpolitik und EU-Flüchtlingsschutz Einleitung Flüchtlingsrecht Asylrecht, Flüchtlingspolitik, humanitäre Zuwanderung Flucht und Asyl als europäisiertes Politikfeld Asyl und Asylpolitik Ausblick Literatur Integration in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft Einleitung Die postmigrantische Gesellschaft Paradigmenwandel Brauchen wir den Integrationsbegriff noch? Integration als Metanarrativ Notwendigkeit eines neuen Leitbildes Literatur Lifestyle Migration Was ist Lifestyle Migration? Briten in Spanien Einen neuen Lebensstil entdecken Folgen des Residenztourismus Zusammenfassung Literatur Wahlrecht und Partizipation von Migranten Einleitung Politische Rechte und Kommunalwahlrecht Wahlrecht für Drittstaatsangehörige Einbürgerung Aktuelle Entwicklungen Schlussbemerkungen Literatur Frontex und das Grenzregime der EU Einleitung Frontex – Fragen und Antworten Die Entwicklung des europäischen Grenzregimes Externalisierung Technologisierung Grenzwirtschaft/border economies Auf der anderen Seite des Grenzzauns Ist Einwanderung ein Risiko? Literatur Demografischer Wandel und Migration Einleitung Demografischer Übergang Deutschland und Europa Internationale Wanderung Integration und Reproduktionsverhalten Wanderungspolitik Regionale Muster Literatur Glossar English Version: Policy Briefs "Having a nationality is not a given, it is a privilege" Sanctuary and Anti-Sanctuary Immigration Law in the United States Migrant Smugglers Urbanizing Skilled Female Migrants in the EU Self-Organization of Women* Refugees Impact of Migration Revisited Child and Youth Migration Human Rights Protections Migration from the United Kingdom Adoption and Child Migration Third Culture Kids Trafficking in Children Actors in National and International (Flight)Migration Regimes UNHCR UNRWA International Organization for Migration The International Organization for Migration (IOM) German Asylum Policy and EU Refugee Protection Introduction Refugee Law Asylum Law, Refugee Policy, Humanitarian Migration Flight and Asylum Current Developments Current and Future Challenges References Integration in a Post-Migrant Society Introduction Post-Migrant Society Paradigm Shift Do We Still Need the Concept of Integration? Integration as a Metanarrative Need for a New Concept References Lifestyle Migration What Is Lifestyle Migration? British in Spain Realizing a New Style of Life Outcomes of Lifestyle Migration Conclusion References Voting rights and political participation Introduction Political and Municipal Voting Rights Voting Rights for Nationals of Non-EU States Naturalization Recent Developments Conclusions References Frontex and the EU Border Regime Introduction Frontex — Questions and Answers The Development of a European Border Regime Externalization Technologization Border Economies On the Other Side of the Border Fence Is Migration a Risk? References Demographic Change and Migration in Europe Introduction Demographic Transition Germany and Europe International Migration Reproductive Behavior Migration Policy Regional Patterns Glossary Further Reading Global Migration in the Future Introduction Increase of the World Population Growth of Cities Environmental Changes Conclusion: Political Migration References Germans Abroad Introduction Germans Abroad Expatriates in Hong Kong and Thailand Human Security Concerns of German Expatriates Conclusions References Migrant Organizations What Are Migrant Organizations? Number and Structure Their Role in Social Participation Multidimensionality and the Dynamic Character Interaction with their Environments Between the Countries of Origin and Arrival Conclusion References EU Internal Migration EU Internal Migration East-West Migration after the EU Enlargement Ireland United Kingdom Spain Portugal Greece Italy Germany Assessment of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Introduction Evolution of the Accreditation Debate The Importance of Accreditation Basic Principles Thus Far of the Accreditation of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Actors in the Accreditation Practice Reasons for Establishing a New Legal Framework The Professional Qualifications Assessment Act What Is Being Criticized? The Accreditation System in Transition Conclusion References From Home country to Home country? Context Motives Immigration and Integration in Turkey Identification Emigration or Return? References Integration in Figures Approaches Development Six Approaches Conclusion References Climate Change Introduction Estimates Affected areas Environmental migration Conclusion References Dual citizenship Discourse Classic objections Current debate Rule of law Conclusion References Female Labour Migration The labour market Dominant perceptions Skilled female migration Issues Conclusion References How Healthy are Migrants? Definition The Health Status Prevention/Barriers Migration and Health Conclusions References Networks Spain Migrant networks Effects of networks Romanian networks Conclusion References Integration Policy Introduction Demographic situation Economic conditions Labour market The case in Stuttgart Integration measures Evaluation Outlook References Irregular Migration Introduction The phenomenon Political approaches Controlling Sanctions Proposed directive Conclusions References Integration Courses Introduction The Netherlands France Germany United Kingdom Conclusions References Recruitment of Healthcare Professionals Introduction The Situation Health Worker Migration Costs and Benefits Perspectives and Conclusion References Triggering Skilled Migration Introduction Talking about mobility Legal framework Coming to Germany Mobility of scientists Other factors Conclusions References Remittances Introduction The Term Remittance Figures and Trends Effects Conclusion References EU Expansion and Free Movement Introduction Transitional Arrangements Economic Theory The Scale The Results Continued Restrictions Conclusion References The German "Green Card" Introduction Background Green Card regulation Success? Conclusion References Does Germany Need Labour Migration? Introduction Labour shortages Labourmarket Conclusion Labourmigration References Dutch Integration Model The "Dutch model"? The end? Intention and reality A new view Where next? References Impressum

What Is Being Criticized?

Daria Braun

/ 8 Minuten zu lesen

A polish dental technician files an application to have her qualifications accredited at the chamber of crafts. (© picture-alliance/dpa)

"The accreditation act is a milestone in integration policy," the Federal Minister of Education Annette Schavan emphasized when the accreditation act went into effect (BAMF 2012b). In fact, however, in the framework of the legislative process there was repeated criticism of the fact that the law’s regulations fell short. SPD Bundestag member Sven Schulz, for example, on September 29, 2011, called the draft of the legislation "lightweight" and concluded in his speech in the Bundestag that "this law (...) [is] an improvement but that it would not lead to the desired real progress" (Bundestag document 17/15445). The following section discusses those aspects criticized by opposition politicians and practitioners that have not been improved by the accreditation act when it is compared with previous practice.

Special Laws

Although the law creates a legal basis for all those seeking accreditation, because of the subsidiary regulation that gives precedence to the particular special law which governs a profession as opposed to the BQFG, in certain areas the citizens of third countries continue to be disadvantaged vis-à-vis EU citizens and Spätaussiedler. The special law governing lawyers, the Bundesrechtsanwaltsordnung [Federal Lawyers’ Regulations], for example, stipulates that only EU citizens and Spätaussiedler have a legal right to an accreditation procedure. Moreover, in Art. 4 of the Bundesrechtsanwaltsordnung it is noted that the BQFG may not be applied. As a result, lawyers from third countries continue to be excluded from the legal right to an accreditation procedure. Nor does the general legal right to an accreditation procedure that is enshrined in the BQFG alter this (Lembert 2011: 9).

Academics in the Non-Regulated Sector

According to the BQFG, in principle the possibility of accreditation exists in the case of regulated and non-regulated professions. However, in the academic sector the "accreditation act" only applies to those certificates of higher education that in Germany lead to taking up a regulated profession. Academics who wish to take up a non-regulated profession (for example economists or social scientists) will continue to be limited to having their certificates evaluated by the Central Office for Foreign Education (German acronym: ZAB) (BMBF 2012). This represents a disadvantage vis-à-vis other occupational groups.

Laws of the Bundesländer

The purview of the accreditation law does not extend to those professions that are regulated at the state level, such as the engineering profession, kindergarten teachers or school teachers. For these professions the individual Bundesländer still have to create the legal bases for the accreditation of certificates acquired abroad. An initial step in this direction was taken by the city state of Hamburg. The Hamburg Authority for Schools and Occupational Training (BSB) and the Authority for Work, Social Affairs, Family and Integration (BASFI) of Hamburg worked out a ministerial draft bill, which the Hamburg Senate will in all probability pass in the summer of 2012. This draft has the title "Hamburg Law on the Accreditation of Foreign Occupational Qualifications" (HmbABQG) and is modeled on the Federal Act on Accreditation BQFG and a "model law" elaborated by the Federal-State Working Group on Accreditation. In large part the Hamburg draft legislation corresponds to the BQFG, but the HmbABQG is more far-reaching in that it includes the right to independent consultation (Art. 2(1) HmbABQG draft).

Transferability

Connected with the laws of the Bundesländer is the issue of the transferability of the accreditation decision. The BQFG leaves open the issue of the transferability of accreditation decisions from one Bundesland to the next. Since the BQFG is a federal law whose purview thus extends throughout federal territory, federally regulated professions may also be exercised in those Bundesländer in which the accreditation decision itself was not made. In the area of state-regulated professions, confirmations of equivalence between a foreign and a German certificate in principle continue to apply only in that particular Bundesland which made the decision (Maier et al. 2012: 14). A teaching certificate acquired in Ghana and recognized as equivalent in Bavaria does therefore not entitle its holder to work outside of Bavaria. In state-regulated occupational fields, it lies in the sphere of responsibility of the Länder to reconcile among themselves their state laws in such a way that the accreditation notification becomes valid nationwide (AG 2011: 7). Coordinated action by the Länder is in this case essential in order to develop comparable and unbureaucratic accreditation and assessment procedures that ensure a transparent and uniform legal situation.

Consultation and Monitoring

The law does not regulate (Bundestag document 17/6919, Bundestag document 17/6271) the legal right to consultation and monitoring before, during and after the accreditation procedure that has been demanded by various parties. At the same time it is precisely the advising of those seeking accreditation that forms the elementary basis for making such an application. Without such advising, the affected persons would have difficulty even after the BQFG takes effect in informing and orienting themselves in a focused manner. This is also made clear by a report from the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) concerning the service point for accreditation in the state of Saarland. "The support service provided by the service point is the first and essential step towards successful labor market integration" (BAMF 2011: 36). A number of Bundesländer have created their own structures for supporting those seeking accreditation. Worth mentioning here is especially the Zentrale Anlaufstelle Anerkennung (ZAA) [Central Drop-In Center for Accreditation] in Hamburg, which since October 2010 has been advising immigrants who have educational certificates acquired abroad. In addition, in the framework of the nationwide support program "Network for Integration through Qualification" (IQ Network), set up by the German Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (BMAS), the setting up of initial drop-in centers in all of the Bundesländer has taken place in order to enable comprehensive personal advising of immigrants who have certificates acquired abroad. The German federal government rejected the legal embodiment of the right to consultation on the grounds that "pursuant to SGB [the German Social Insurance Code] III there is already the legal right to labor-market related consultation through the federal labor administration, which also includes issues of accreditation where needed (Bundestag document 17/7382: 12). But in practice it has been shown that comprehensive consultation is one of the most important building blocks for successful integration into the labor market. "Only through consultation can occupational perspectives be opened up which are practicable and realizable," confirms the report on accreditation consultation in the state of Saarland (BAMF 2011: 23). The advising should be continued following the conclusion of the accreditation procedure – the report also goes on to say – in order to point out the opportunities available for continuing education, career changes, occupationally related language courses or employment application training. Because: a successfully completed accreditation procedure, which concludes with the confirmation of the equivalence of professional qualifications acquired abroad, is often not sufficient on its own to ensure successful integration into the labor market (BAMF 2011: 14).

Adjustment Qualifications

Definition

If in connection with an accreditation procedure for professional qualifications acquired abroad a partial accreditation of the credentials is pronounced, the ascertained deficiencies may be compensated for through so-called adjustment measures (also called "adjustment qualifications"). These include, for example, courses and internships. The successful completion of an adjustment measure leads without a concluding examination to a complete accreditation of the professional qualification acquired abroad (Hillenbrand et al. 2010: 23).

For regulated professions the BQFG stipulates that essential differences between the qualification acquired abroad and the German qualification may be compensated for through adjustment qualifications (an adjustment course of study lasting a maximum of three years or the passing of a qualifying examination in Germany). Those affected, however, have no legal claim to such an adjustment qualification (AG 2011: 24). The need for adjustment qualifications and occupationally related language courses will, according to estimates, strongly increase in the first two years following the coming-into-effect of the BQFG, to approximately 25,000 applications annually (Knabe 2011: 5f.). This high level of demand is based on the new general legal claim to an accreditation procedure. It nonetheless remains unclear how this high demand should be met, since so far there are not enough continuing education services (BAMF 2011: 36).

Financing

The issue of the financing of adjustment qualifications has also not been adequately addressed. It is assumed that only very few immigrants who want to have their qualifications acquired abroad accredited will be in a position to finance the post-qualification/adjustment measures needed on their own. The Federal Employment Center in the case where equivalence has been established assumes the costs arising for unemployed employable people, for example the costs of translations, certified copies and expert opinions, or when the accreditation agency assesses fees for establishing equivalence (Knabe 2011: 6). A good example of an alternate model of financing is provided by the already existing stipend program of the city state of Hamburg, which supports all immigrants with foreign certificates who cannot be reached by the offerings of the Federal Employment Center. This stipend program goes further than the support offered by the Federal Employment Center in that it also covers living expenses. Fifty percent of it consists of a loan that has to be repaid and fifty percent consists of a nonreimbursable grant. In addition to this stipend, funds for other expenses, for example learning aids, course and examination fees, may be applied for (cf. www.diakonie-hamburg.de). It is feared that the lack of financial support relating to adjustment qualifications might cause the failure of many accreditation procedures and that only a fraction of educated immigrants will profit from the BQFG. Michael Gwosdz from the Central Drop-In Center for Accreditation in Hamburg expresses this as follows: "The door to the labor market is now open. But many people will not make it beyond the threshold" (Kaufmann 2012). In order to ensure that all those affected have the same opportunities and that as a result the Federal Republic of Germany can make full use of the potential of skilled workers from abroad, the establishment of a (federal) support program is being demanded from the ranks of politics and by practitioners, a program that should cover the resulting costs while also ensuring the living expenses of qualified immigrants (Lembert 2011: 11, Bundestag document 17/6919, Bundestag document 17/6271).

Uniformity and Transparency

Not only the state-regulated professions come under the jurisdiction of the Bundesländer but also the implementation of the "accreditation law" for all other professions. As a result, the BQFG fails to create a nationwide uniform accreditation and assessment practice, although it contains guidelines for standardizing the accreditation process. The law is also unable to reduce the great number of accreditation agencies and the associated confusion of competences which thereby results. In principle it provides for the possibility of bundling competences but it is unable to assert this in a compelling way (AG 2011: 7). This means that the BQFG is applied differently in each Bundesland, a fact which impedes the introduction of nationwide uniform procedures. In some occupational fields, however, efforts are being made – independent of the BQFG – to counteract the problem of fragmented areas of responsibility and to make accreditation practice more transparent.

This text is part of the policy brief on Interner Link: "Procedures for the Assessment of Qualifications Acquired Abroad in Transition".

Fussnoten

Fußnoten

  1. The Federal-Länder Working Group on Accreditation works in the framework of the "Qualifications Initiative for Germany" for a simplification of the accreditation procedures for foreign qualifications.

  2. In non-regulated professions there is no possibility of obtaining an adjustment qualification. The federal government justifies this by pointing to the discrimination of German nationals, since German nationals in the case of interrupted education or when they have failed examinations do not have the possibility of obtaining credit for past performance either (Knabe 2011: 5). Holders of a non-accredited foreign qualification in non-regulated professions can attempt to apply for employment directly in the labor market or they may begin additional training (Maier et al. 2012: 24).

  3. In Art. 8(1–3) BQFG the law names some of the agencies responsible depending on the profession in question, but confers the authority to adjudicate on the agencies themselves pursuant to Art. 8(5) BQFG.

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Daria Braun wrote her diploma thesis on the recognition and accreditation of occupational qualifications acquired abroad of physicians in Hamburg. With this she concluded her studies in the field of Latin American Regional Studies at the University of Cologne. Since Mai 2012 she has been working as expert on educational questions for the Otto Benecke Foundation e.V. in the Central Drop-In Center for Accreditation (Zentrale Erstanlaufstelle Anerkennung) in Berlin. E-Mail: E-Mail Link: Daria.Braun@obs-ev.de