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Greece

Kurzdossiers "Paradise Left Behind" – Begleitmaterial zum Film "Es geht um differenzierte Bilder." – Ein Gespräch über Paradise Left Behind Die ägäischen Inseln: von Räumen des Transits zu Räumen der Immobilisierung 'Schengen', 'Dublin' und die Ambivalenzen der EU-Migrationspolitik. Eine kurze Geschichte Paradise Left Behind Migration und Wirtschaft Die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Zuwanderung Wie sich Migration auf die Herkunftsländer auswirkt Migrantische Ökonomien in Deutschland Fachkräfteengpässe und Arbeitsmigration nach Deutschland Migration und Handwerk – kurze Geschichte einer langen Verbindung Migration und Handwerk: Fachkräftemangel und integratives Potenzial Zugehörigkeit und Zusammenhalt in der Migrationsgesellschaft Was ist Heimat? Warum es so viel leichter ist über Nudelsalat zu reden als über Rassismus Die blinden Flecken antirassistischer Diskurse Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? 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Migrant_innen in der spanischen Landwirtschaft Das Wachstum der Städte durch Migration Migration und Männlichkeit Männlichkeit im Migrationskontext Muslimische Männlichkeit Väterlichkeiten Intersektionale Diskriminierung Sozialisation junger Muslime Migration – Kriminalität – Männlichkeit Migration und Sicherheit Einführung Migration und menschliche Sicherheit Foreign Fighters "Gefährder" Smart Borders Grenzkontrollen: Einblicke in die grenzpolizeiliche Praxis Die Polizei in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft Interview Radikalisierung in der Migrationsgesellschaft Schlepper: Dekonstruktion eines Mythos "Racial Profiling", institutioneller Rassismus und Interventionsmöglichkeiten Migration und Klimawandel Umwelt- und Klimamigration: Begriffe und Definitionen Zur Prognose des Umfangs klimabedingter Migrationen Der Zusammenhang zwischen Klimawandel und Migration Indikator für Verwundbarkeit oder Resilienz? Klimawandel, Migration und Geschlechterverhältnisse Rechtliche Schutzmöglichkeiten für "Klimaflüchtlinge" Interview mit Ulf Neupert Frauen in der Migration Migration qualifizierter Frauen in der EU Selbstorganisation geflüchteter Frauen* "Gastarbeiterinnen" in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Ein Überblick in Zahlen Migration und Geschlechterrollen Frauen auf der Flucht Interview Zahlenwerk: Frauen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland Integrationskurse Geschlechtsbezogene Verfolgung – Rechtlicher Schutz Geflüchtete Frauen in Deutschland Kinder- und Jugendmigration Zahlenwerk Kindertransporte Die "Schwabenkinder" Kinder- und Jugendmigration aus GB Menschenrechte von Kindermigranten Third Culture Kids Kindersoldat_Innen Adoption und Kindermigration Kinderhandel Lebensborn e.V. Grenzzäune und -mauern Mauern und Zäune Integrationspolitik Integrationsmonitoring Integrationstheorien Interview mit Andreas Zick Integration in superdiverse Nachbarschaften Migration und Entwicklung Entwicklung und Migration, Umsiedlung und Klimawandel Migration und Entwicklung – eine neue Perspektive? Stand der Forschung Rücküberweisungen Diaspora als Impulsgeberin für Entwicklung Landgrabbing Interview mit Roman Herre Strukturumbrüche und Transformation Diaspora Was ist eine Diaspora? Exil, Diaspora, Transmigration Diaspora: Leben im Spannungsfeld Türkeistämmige in Deutschland Postsowjetische Migranten Polnische Diaspora Vietnamesische Diaspora Kurdische Diaspora Diaspora als Akteur der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Russlanddeutsche und andere postsozialistische Migranten Wer sind die Russlanddeutschen? Aussiedler Politische Partizipation von Russlanddeutschen Russlanddeutsches Verbandswesen Religiosität unter Russlanddeutschen Interview mit Peter Dück Russlanddeutsche in Russland Russlanddeutsche transnational Jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge und Russlanddeutsche Transnationalismus als Beheimatungsstrategie Aushandlungen der Zugehörigkeit russlanddeutscher Jugendlicher Mediennutzung der russischen Diaspora in Deutschland 'Russische' Supermärkte und Restaurants in Deutschland Perspektiven auf die Integration von Geflüchteten in Deutschland Arbeitsmarktperspektiven von Geflüchteten Interview mit Gesa Hune Meinung: Geflüchtete fördern - oder es kann teuer werden Effekte der Fluchtmigration - Interview mit Prof. Dr. Herbert Brücker "Die müssen die Sprache lernen" Fremd- bzw. Zweitspracherwerb von Geflüchteten Die Arbeitsmarktintegration Geflüchteter in der Vergangenheit "Wohnst Du schon – oder wirst Du noch untergebracht?" Inklusion in das Schulsystem Ein Jahr Integrationsgesetz Interview mit Prof. Dr. Julia von Blumenthal Über die Zusammenhänge von Religion und Integration Interview: Digitale Bildungsangebote als Chance für Integration Innerafrikanische Migrationen Konsequenzen der Auslagerung der EU-Grenzen Kindermigration in Burkina Faso Flucht und Vertreibung Migranten als Akteure der Globalisierung Migrations- und Fluchtpfade Marokko Libyen Abschiebungen nach Afrika Leben nach der Abschiebung Flüchtlingslager Begriff und Geschichte des Lagers Orte der dauerhaften Vorläufigkeit: Flüchtlingslager im globalen Süden "Das Leben im Flüchtlingslager wird zur Normalität" Urbanisierungsprozesse Kleine Geschichte der Flüchtlingslager Lager in der Weimarer Republik Schlotwiese Uelzen-Bohldamm Friedland Zirndorf Marienfelde Das Jahr 2016: Ein Rückblick Globale Flüchtlingskrise hält weiter an Diskussion um kriminelle Geflüchtete Europa Literatur Resettlement Was ist Resettlement? Historische Entwicklung Resettlement durch UNHCR Resettlement im Vergleich zu anderen Aufnahmeprogrammen Aufnahme und Integration EU und Resettlement Deutschland Zukunft des Resettlements Literatur Akteure im (inter-)nationalen (Flucht-)Migrationsregime Akteure in Migrationsregimen und das Aushandeln von Migration Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge Die Europäische Grenzschutzagentur Frontex Die Asylagentur der Europäischen Union: neue Agentur, alte Herausforderungen UNHCR UNRWA – das UN-Hilfswerk für Palästina-Flüchtlinge im Nahen Osten Die Internationale Organisation für Migration (IOM) "Migration ist ein globales Thema, auf das es auch globale Antworten geben sollte." Flucht und Asyl: Grundlagen Abschiebung in der Geschichte Deutschlands Wie ist das Asylrecht entstanden? Das Asylverfahren in Deutschland Schutzanspruch im deutschen Asylverfahren? Sichere Herkunftsländer Das Konzept "sichere Herkunftsstaaten" Definition für Duldung und verbundene Rechte Flüchtlingsaufnahme und ihre Folgen Fluchtziel Deutschland Freiwillige Rückkehr Unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete Abschiebung – Ausweisung – Dublin-Überstellung Begriff und Figur des Flüchtlings in historischer Perspektive Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement Ehrenamtliches Engagement von Geflüchteten Interview mit J. Olaf Kleist Engagement in der Migrationsgesellschaft Politische Proteste von Geflüchteten Proteste gegen Abschiebungen Zivilgesellschaft und Integration Städte der Solidarität – ein Interview Beim Kirchenasyl geht es um den Schutz des Einzelnen. Ein Gespräch. Zivilgesellschaftliche Initiativen für sichere Fluchtwege – ein Überblick Migrantenorganisationen – vielfältige Akteurinnen gesamtgesellschaftlicher Integration (Flucht-)Migration und Gesundheit Medizinische Versorgung Interview David Zimmermann Definition von Migration Gesundheitszustand von Migranten Barrieren/ Prävention Erklärungsmodelle Schlussfolgerungen Literatur Das Jahr 2015: Ein Rückblick Fluchtmigration: Hintergründe Verwaltungs- und Infrastrukturkrise EU: Reaktionen auf die Fluchtzuwanderung Flüchtlingszahlen weltweit Internationale Studierende Einleitung Bildungsmigration Internationale Studierende Internationale Studierende in Deutschland Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt Literatur Migration und Pflege Einführung Altern in der Migrationsgesellschaft Interview mit Helma Lutz Deutsche Asylpolitik und EU-Flüchtlingsschutz Einleitung Flüchtlingsrecht Asylrecht, Flüchtlingspolitik, humanitäre Zuwanderung Flucht und Asyl als europäisiertes Politikfeld Asyl und Asylpolitik Ausblick Literatur Integration in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft Einleitung Die postmigrantische Gesellschaft Paradigmenwandel Brauchen wir den Integrationsbegriff noch? Integration als Metanarrativ Notwendigkeit eines neuen Leitbildes Literatur Lifestyle Migration Was ist Lifestyle Migration? Briten in Spanien Einen neuen Lebensstil entdecken Folgen des Residenztourismus Zusammenfassung Literatur Wahlrecht und Partizipation von Migranten Einleitung Politische Rechte und Kommunalwahlrecht Wahlrecht für Drittstaatsangehörige Einbürgerung Aktuelle Entwicklungen Schlussbemerkungen Literatur Frontex und das Grenzregime der EU Einleitung Frontex – Fragen und Antworten Die Entwicklung des europäischen Grenzregimes Externalisierung Technologisierung Grenzwirtschaft/border economies Auf der anderen Seite des Grenzzauns Ist Einwanderung ein Risiko? Literatur Demografischer Wandel und Migration Einleitung Demografischer Übergang Deutschland und Europa Internationale Wanderung Integration und Reproduktionsverhalten Wanderungspolitik Regionale Muster Literatur Glossar English Version: Policy Briefs "Having a nationality is not a given, it is a privilege" Sanctuary and Anti-Sanctuary Immigration Law in the United States Migrant Smugglers Urbanizing Skilled Female Migrants in the EU Self-Organization of Women* Refugees Impact of Migration Revisited Child and Youth Migration Human Rights Protections Migration from the United Kingdom Adoption and Child Migration Third Culture Kids Trafficking in Children Actors in National and International (Flight)Migration Regimes UNHCR UNRWA International Organization for Migration The International Organization for Migration (IOM) German Asylum Policy and EU Refugee Protection Introduction Refugee Law Asylum Law, Refugee Policy, Humanitarian Migration Flight and Asylum Current Developments Current and Future Challenges References Integration in a Post-Migrant Society Introduction Post-Migrant Society Paradigm Shift Do We Still Need the Concept of Integration? Integration as a Metanarrative Need for a New Concept References Lifestyle Migration What Is Lifestyle Migration? British in Spain Realizing a New Style of Life Outcomes of Lifestyle Migration Conclusion References Voting rights and political participation Introduction Political and Municipal Voting Rights Voting Rights for Nationals of Non-EU States Naturalization Recent Developments Conclusions References Frontex and the EU Border Regime Introduction Frontex — Questions and Answers The Development of a European Border Regime Externalization Technologization Border Economies On the Other Side of the Border Fence Is Migration a Risk? References Demographic Change and Migration in Europe Introduction Demographic Transition Germany and Europe International Migration Reproductive Behavior Migration Policy Regional Patterns Glossary Further Reading Global Migration in the Future Introduction Increase of the World Population Growth of Cities Environmental Changes Conclusion: Political Migration References Germans Abroad Introduction Germans Abroad Expatriates in Hong Kong and Thailand Human Security Concerns of German Expatriates Conclusions References Migrant Organizations What Are Migrant Organizations? Number and Structure Their Role in Social Participation Multidimensionality and the Dynamic Character Interaction with their Environments Between the Countries of Origin and Arrival Conclusion References EU Internal Migration EU Internal Migration East-West Migration after the EU Enlargement Ireland United Kingdom Spain Portugal Greece Italy Germany Assessment of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Introduction Evolution of the Accreditation Debate The Importance of Accreditation Basic Principles Thus Far of the Accreditation of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Actors in the Accreditation Practice Reasons for Establishing a New Legal Framework The Professional Qualifications Assessment Act What Is Being Criticized? The Accreditation System in Transition Conclusion References From Home country to Home country? Context Motives Immigration and Integration in Turkey Identification Emigration or Return? References Integration in Figures Approaches Development Six Approaches Conclusion References Climate Change Introduction Estimates Affected areas Environmental migration Conclusion References Dual citizenship Discourse Classic objections Current debate Rule of law Conclusion References Female Labour Migration The labour market Dominant perceptions Skilled female migration Issues Conclusion References How Healthy are Migrants? Definition The Health Status Prevention/Barriers Migration and Health Conclusions References Networks Spain Migrant networks Effects of networks Romanian networks Conclusion References Integration Policy Introduction Demographic situation Economic conditions Labour market The case in Stuttgart Integration measures Evaluation Outlook References Irregular Migration Introduction The phenomenon Political approaches Controlling Sanctions Proposed directive Conclusions References Integration Courses Introduction The Netherlands France Germany United Kingdom Conclusions References Recruitment of Healthcare Professionals Introduction The Situation Health Worker Migration Costs and Benefits Perspectives and Conclusion References Triggering Skilled Migration Introduction Talking about mobility Legal framework Coming to Germany Mobility of scientists Other factors Conclusions References Remittances Introduction The Term Remittance Figures and Trends Effects Conclusion References EU Expansion and Free Movement Introduction Transitional Arrangements Economic Theory The Scale The Results Continued Restrictions Conclusion References The German "Green Card" Introduction Background Green Card regulation Success? Conclusion References Does Germany Need Labour Migration? Introduction Labour shortages Labourmarket Conclusion Labourmigration References Dutch Integration Model The "Dutch model"? The end? Intention and reality A new view Where next? References Impressum

Greece

Feline Engling Cardoso

/ 7 Minuten zu lesen

Migration to Greece has continued to last, despite the economic crisis, though has decreased in comparison to previous years (Malkoutzis 2011, p. 1). The migration balance is currently negative in total, however, meaning that the number of emigrants exceeds that of immigrants.

Protest against racism and fascism in Athens in November 2012. (© picture-alliance/dpa)

Immigraton and Emigration Statistics

According to data from the Greek Institute for Statistics, ELSTAT, 110,823 people immigrated to Greece in 2011 (60,453 of Greek nationality, 31,229 third country citizens and 19,141 EU-citizens). In the same period, 125,948 people left Greece (62,961 of Greek nationality, 37,083 third country citizens and 25,940 EU-citizens), 5% (+5,999) more than in 2010. The migration balance, at -15,161, was negative (2010: -915) (EL.STAT 2013; EL.STAT 2012c). As of January 1, 2012, according to ELSTAT estimates, 975,374 foreign citizens are living in Greece, the majority of whom are third country citizens (824,220) (EL.STAT 2013). Almost half of the immigrants do not possess a legal residence status (Kasimis 2012).

 
Immigration and emigration in 2011 (by citizenship)
 
ImmigrantsEmigrantsBalance
Total110.823125.984-15.161
Greek citizens60.45362.961-2.508
Citizens of other EU states19.14125.940-6.799
Citizens of third countries31.22937.083-5.854
Source: El.STAT
 
Total population of Greece in 2011 (by citizenship)
 
Greek citizens10.314.693
Citizens of other EU states151.154
Citizens of third countries824.220
Total population11.290.067
Source: El.STAT

Irregular Immigration

The number of residency permits has decreased since the beginning of the crisis. While in 2009 the total amount of residency permits issued stood at 602,797, in 2010 it went down to 553,916, and in 2011 dropped down to only 447,658. This downward tendency points not so much to a decreasing immigration as to a trend toward de-legalization. Greece in particular has been heavily hit by the debt and financial crisis, the effects of which have been seen since the end of 2008. Against this background fewer legal residency permits are being exhibited. Migrants can therefore often only fall back on irregular immigration channels or a non-authorized stay. According to a Greek employee survey, in the fourth quarter of 2011 almost 60% of immigrants (both regular and irregular) came from Albania (449,706), 6% (47,348) from Bulgaria and 5% (40,620) from Romania (Triandafyllidou 2012a, p. 5-13). Greece has in the meantime become a transit country for many migrants from Africa, Asia and the Middle East (Sotiropoulos 2012; Kasimis 2012, p. 3). The European border patrol agency, FRONTEX, states that 64% of all irregular migrants in the EU in the first quarter of 2012 entered EU territory by illegal entry through Greece (RIN 2012).

Irregular immigration has been strengthened even more as a result of the Arab Spring (European Commission 2012, p. 8; Triandafyllidou/Ambrosini 2011). Measures like “Operation Xenios Zeus” and the erection of a 12.5 kilometer long wall on the Greek-Turkish border are supposed to counteract irregular immigration (Ekathimerini 2012a). Since the beginning of August, 2012, under the name “Operation Xenios Zeus”, Greece’s minister of citizen security, Niko Dendias, has led police raids against unwanted foreigners in Greater Athens and in the Evros Region near the Turkish border. This “cleansing” targeted at refugees has led to the arrests of thousands of unwanted foreigners and mass deportation of migrants and asylum seekers to their countries of origin. The often violent action of the Greek police and the inhuman conditions in the reception camps have been strongly criticized by human rights organizations (Pro Asyl 2012).

Emigration of Greek Citizens

In view of the precarious economic and job market situation, the national unemployment rate rose in the second quarter of 2012 to 23.6%. In the age group of under-25 year olds unemployment stood at 53.9% (EL.STAT 2012a; EL.STAT 2012b, p. 3). One of the reactions to this situation was the decision to emigrate from Greece, which can scarcely be documented due to missing data. Traditional emigration destinations have registered a moderate increase in Greek citizens. According to data from Greek migration expert, Anna Triandafyllidou, the Greek population in the Netherlands grew from 2011 to 2012 by about 20% to 10,100 people. In Great Britain the number of Greek citizens living there in this time period also grew by 20% (Triandafyllidou 2012a, p. 23f.). In the first half of 2011 8,890 Greeks were drawn to Germany, doubling in the first half of the year 2012 to 16,571 (Triandafyllidou 2012b). Newspaper reports point to emigration movements to Australia (2,500 in 2011), Canada and the United States (The Guardian 2011). The Greek emigrants are predominantly young, highly qualified and trained in foreign languages (Daily Kos 2011; GR Reporter 2012; New York Times 2012). Despite the climb in emigration numbers, Professor Triandafyllidou considers the media coverage about this phenomenon to be exaggerated because most of the country’s residents have stayed in the country in spite of the economic crisis (Triandafyllidou 2012/email correspondence; Daily Kos 2011; Ekathimerini 2012; GR Reporter 2012). Of those foreigners living in Greece, it has mainly been the Albanians who have returned to their home country (Triandafyllidou 2012a, p. 2; Kasimis 2012, p. 7).

Growing Xenophobia

The political and public discourse is characterized by a growing intolerance towards migrants, with xenophobia increasing at an alarming rate (Triandafyllidou 2012a, p. 28f). According to UNHCR Greece, racially motivated acts of violence have become in the meantime almost the order of the day. In the course of the year 2012 these acts of violence have increased immensely (UNHCR 2012). UNHCR has reported 87 cases of racist violence alone between January and September 2012 (Netzwerk Migration in Europa 2012). According to the Racist Violence Recording Network, created in 2011, the estimated number of unknown cases may be significantly higher (UNHCR 2012).

Translation into English: Jocelyn Storm

References

Daily Kos (2011), 10% of Greeks chose to emigrate in 2010, 21, December. Externer Link: http://www.dailykos.com/story/2011/12/21/1047784/-10-of-Greeks-Chose-to-Emigrate-in-2010 (accessed 12-10-2012)

Destatis – Statistisches Bundesamt (2012), Zuwanderung nach Deutschland steigt im 1. Halbjahr 2012 um 15%, Press Release No. 39715, November. Externer Link: https://www.destatis.de/DE/PresseService/Presse/Pressemitteilungen/2012/11/PD12_397_12711.html (accessed 12-13-2012)

Ekathimerini (2012a), Evros fence ready by mid-December. Interceptions of illegal immigrants on Aegean islands up tenfold in recent months, 30 November. Externer Link: http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_wsite1_1_30/11/2012_472466 (accessed 12-10-2012)

Ekathimerini (2012b), Yes, we are racist, opinion poll finds after debate, 16 November. Externer Link: http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_wsite6_1_16/11/2012_470442 (accessed 12-10-2012)

Ekathimerini (2012c), Young Greeks hesitant about moving abroad, 25 April. Externer Link: http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_wsite1_1_25/04/2012_439326 (accessed 12-12-2012)

EL. STAT- Hellenic Statistical Authority (2012a), Press Release. Labour Force Survey, 4th Quarter 2011, 15 March. Externer Link: http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE/BUCKET/A0101/PressReleases/A0101_SJO01_DT_QQ_04_2011_01_F_EN.pdf (accessed 12-12-2012)

EL.STAT Hellenic Statistical Authority (2012b), Press Release. Labour Force Survey. 2nd Quarter 2012, 13 September. Externer Link: http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE/BUCKET/A0101/PressReleases/A0101_SJO01_DT_QQ_02_2012_01_F_EN.pdf (accessed 11-30-2012)

EL. STAT- Hellenic Statistical Authority (2012c), Vital Statistics. Migration Movement 2010, Foreign Population by Citizenship and Sex (Year 2010). Externer Link: http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE/PAGE-themes?p_param=A1605&r_param=SPO15&y_param=2010_00&mytabs=0 (accessed 12-20-2012)

EL. STAT- Hellenic Statistical Authority (2013), Vital Statistics. Migration Movement 2011, Foreign Population by Citizenship and Sex (Year 2011). Externer Link: http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE/PAGE-themes?p_param=A1605&r_param=SPO15&y_param=2011_00&mytabs=0 (accessed 1-28-2013)

European Commission (2012), Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. 3rd Annual Report on Immigration and Asylum, 30 May Externer Link: http://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/doc_centre/immigration/docs/COM%202012%20250%20final%201_EN_ACT_part1_v5.pdf (accessed 11-30-2012)

Eurostat (2012), Nearly two-thirds of foreigners living in the EU Member States are citizens of countries outside the EU-27, Statistics in Focus, 31/2012. Externer Link: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-SF-12-031/EN/KS-SF-12-031-EN.PDF (accessed 12-10-2012)

GR Reporter. News from Greece (2012), New emigrants are educated and do not leave forever, 26 April. Externer Link: http://www.grreporter.info/en/new_emigrants_are_educated_and_do_not_leave_forever/6662?page=2 (accessed 12-10-2012)

GR Reporter. News from Greece (2012), Youth dream of Emigration; few do it. 29 April. Externer Link: http://greece.greekreporter.com/2012/04/29/youth-dream-of-emigration-few-do-it/ (accessed 12-12-2012)

Human Rights Watch (2012), Hate on the Streets. Xenophobic Violence in Greece, Report, 10 July. Externer Link: http://www.hrw.org/node/108554/section/1 (accessed 12-12-2012)

Kasimis, Charalambos (2012), Illegal Immigration in the Midst of Crisis. Migration Information Source. March. Externer Link: http://www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?ID=884 (accessed 19-11-2012)

Malkoutzis, Nick (2011), Young Greeks and the Crisis. The Danger of Losing a Generation, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, International Policy Analysis. Externer Link: library.fes.de/pdf-files/id/ipa/08465.pdf (accessed 11-30-2012.)

Netzwerk Migration in Europa (2012), Kurzmeldungen – Europa II: Griechenland: Zunahme rassistischer Gewalt, Migration und Bevölkerung, No. 10, December. Externer Link: http://www.migration-info.de/mub_artikel.php?Id=121006 (accessed 12-12-2012)

New York Times (2012), Dread and Uncertainty Pervade Life in a Diminished Greece, 13 July. Externer Link: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/14/world/europe/greeks-dread-future-as-their-world-deteriorates.html?pagewanted=all (accessed 12-12-2012)

Pro Asyl (2012), Griechenland: Gigantische “Säuberungsaktion” gegen Flüchtlinge. 8 August. Externer Link: http://www.proasyl.de/de/news/detail/news/griechenland_gigantische_saeuberungsaktion_gegen_fluechtlinge/ (accessed 9-1-2013).

RIN - Humanitarian News and Analysis. A Service of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2012), Migration: Greece – “an unsafe Environment for Migrants“, 17 August. Externer Link: http://www.irinnews.org/Report/96123/MIGRATION-Greece-an-unsafe-environment-for-migrants (accessed 11-30-2012)

The Guardian (2011), Europeans migrate south as continent drifts deeper into crisis, 21 December. Externer Link: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/dec/21/europe-migrants-crisis-irish-portuguese (accessed 12-12-2012)

Triandafyllidou, Anna/Ambrosini, Maurizo (2011), Irregular Immigration Control in Italy and Greece: Strong Fencing and Weak Gate-keeping serving the Labour Market, European Journal of Migration and Law, No. 13, pp. 251-273.

Triandafyllidou, Anna (in co-operation with Maroufof, Michaela) (2012a), Greece. Report prepared for the SOPEMI meeting Paris, 28-30. November 2012. Unpublished report (cited with permission of the author).

Triandafyllidou, Anna (2012b), Recent Trends in Immigration to Germany from Southern and Eastern European Countries. (Based on data from the German Federal Statistics Office). Unpublished document (cited with permission of the author).

Sotiropoulos, Dimitri A. (2012), The Social Situation of Greece under the Crisis, Basic Socio-economic Data for Greece, 2011. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Externer Link: library.fes.de/pdf-files/id/09330.pdf (accessed 11-30-2012)

UNHCR – The UN Refugee Agency (2012), Racist Violence Recording Network. Findings 1.1.2012 – 30.9.2012. October. Externer Link: http://www.unhcr.gr/fileadmin/Greece/News/2012/pr/ConclusionsOctober2012EN.pdf (accessed 9-1-2013)

This text is part of the policy brief on Interner Link: "Does the Crisis Make People Move?".

Fussnoten

Fußnoten

  1. Migration expert, Anna Triandafyllidou, assumes in her estimations that about 840,000 (12-1-2011) third country citizens live in Greece, based upon 447,658 regular (legal) issued residency permits and 391,000 irregular migrants, excluding co-ethnicities (Pontic Greeks and Greek-Albanians) (Triandafyllidou 2012a, p. 7f.).

  2. According to data from the German Federal Statistical Office, the number of Greek immigrants in the first half of 2012 increased by 78% (+6,900 people) in comparison to the first six months of the previous year (Destatis 2012).

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Feline Engling Cardoso is research fellow at Trutz Haase Social and Economic Consultants. Her research interests include migration movements from and to Southern Europe, migration and security policies, and social policies. Email: E-Mail Link: feline.engling@googlemail.com