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The Current Development of Immigration to Germany

Kurzdossiers "Paradise Left Behind" – Begleitmaterial zum Film "Es geht um differenzierte Bilder." – Ein Gespräch über Paradise Left Behind Die ägäischen Inseln: von Räumen des Transits zu Räumen der Immobilisierung 'Schengen', 'Dublin' und die Ambivalenzen der EU-Migrationspolitik. Eine kurze Geschichte Paradise Left Behind Migration und Wirtschaft Die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Zuwanderung Wie sich Migration auf die Herkunftsländer auswirkt Migrantische Ökonomien in Deutschland Fachkräfteengpässe und Arbeitsmigration nach Deutschland Migration und Handwerk – kurze Geschichte einer langen Verbindung Zugehörigkeit und Zusammenhalt in der Migrationsgesellschaft Was ist Heimat? Warum es so viel leichter ist über Nudelsalat zu reden als über Rassismus Die blinden Flecken antirassistischer Diskurse Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? 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Zivilgesellschaftliche Initiativen für sichere Fluchtwege – ein Überblick Migrantenorganisationen – vielfältige Akteurinnen gesamtgesellschaftlicher Integration (Flucht-)Migration und Gesundheit Medizinische Versorgung Interview David Zimmermann Definition von Migration Gesundheitszustand von Migranten Barrieren/ Prävention Erklärungsmodelle Schlussfolgerungen Literatur Das Jahr 2015: Ein Rückblick Fluchtmigration: Hintergründe Verwaltungs- und Infrastrukturkrise EU: Reaktionen auf die Fluchtzuwanderung Flüchtlingszahlen weltweit Internationale Studierende Einleitung Bildungsmigration Internationale Studierende Internationale Studierende in Deutschland Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt Literatur Migration und Pflege Einführung Altern in der Migrationsgesellschaft Interview mit Helma Lutz Deutsche Asylpolitik und EU-Flüchtlingsschutz Einleitung Flüchtlingsrecht Asylrecht, Flüchtlingspolitik, humanitäre Zuwanderung Flucht und Asyl als europäisiertes Politikfeld Asyl und Asylpolitik Ausblick Literatur Integration in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft Einleitung Die postmigrantische Gesellschaft Paradigmenwandel Brauchen wir den Integrationsbegriff noch? Integration als Metanarrativ Notwendigkeit eines neuen Leitbildes Literatur Lifestyle Migration Was ist Lifestyle Migration? Briten in Spanien Einen neuen Lebensstil entdecken Folgen des Residenztourismus Zusammenfassung Literatur Wahlrecht und Partizipation von Migranten Einleitung Politische Rechte und Kommunalwahlrecht Wahlrecht für Drittstaatsangehörige Einbürgerung Aktuelle Entwicklungen Schlussbemerkungen Literatur Frontex und das Grenzregime der EU Einleitung Frontex – Fragen und Antworten Die Entwicklung des europäischen Grenzregimes Externalisierung Technologisierung Grenzwirtschaft/border economies Auf der anderen Seite des Grenzzauns Ist Einwanderung ein Risiko? Literatur Demografischer Wandel und Migration Einleitung Demografischer Übergang Deutschland und Europa Internationale Wanderung Integration und Reproduktionsverhalten Wanderungspolitik Regionale Muster Literatur Glossar English Version: Policy Briefs "Having a nationality is not a given, it is a privilege" Sanctuary and Anti-Sanctuary Immigration Law in the United States Migrant Smugglers Urbanizing Skilled Female Migrants in the EU Self-Organization of Women* Refugees Impact of Migration Revisited Child and Youth Migration Human Rights Protections Migration from the United Kingdom Adoption and Child Migration Third Culture Kids Trafficking in Children Actors in National and International (Flight)Migration Regimes UNHCR UNRWA International Organization for Migration The International Organization for Migration (IOM) German Asylum Policy and EU Refugee Protection Introduction Refugee Law Asylum Law, Refugee Policy, Humanitarian Migration Flight and Asylum Current Developments Current and Future Challenges References Integration in a Post-Migrant Society Introduction Post-Migrant Society Paradigm Shift Do We Still Need the Concept of Integration? Integration as a Metanarrative Need for a New Concept References Lifestyle Migration What Is Lifestyle Migration? British in Spain Realizing a New Style of Life Outcomes of Lifestyle Migration Conclusion References Voting rights and political participation Introduction Political and Municipal Voting Rights Voting Rights for Nationals of Non-EU States Naturalization Recent Developments Conclusions References Frontex and the EU Border Regime Introduction Frontex — Questions and Answers The Development of a European Border Regime Externalization Technologization Border Economies On the Other Side of the Border Fence Is Migration a Risk? References Demographic Change and Migration in Europe Introduction Demographic Transition Germany and Europe International Migration Reproductive Behavior Migration Policy Regional Patterns Glossary Further Reading Global Migration in the Future Introduction Increase of the World Population Growth of Cities Environmental Changes Conclusion: Political Migration References Germans Abroad Introduction Germans Abroad Expatriates in Hong Kong and Thailand Human Security Concerns of German Expatriates Conclusions References Migrant Organizations What Are Migrant Organizations? Number and Structure Their Role in Social Participation Multidimensionality and the Dynamic Character Interaction with their Environments Between the Countries of Origin and Arrival Conclusion References EU Internal Migration EU Internal Migration East-West Migration after the EU Enlargement Ireland United Kingdom Spain Portugal Greece Italy Germany Internal Migration in China Introduction Terminology Urban-Rural Disparity and Registration System Patterns of Migration Areas of Employment Second Generation Migration and Urbanization Migrants in China’s Cities Summary and Conclusions References Assessment of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Introduction Evolution of the Accreditation Debate The Importance of Accreditation Basic Principles Thus Far of the Accreditation of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Actors in the Accreditation Practice Reasons for Establishing a New Legal Framework The Professional Qualifications Assessment Act What Is Being Criticized? The Accreditation System in Transition Conclusion References From Home country to Home country? Context Motives Immigration and Integration in Turkey Identification Emigration or Return? References Integration in Figures Approaches Development Six Approaches Conclusion References Climate Change Introduction Estimates Affected areas Environmental migration Conclusion References Dual citizenship Discourse Classic objections Current debate Rule of law Conclusion References Female Labour Migration The labour market Dominant perceptions Skilled female migration Issues Conclusion References How Healthy are Migrants? Definition The Health Status Prevention/Barriers Migration and Health Conclusions References Networks Spain Migrant networks Effects of networks Romanian networks Conclusion References Integration Policy Introduction Demographic situation Economic conditions Labour market The case in Stuttgart Integration measures Evaluation Outlook References Irregular Migration Introduction The phenomenon Political approaches Controlling Sanctions Proposed directive Conclusions References Integration Courses Introduction The Netherlands France Germany United Kingdom Conclusions References Recruitment of Healthcare Professionals Introduction The Situation Health Worker Migration Costs and Benefits Perspectives and Conclusion References Triggering Skilled Migration Introduction Talking about mobility Legal framework Coming to Germany Mobility of scientists Other factors Conclusions References Remittances Introduction The Term Remittance Figures and Trends Effects Conclusion References EU Expansion and Free Movement Introduction Transitional Arrangements Economic Theory The Scale The Results Continued Restrictions Conclusion References The German "Green Card" Introduction Background Green Card regulation Success? Conclusion References Does Germany Need Labour Migration? Introduction Labour shortages Labourmarket Conclusion Labourmigration References Dutch Integration Model The "Dutch model"? The end? Intention and reality A new view Where next? References Impressum

The Current Development of Immigration to Germany

Marcus Engler Vera Hanewinkel

/ 10 Minuten zu lesen

After more people emigrated from Germany in both years 2008 and 2009 than immigrated during the same time period into the country, the emigration of professionals and specialists and Germany’s lack of attractiveness for highly skilled migration was discussed. In the course of the financial and economic crisis, however, this picture has been transformed.

Polish labourer at work on asparagus fields in Brandenburg, Germany. (© picture-alliance/AP)

Introduction

In international comparison, Germany has come through the economic crisis so far quite well. Employment is growing and unemployment is at a low level in European comparison. Yet there are specialists missing in a few regions and branches.

In contrast, the countries of Southern and Eastern Europe suffer more severely from the recession and the effects will be more sustained. Mainly new entrants to the job market, many of whom are migrants and young people, are affected by high unemployment and drastic austerity programs. Youth unemployment accounts for over 30% in several of these countries, and even over 50% in Spain and Greece. By contrast it is only around 8% in Germany.

The Development of Immigration

Fig. 1: Net migration since 1991 (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/

Since the low point in 2008, when a net 66,000 people emigrated, there has been a steady trend toward more immigration. In 2010 the migration balance, that is, the difference between immigration and emigration, was in the positive range with around +128,000. In 2011 a balance of 279,000 people was attained – the highest value since 1996 (cf. Figure 1). Final data for 2012 is not yet available. According to estimations the migration balance could have risen to 400,000. This development is most notably to be ascribed to climbing immigration numbers. On the other hand emigration numbers have remained relatively constant in recent years, between 600,000 and 700,000 each year. The elevated emigration numbers of 2008 (738,000) and 2009 (734,000) can be contributed for a large part to the correction of the municipal residency register.

Fig. 2: Development of immigration flows since 1991 (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/

Immigration numbers have risen considerably since 2006 (see Figure 2). At that time around 662,000 people came to Germany. This number was almost 50% higher (960,000) in 2011 and could have incurred well over a million people in 2012.

Although these numbers initially appear high, in long term comparison it appears that immigration has not reached any completely new dimensions. In the beginning of the 1990s both immigration and the migration balance were considerably higher. More than 1.5 million immigrated in 1992, and also between the years 1969 and 1971 around one million people came into the country each year.

No assertions can be made about whether the new immigrants will merely stay temporarily in Germany or permanently. The migration numbers that can be determined by the municipal registration office are comprised of both short and long term immigration. As freedom of movement exists in the EU, short term immigration could often remain unnoticed at the moment because registration with government agencies is not always taking place. It can be assumed, however, that immigrants from EU-states that stay longer than a couple of months in Germany end up registering sooner or later and then are recorded as immigrants.

Countries of Origin

Fig. 3: Immigration from the four most important countries of origin in Central and Eastern Europe (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/

While immigration out of Southern Europe is especially discussed in the mass media, a look at the migration statistics shows a different picture. The most important countries of origin numerically in recent years have been in Central and Eastern Europe.

Immigration from the four most important countries of origin in Central and Eastern Europe
2010 2011 2012 (1. Half-Year)
Poland 125,861 172,674 92,400
Romania 74,585 95,479 59,877
Bulgaria 39,387 51,612 28,969
Hungary 30,015 41,980 25,415
Source: Federal Statistical Office (Germany)

Fig. 4: Monthly inflows of immigrants from EU-2 and EU-8 countries, 2011 and 2012 (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/


A strong increase in immigration from countries that entered the EU in 2004 (EU-8) and 2007 (EU-2) has been recorded in recent years. Full freedom of movement has been in force since 2011, with the exception of Bulgaria and Romania , and is being put to use by many (cf. Figure 4).

There were also distinct increases in past years in immigration from Southern European countries which were particularly affected by the financial and debt crisis (cf. Figure 5).

But here there must be a difference made between the extremely proportionally high increases discussed in the media and the absolute immigration numbers. Immigration from Southern Europe had majorly scaled itself back in years prior to the economic and financial crisis. With a surge of 78%, as in the case of Greece (in the first half of 2012 compared to the first half of 2011), the absolute immigration numbers themselves turn out moderate – especially in comparison to immigration from Central and Eastern Europe. Also in long term comparison it becomes clear that immigration from Southern European countries has not reached any new dimensions as of yet (cf. Figure 6).

Fig. 5: Immigration from Southern Europe by countries of origin, 1st quarter of 2008 - 2nd quarter of 2012 (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/

Fig. 6: Immigration from Southern Europe (PIGS states) (bpb) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/



German Learners as an Indicator for Immigration

The number of participants in German courses at Goethe Institutes in countries of origin is an indicator of the increased intentions to migrate to Germany. In 2011 the institute reported record numbers of participants in German courses and tests. The number of German learners was at 235,000 people in 2011, which is around 8% higher than in the year before. Participant numbers increased particularly in Southern Europe, with a rise of 10% in Greece, 14% in Italy, 20% in Portugal and 35% in Spain. “This development is ascribed to an increased interest in inclusion in gainful employment in Germany. Whoever learns German has better chances in the local job market” (Vogel 2012).

The Goethe Institutes are reacting to the growing demand by expanding their capacity and with the initiative “Mit Deutsch in den Beruf” (lit.“With German in the Profession”), sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In technical language courses and projects young people in Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece looking to migrate are prepared for everyday working life in Germany. These technical language courses are offered for doctors, nurses, engineers, lawyers and for the tourist branch, among others. With additional job application training the program participants are prepared practically for a career start (Goethe-Institut 2012b).

Reactions in Germany

Reactions to the climb in immigration numbers appear differently according to immigrant group. There are strong defensive reactions regarding the immigration of less qualified people groups, for example the Roma from Central Eastern Europe who often come as asylum seekers.

In contrast, immigration from Southern European states in crisis has been considered thus far mainly positively due to the profile of the immigrants from these countries. First reports on these migration movements show that these are young, well-trained and highly motivated people that integrate themselves into the German labor market, for which they are ready and willing to learn the local language (Trabant 2012). These people are counted among the immigrants that Germany internationally recruits.

Economy: Active Recruitment of Immigrants

The economy recognizes the immigration from Southern Europe as a chance in the global competition for the brightest minds. The highly qualified immigrants facilitate economic growth and counteract the decline of labor force potential, which takes place because of demographic change (cf. in addition Parusel/Schneider 2010). Headhunters abroad recruit targeted personnel in bottleneck areas, like for example doctors for hospitals in rural areas that have problems to fill their positions (Student 2012).

Several chambers of commerce offer international events for businesses on the topic of “professional recruiting in the EU internal market”. The chamber of foreign trade supports companies with the recruitment of specialists abroad (Financial Times Deutschland 2012, Preuss 2012).

In July 2012 a German-Spanish training conference took place in Stuttgart in the presence of the minister of education at the time, Annette Schavan (CDU), and her Spanish counterpart, José Ignacio Wert Ortega (Partido Popular, conservative). At that conference the possibilities of introducing a dual training system in Spain were discussed. The German apprenticeship model, which combines a classroom education with practical experience, should contribute to the reduction in youth unemployment on the Iberian Peninsula. So far the training in Spain has taken place exclusively in schools. A large part of a year’s graduates studies in Spain, and many subsequently work beneath their qualification level (Financial Times Deutschland 2012). A cooperation treaty for the implementation of a dual system was signed in September 2012 by the Spanish Chambers of Commerce and the German Chambers of Industry and Commerce.

Assistance in the Job Search

Immigrants from the EU can take advantage of the assistance from the European Union labor administration (EURES) in their job search. There are 850 EURES consultants Europe-wide that help them in the search for job vacancies. In addition the International Placement Services (ZAV) under the German Federal Employment Agency, represented in the EURES network, organizes events by invitation of other EU-states, which inform about job offers and working conditions in Germany. Present in these events are also employers who conduct job interviews on-site for definite positions. According to the ZAV there has recently been a “significant increase” in such events in Southern Europe (Vogel 2012).

Future Prospects

How long these immigrants from Southern Europe will stay in Germany is unclear. Those immigrants that bring qualifications with them that are needed in the German labor market, or work in bottleneck sectors or where there is a lack of workers could stay longer, for example doctors and nurses or trained workers in the so-called MINT-occupations . In many other branches in which the labor force demand can be met through people who have been educated in Germany, it could be much more difficult to find a job which allows for a long-term stay in Germany. Already before the economic crisis in some branches there were more job seekers than open positions – a situation that has among others led to the casualization of employment conditions.

There are indicators that the trend of a high immigration will continue. According to a prognosis by the economic research institute, Kiel Economics, in the years 2013 to 2017 a net 2.2 million people could immigrate. The migration numbers in that case strongly depend on whether the asymmetric economical development in the EU will continue or whether it will even become accentuated.

The development of the German labor market is also relevant. According to economy experts the yearly migration balance should be calculated nearer to 200,000 in the long term (Müller 2012). Moreover it must be noted that migration does not take place based only on economic considerations. If that were the case, then, in light of the disparate economic development worldwide, the migratory pressure on wealthy states would have to be higher than is currently the case. Therefore, personal factors would also always have to be taken into account on the examination of migratory movements, as, for example migrants’ networks. These networks make information and support available at the place of destination which can dramatically reduce the “migration costs”. The building of such networks can also contribute to the development of permanent and relatively stable migration relationships between two (or more) countries.

Also, if it is the case that the immigrants currently arriving in Germany are highly qualified, that alone does not guarantee smooth integration in Germany. Integration involves effort on both the side of the immigrant as well as the receiving society. What is important is that the immigrant is seen not only as labor, but as a person, whose social participation through a corresponding welcoming culture should be made possible.

Translation into English: Jocelyn Storm

References

Alscher, Stefan (2012), Deutschland: Debatte über Umgang mit Asylbewerbern vom Balkan, Migration und Bevölkerung, November. Externer Link: http://www.migration-info.de/mub_artikel.php?Id=120901 (accessed 1-4-2013)

Financial Times Deutschland (2012), Jugendarbeitslosigkeit: Spanien holt sich Rat bei deutschen Ausbildern, 6 September. Externer Link: http://www.ftd.de/politik/europa/:jugendarbeitslosigkeit-spanien-holt-sich-rat-bei-deutschen-ausbildern/70086768.html (accessed 1-4-2013)

Goethe-Institut (2012a), Deutschlernerzahlen steigen auf Rekordniveau, Press Release, 6 March. Externer Link: http://www.goethe.de/prs/prm/a012/de8962959.htm (accessed 1-4-2013)

Goethe-Institut (2012b), Immer mehr Menschen lernen Deutsch, Press Release, 6 September. Externer Link: http://www.goethe.de/prs/prm/a012/de9806854.htm (accessed 1-4-2013)

Hanewinkel, Vera (2012), Deutschland: Zuwanderung steigt weiter an, Migration und Bevölkerung, December. Externer Link: http://www.migration-info.de/mub_artikel.php?Id=121002 (accessed 1-4-2013)

Hummitzsch, Thomas (2012), Deutschland: Deutlich mehr Einwanderer, Migration und Bevölkerung, June. Externer Link: http://www.migration-info.de/mub_artikel.php?Id=120501 (accessed 1-4-2013)

Müller, Henrik (2012), Einwanderungswelle: "Diese Chance sollten wir uns nicht entgehen lassen", Manager Magazin online, 17 December. Externer Link: http://www.manager-magazin.de/politik/deutschland/0,2828,871665,00.html (accessed 1-4-2013)

Parusel, Bernd/Schneider, Jan (2010), Deckung des Arbeitskräftebedarfs durch Zuwanderung. Studie der deutschen Kontaktstelle für das Europäische Migrationsnetzwerk (EMN), Working Paper No. 32 of the EMN National Contact Point and the Research Group of the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, Nuremberg. Externer Link: http://www.bamf.de/SharedDocs/Anlagen/DE/Publikationen/EMN/Nationale-Studien-WorkingPaper/emn-wp-32-arbeitskraeftebedarf-de.pdf?__blob=publicationFile (accessed 1-7-2013)

Preuss, Roland (2012), Spanien will die duale Ausbildung. Lehre auf die Merkel’sche Tour, Süddeutsche.de, 12 July. Externer Link: http://www.sueddeutsche.de/karriere/spanien-will-die-duale-ausbildung-lehre-auf-die-merkelsche-tour-1.1410497 (accessed 4-1-2013)

Seibert, Holger/Wapler, Rüdiger (2012), Zuwanderung nach Deutschland: Aus dem Ausland kommen immer mehr Akademiker, IAB-Kurzbericht, No. 21. Externer Link: http://doku.iab.de/kurzber/2012/kb2112.pdf (accessed 1-4-2013)

Trabant, Jürgen (2012), Die Kinder, die wir uns wünschen, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 17 November. Student, Dietmar (2012), Immigration: Bulletin aus Bedburg-Hau. Manager Magazin online, 19 December. Externer Link: http://www.manager-magazin.de/politik/deutschland/0,2828,872430,00.html (accessed 4-1-2013)

Vogel, Dita (2012), Deutschland: Wachsende Zuwanderung aus Südeuropa, Migration und Bevölkerung, March. Externer Link: http://www.migration-info.de/migration_und_bevoelkerung/archiv/ausgaben/ausgabe1203.htm#120301 (accessed 1-4-2013)

Wöhrle, Christoph (2012), Deutschland: Asyldebatte und Flüchtlingsproteste, Migration und Bevölkerung, December. Externer Link: http://www.migration-info.de/mub_artikel.php?Id=121001 (accessed 1-4-2013)

Further Reading

In April 2013, the Expert Council of German Foundations on Integration and Migration (SVR) will release its annual report which will deal in detail with the Phenomenon of intra-EU migration movements.

This text is part of the policy brief on Interner Link: "Does the Crisis Make People Move?".

Fussnoten

Fußnoten

  1. Immigrant numbers also include asylum seekers that are still in the asylum process. Thus they include people who ultimately might not receive the right to remain in Germany.

  2. For both countries is this allowed only as of 2014.

  3. In the first half of 2012, according to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, 16,577 people emigrated from Greece to Germany and 6,297 people to Greece. The migration balance was respectively 10,280.

  4. Cf. contributions by Alscher 2012 and Wöhrle 2012 in the newsletter “Migration und Bevölkerung“ [Migration and Population].

  5. MINT stands for Mathematics, Computer Science, Science, and Engineering.

Lizenz

Dieser Text ist unter der Creative Commons Lizenz "CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 DE - Namensnennung - Nicht-kommerziell - Keine Bearbeitung 3.0 Deutschland" veröffentlicht. Autoren/-innen: Marcus Engler, Vera Hanewinkel für bpb.de

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Post-Migrant Society

Germany has become a country of immigration - not only empirically but also narratively. Its society can be described as "post-migrant". What does this mean?

Kurzdossiers

Introduction

The heterogeneous society in the immigration country Germany is characterized by negotiation processes. Affiliations, national identity and participation are renegotiated and adjusted. This process is…

Video Dauer
Video

USA: Land of immigration

The history of the United States as the number one immigration country is far without hardship and bloodshed and begins around 1500 with the colonization of America. This video gives a brief overview…

Marcus Engler is research fellow at the Expert Council of German Foundations on Integration and Migration (SVR). He is also one of the editors of the newsletter 'Migration und Bevölkerung' [Migration and Population], and board member of Network Migration in Europe e.V.
Email: E-Mail Link: engler@network-migration.org

Vera Hanewinkel is research assistant at the Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies (IMIS) of the University of Osnabrueck, Germany. E-mail: vera.hanewinkel@uni-osnabrueck.de