Meine Merkliste Geteilte Merkliste

Externalization: From a Line to an Area, from Entry Control to Exit Control

Kurzdossiers "Paradise Left Behind" – Begleitmaterial zum Film "Es geht um differenzierte Bilder." – Ein Gespräch über Paradise Left Behind Die ägäischen Inseln: von Räumen des Transits zu Räumen der Immobilisierung 'Schengen', 'Dublin' und die Ambivalenzen der EU-Migrationspolitik. Eine kurze Geschichte Paradise Left Behind Migration und Wirtschaft Die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Zuwanderung Wie sich Migration auf die Herkunftsländer auswirkt Migrantische Ökonomien in Deutschland Fachkräfteengpässe und Arbeitsmigration nach Deutschland Migration und Handwerk – kurze Geschichte einer langen Verbindung Migration und Handwerk: Fachkräftemangel und integratives Potenzial Zugehörigkeit und Zusammenhalt in der Migrationsgesellschaft Was ist Heimat? Warum es so viel leichter ist über Nudelsalat zu reden als über Rassismus Die blinden Flecken antirassistischer Diskurse Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Konfliktbearbeitung ist der Klebstoff der Demokratie Sozialer Zusammenhalt und das Gefühl, fremd im eigenen Land zu sein Die Gruppe der Ostdeutschen als Teil postmigrantischer Integrationsfragen Kommunale Migrations- und Flüchtlingspolitik Der "local turn" in der Migrations- und Asylpolitik Kommunen und ihre Rolle bei der Flüchtlingsaufnahme Kommunale Aufnahme von Flüchtlingen Interview: Migrations- und integrationspolitische Debatten im Deutschen Städtetag Kommunale Integrationspolitik in Deutschland: Teilhabe vor Ort ermöglichen Zufluchtsstädte im amerikanischen Einwanderungsföderalismus Migration in städtischen und ländlichen Räumen Geflüchtete in ländlichen Räumen Perspektive Geflüchteter auf das Leben auf dem Land Landlust oder Landfrust? Fleischindustrie Migrantische Arbeitskräfte in der malaysischen Palmölindustrie (Il)legal? Migrant_innen in der spanischen Landwirtschaft Das Wachstum der Städte durch Migration Migration und Männlichkeit Männlichkeit im Migrationskontext Muslimische Männlichkeit Väterlichkeiten Intersektionale Diskriminierung Sozialisation junger Muslime Migration – Kriminalität – Männlichkeit Migration und Sicherheit Einführung Migration und menschliche Sicherheit Foreign Fighters "Gefährder" Smart Borders Grenzkontrollen: Einblicke in die grenzpolizeiliche Praxis Die Polizei in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft Interview Radikalisierung in der Migrationsgesellschaft Schlepper: Dekonstruktion eines Mythos "Racial Profiling", institutioneller Rassismus und Interventionsmöglichkeiten Migration und Klimawandel Umwelt- und Klimamigration: Begriffe und Definitionen Zur Prognose des Umfangs klimabedingter Migrationen Der Zusammenhang zwischen Klimawandel und Migration Indikator für Verwundbarkeit oder Resilienz? Klimawandel, Migration und Geschlechterverhältnisse Rechtliche Schutzmöglichkeiten für "Klimaflüchtlinge" Interview mit Ulf Neupert Frauen in der Migration Migration qualifizierter Frauen in der EU Selbstorganisation geflüchteter Frauen* "Gastarbeiterinnen" in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Ein Überblick in Zahlen Migration und Geschlechterrollen Frauen auf der Flucht Interview Zahlenwerk: Frauen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland Integrationskurse Geschlechtsbezogene Verfolgung – Rechtlicher Schutz Geflüchtete Frauen in Deutschland Kinder- und Jugendmigration Zahlenwerk Kindertransporte Die "Schwabenkinder" Kinder- und Jugendmigration aus GB Menschenrechte von Kindermigranten Third Culture Kids Kindersoldat_Innen Adoption und Kindermigration Kinderhandel Lebensborn e.V. Grenzzäune und -mauern Mauern und Zäune Integrationspolitik Integrationsmonitoring Integrationstheorien Interview mit Andreas Zick Integration in superdiverse Nachbarschaften Migration und Entwicklung Entwicklung und Migration, Umsiedlung und Klimawandel Migration und Entwicklung – eine neue Perspektive? Stand der Forschung Rücküberweisungen Diaspora als Impulsgeberin für Entwicklung Landgrabbing Interview mit Roman Herre Strukturumbrüche und Transformation Diaspora Was ist eine Diaspora? Exil, Diaspora, Transmigration Diaspora: Leben im Spannungsfeld Türkeistämmige in Deutschland Postsowjetische Migranten Polnische Diaspora Vietnamesische Diaspora Kurdische Diaspora Diaspora als Akteur der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Russlanddeutsche und andere postsozialistische Migranten Wer sind die Russlanddeutschen? Aussiedler Politische Partizipation von Russlanddeutschen Russlanddeutsches Verbandswesen Religiosität unter Russlanddeutschen Interview mit Peter Dück Russlanddeutsche in Russland Russlanddeutsche transnational Jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge und Russlanddeutsche Transnationalismus als Beheimatungsstrategie Aushandlungen der Zugehörigkeit russlanddeutscher Jugendlicher Mediennutzung der russischen Diaspora in Deutschland 'Russische' Supermärkte und Restaurants in Deutschland Perspektiven auf die Integration von Geflüchteten in Deutschland Arbeitsmarktperspektiven von Geflüchteten Interview mit Gesa Hune Meinung: Geflüchtete fördern - oder es kann teuer werden Effekte der Fluchtmigration - Interview mit Prof. Dr. Herbert Brücker "Die müssen die Sprache lernen" Fremd- bzw. Zweitspracherwerb von Geflüchteten Die Arbeitsmarktintegration Geflüchteter in der Vergangenheit "Wohnst Du schon – oder wirst Du noch untergebracht?" Inklusion in das Schulsystem Ein Jahr Integrationsgesetz Interview mit Prof. Dr. Julia von Blumenthal Über die Zusammenhänge von Religion und Integration Interview: Digitale Bildungsangebote als Chance für Integration Innerafrikanische Migrationen Konsequenzen der Auslagerung der EU-Grenzen Kindermigration in Burkina Faso Flucht und Vertreibung Migranten als Akteure der Globalisierung Migrations- und Fluchtpfade Marokko Libyen Abschiebungen nach Afrika Leben nach der Abschiebung Flüchtlingslager Begriff und Geschichte des Lagers Orte der dauerhaften Vorläufigkeit: Flüchtlingslager im globalen Süden "Das Leben im Flüchtlingslager wird zur Normalität" Urbanisierungsprozesse Kleine Geschichte der Flüchtlingslager Lager in der Weimarer Republik Schlotwiese Uelzen-Bohldamm Friedland Zirndorf Marienfelde Das Jahr 2016: Ein Rückblick Globale Flüchtlingskrise hält weiter an Diskussion um kriminelle Geflüchtete Europa Literatur Resettlement Was ist Resettlement? Historische Entwicklung Resettlement durch UNHCR Resettlement im Vergleich zu anderen Aufnahmeprogrammen Aufnahme und Integration EU und Resettlement Deutschland Zukunft des Resettlements Literatur Akteure im (inter-)nationalen (Flucht-)Migrationsregime Akteure in Migrationsregimen und das Aushandeln von Migration Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge Die Europäische Grenzschutzagentur Frontex Die Asylagentur der Europäischen Union: neue Agentur, alte Herausforderungen UNHCR UNRWA – das UN-Hilfswerk für Palästina-Flüchtlinge im Nahen Osten Die Internationale Organisation für Migration (IOM) "Migration ist ein globales Thema, auf das es auch globale Antworten geben sollte." Flucht und Asyl: Grundlagen Abschiebung in der Geschichte Deutschlands Wie ist das Asylrecht entstanden? Das Asylverfahren in Deutschland Schutzanspruch im deutschen Asylverfahren? Sichere Herkunftsländer Das Konzept "sichere Herkunftsstaaten" Definition für Duldung und verbundene Rechte Flüchtlingsaufnahme und ihre Folgen Fluchtziel Deutschland Freiwillige Rückkehr Unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete Abschiebung – Ausweisung – Dublin-Überstellung Begriff und Figur des Flüchtlings in historischer Perspektive Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement Ehrenamtliches Engagement von Geflüchteten Interview mit J. Olaf Kleist Engagement in der Migrationsgesellschaft Politische Proteste von Geflüchteten Proteste gegen Abschiebungen Zivilgesellschaft und Integration Städte der Solidarität – ein Interview Beim Kirchenasyl geht es um den Schutz des Einzelnen. Ein Gespräch. Zivilgesellschaftliche Initiativen für sichere Fluchtwege – ein Überblick Migrantenorganisationen – vielfältige Akteurinnen gesamtgesellschaftlicher Integration (Flucht-)Migration und Gesundheit Medizinische Versorgung Interview David Zimmermann Definition von Migration Gesundheitszustand von Migranten Barrieren/ Prävention Erklärungsmodelle Schlussfolgerungen Literatur Das Jahr 2015: Ein Rückblick Fluchtmigration: Hintergründe Verwaltungs- und Infrastrukturkrise EU: Reaktionen auf die Fluchtzuwanderung Flüchtlingszahlen weltweit Internationale Studierende Einleitung Bildungsmigration Internationale Studierende Internationale Studierende in Deutschland Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt Literatur Migration und Pflege Einführung Altern in der Migrationsgesellschaft Interview mit Helma Lutz Deutsche Asylpolitik und EU-Flüchtlingsschutz Einleitung Flüchtlingsrecht Asylrecht, Flüchtlingspolitik, humanitäre Zuwanderung Flucht und Asyl als europäisiertes Politikfeld Asyl und Asylpolitik Ausblick Literatur Integration in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft Einleitung Die postmigrantische Gesellschaft Paradigmenwandel Brauchen wir den Integrationsbegriff noch? Integration als Metanarrativ Notwendigkeit eines neuen Leitbildes Literatur Lifestyle Migration Was ist Lifestyle Migration? Briten in Spanien Einen neuen Lebensstil entdecken Folgen des Residenztourismus Zusammenfassung Literatur Wahlrecht und Partizipation von Migranten Einleitung Politische Rechte und Kommunalwahlrecht Wahlrecht für Drittstaatsangehörige Einbürgerung Aktuelle Entwicklungen Schlussbemerkungen Literatur Frontex und das Grenzregime der EU Einleitung Frontex – Fragen und Antworten Die Entwicklung des europäischen Grenzregimes Externalisierung Technologisierung Grenzwirtschaft/border economies Auf der anderen Seite des Grenzzauns Ist Einwanderung ein Risiko? Literatur Demografischer Wandel und Migration Einleitung Demografischer Übergang Deutschland und Europa Internationale Wanderung Integration und Reproduktionsverhalten Wanderungspolitik Regionale Muster Literatur Glossar English Version: Policy Briefs "Having a nationality is not a given, it is a privilege" Sanctuary and Anti-Sanctuary Immigration Law in the United States Migrant Smugglers Urbanizing Skilled Female Migrants in the EU Self-Organization of Women* Refugees Impact of Migration Revisited Child and Youth Migration Human Rights Protections Migration from the United Kingdom Adoption and Child Migration Third Culture Kids Trafficking in Children Actors in National and International (Flight)Migration Regimes UNHCR UNRWA International Organization for Migration The International Organization for Migration (IOM) German Asylum Policy and EU Refugee Protection Introduction Refugee Law Asylum Law, Refugee Policy, Humanitarian Migration Flight and Asylum Current Developments Current and Future Challenges References Integration in a Post-Migrant Society Introduction Post-Migrant Society Paradigm Shift Do We Still Need the Concept of Integration? Integration as a Metanarrative Need for a New Concept References Lifestyle Migration What Is Lifestyle Migration? British in Spain Realizing a New Style of Life Outcomes of Lifestyle Migration Conclusion References Voting rights and political participation Introduction Political and Municipal Voting Rights Voting Rights for Nationals of Non-EU States Naturalization Recent Developments Conclusions References Frontex and the EU Border Regime Introduction Frontex — Questions and Answers The Development of a European Border Regime Externalization Technologization Border Economies On the Other Side of the Border Fence Is Migration a Risk? References Demographic Change and Migration in Europe Introduction Demographic Transition Germany and Europe International Migration Reproductive Behavior Migration Policy Regional Patterns Glossary Further Reading Global Migration in the Future Introduction Increase of the World Population Growth of Cities Environmental Changes Conclusion: Political Migration References Germans Abroad Introduction Germans Abroad Expatriates in Hong Kong and Thailand Human Security Concerns of German Expatriates Conclusions References Migrant Organizations What Are Migrant Organizations? Number and Structure Their Role in Social Participation Multidimensionality and the Dynamic Character Interaction with their Environments Between the Countries of Origin and Arrival Conclusion References EU Internal Migration EU Internal Migration East-West Migration after the EU Enlargement Ireland United Kingdom Spain Portugal Greece Italy Germany Assessment of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Introduction Evolution of the Accreditation Debate The Importance of Accreditation Basic Principles Thus Far of the Accreditation of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Actors in the Accreditation Practice Reasons for Establishing a New Legal Framework The Professional Qualifications Assessment Act What Is Being Criticized? The Accreditation System in Transition Conclusion References From Home country to Home country? Context Motives Immigration and Integration in Turkey Identification Emigration or Return? References Integration in Figures Approaches Development Six Approaches Conclusion References Climate Change Introduction Estimates Affected areas Environmental migration Conclusion References Dual citizenship Discourse Classic objections Current debate Rule of law Conclusion References Female Labour Migration The labour market Dominant perceptions Skilled female migration Issues Conclusion References How Healthy are Migrants? Definition The Health Status Prevention/Barriers Migration and Health Conclusions References Networks Spain Migrant networks Effects of networks Romanian networks Conclusion References Integration Policy Introduction Demographic situation Economic conditions Labour market The case in Stuttgart Integration measures Evaluation Outlook References Irregular Migration Introduction The phenomenon Political approaches Controlling Sanctions Proposed directive Conclusions References Integration Courses Introduction The Netherlands France Germany United Kingdom Conclusions References Recruitment of Healthcare Professionals Introduction The Situation Health Worker Migration Costs and Benefits Perspectives and Conclusion References Triggering Skilled Migration Introduction Talking about mobility Legal framework Coming to Germany Mobility of scientists Other factors Conclusions References Remittances Introduction The Term Remittance Figures and Trends Effects Conclusion References EU Expansion and Free Movement Introduction Transitional Arrangements Economic Theory The Scale The Results Continued Restrictions Conclusion References The German "Green Card" Introduction Background Green Card regulation Success? Conclusion References Does Germany Need Labour Migration? Introduction Labour shortages Labourmarket Conclusion Labourmigration References Dutch Integration Model The "Dutch model"? The end? Intention and reality A new view Where next? References Impressum

Externalization: From a Line to an Area, from Entry Control to Exit Control

Mechthild Baumann

/ 10 Minuten zu lesen

Border patrol squad servicemen walk along the exclusion zone near Pererov, a border crossing between Belarus and Poland. (© picture-alliance/dpa)

With the development of the Schengen Agreement, the ministries in the Schengen states responsible for border management have gradually expanded the border line to become a border area. This means that the borders are no longer only surveilled at the line of demarcation between two states, but that the surveillance reaches further into the interior of the country and in doing so becomes increasingly less directly concerned with the border line. In 1998, the Austrian presidency placed this development on the agenda and suggested the concept of "concentric circles". Although this concept was not adopted, its basic idea of the Schengen states being a core with high border security influenced the configuration of European border policies. Neighboring states and other more distant states group around this core like concentric circles, each acting as a buffer for the core and securing it.

Schengen states, EU Member States and states that are included in the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) (© Eigene Darstellung nach: Wikimedia Commons (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BlankMap-Europe-v4.png), Urheber: Roke)

Freedom of Movement within the "Hard Core"

The Schengen states stand in the center of European border policies — persons are not controlled at their common border checkpoints. However the Schengen external borders are intensively surveilled according to common standards. The legal basis for this is the so-called Schengen Borders Code (Regulation 562/2006). This piece of legislation applies not only for citizens of the Schengen or EU states, but for everyone legally staying in this core, that is, in the Schengen area.

The freedom of movement of persons without controls was originally at the heart of the Schengen cooperation from which border policy has developed. This freedom of movement without controls is broadly considered one of the most important achievements of European integration. In recent years, however, it can be observed that this achievement has been in danger. In 2011, several Schengen states have demanded to facilitate the reintroduction of controls at their common borders. The incident that spurred this discussion was that Italy had given a large number of residence permits on humanitarian grounds to refugees who had crossed the Mediterranean, which enabled them to then travel further on into France.

Surveillance – Controls – Security: Is it all the same?

Generally, there is a difference between controls and surveillance. People, their documents and goods are controlled at border crossing stations, when entering by car at border checkpoints, by airplane at the airport or by ship in the harbor. The border areas between border checkpoints are surveilled. These areas are commonly known as "green borders" (forests, fields) or "blue borders" (sea). The goal of surveillance is the avoidance of people "bypassing the border checkpoints" (Schengen Borders Code).

Together, controls and surveillance are referred to as external border security or external border management.

Before border controls were abolished, the border lines between two Schengen countries were clearly visible as there were fences or walls. After the border controls were abolished, the fences and walls were also removed. However, the national borders themselves remained and were surveilled.

Border and Immigration Control Measures in the "Extended Core"

Surrounding the "hard core" is the extended core, which includes the EU states that are not members of the Schengen Agreement. These are on the one hand, states that do not wish to participate such as Great Britain or Ireland, and on the other hand EU states that have not (yet) joined the Schengen territory, such as Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and the new Member State, Croatia (as of July 2013). There are still border controls for people crossing into these EU countries. At the same time, these states largely carry out the measures designed for a common security of EU external borders.

Entry Conditions and Control Measures

The EU differentiates categories of incoming third-country nationals according to the form and legal status of their entry:

  • business travelers or tourists, who, just like EU citizens, are allowed to enter and stay for 90 days without prior authorization, for example citizens of Singapore, the USA or Chile;

  • business travelers or tourists who need entry authorization (a visa);

  • persons who flee to the EU because their safety is threatened and they therefore request protection (asylum);

  • persons who come from a state obliged to obtain a visa and anticipate that they will not be granted one and therefore enter illegally.

The EU allows special control measures for each of these groups, which are explained in more detail in the following paragraphs.

Visas

In order to be able to keep the internal borders open, the EU states agreed on common conditions to entry into their common territory, that is, in EU territory. For one, this includes a determination of those states whose citizens must apply for a visa if they wish to enter Schengen/EU territory as well as a list of those who are exempt from the visa requirement.

From 2004 onwards, the EU had the Visa Information System (VIS) developed in order to check whether a person has already applied for a visa before. The VIS serves as a hindrance for so-called "visa shopping". Visa shopping occurs when nationals from third countries apply for visas in multiple EU countries as a result of previously being refused a visa in another EU Member State. The VIS, however, can be used not only by immigration offices such as the German Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF), but now also by security agencies such as the police thanks to the Decision “concerning access for consultation of the VIS by designated authorities of Member States and by Europol for the purposes of the prevention, detection and investigation of terrorist offences and of other serious criminal offences” (VIS Decision) which entered into force on 1 September 2013.

Asylum

People who are persecuted in their country have the right to apply for asylum in the EU (Directive 2011/95/EU). The decision on whether an asylum seeker is granted asylum is made on an individual basis. In 1990, the Dublin Convention specified which EU country was responsible for processing an asylum application, at which time the EC countries agreed that the country into which the asylum seekers first entered would assume responsibility for the processing This arrangement was intended by the EC to help end the “asylum shopping” that was observed in several EC Member States.

To determine whether an asylum seeker has already previously submitted an application, the EC implemented the EURODAC database (lat. dactylos — finger), which stores the fingerprints of every asylum seeker. If a person submits an application for asylum, he or she is required to be fingerprinted. The authorities are then able to determine through the system whether that person has already filed for asylum in any other EC (today EU) country. If this is the case, or if the authorities can prove that the asylum seeker entered the EU via another country, then he or she is "transferred" back to that country. An exception here at the moment is Greece. The German federal government decided in 2011, before the Federal Constitutional Court had decided on a pending claim, not to send asylum seekers that had entered via Greece back for the asylum process given the inhuman conditions that the asylum seekers had to live under in Greece.

Border and Immigration Control Measures in the "Neighboring Zones"

All neighboring states of the EU as well as all non-EU countries are designated as third countries. This includes countries with accession prospects as well as those without. While safe third countries and the country of origin regulation are measures of immigration control, the EU also directly involves its neighbors in border management and in doing so creates a buffer zone. The idea behind this is to win over its neighbors to control and surveil their borders with the EU according to EU standards. The neighboring countries are supposed to prevent the illegal entry of migrants and criminals who try to enter the EU through these third countries. This involves a kind of trade in which both parties to the treaty perform a service. The service returned by the EU looks differently depending on the status of the neighboring country:

Border regimes with neighbors with the prospect of accession

For EU neighboring countries with the prospect of accession, this trade is clearly defined. Having the prospect of accession means that the country receives signals from the EU that it will one day have the opportunity to become an EU Member State.

Under the term pre-accession instruments the EU and its Member States offer the accession candidates numerous instruments, or forms of assistance for the preparation of their accession to the EU. These instruments are composed of monetary support, competencies, and facilities. Using the example of the last large EU enlargement in 2004, this system of instruments can be briefly outlined as follows:

Monetary support: Accession states were supported by the EU through the PHARE program . In addition, between 2004 and 2006 the acceding states received 961 million euro of special funding known as the Schengen Facility to upgrade their border controls.

Schengen Facility for Bulgaria and Romania

Article 32
(1) A Cash-flow and Schengen Facility is hereby created as a temporary instrument to help Bulgaria and Romania between the date of accession and the end of 2009 to finance actions at the new external borders of the Union for the implementation of the Schengen acquis and external border control and to help improve cash-flow in national budgets.

(2) For the period 2007-2009, the following amounts (2004 prices) shall be made available to Bulgaria and Romania in the form of lump-sum payments under the temporary Cash-flow and Schengen Facility (EUR million, 2004 prices):

200720082009
Bulgaria121,859,158,6
Romania297,2131,8130,8
Source: Treaty concerning the accession of the Republic of Bulgaria and Romania to the European Union, Externer Link: http://eur-lex.europa.eu

Capacities: The EU provides the means with which the EU Member States can support candidate states in preparing for accession through so-called Twinning. These Twinning measures are partnerships of an EU country with a candidate country to support the building up of border security according to Schengen standards. The measures are chiefly made up of equipment assistance (e.g. devices and facilities) and training, of which EU countries have made active use and not least, this has given them the opportunity to make their own security concepts, methods and technology accessible to the central and eastern European countries, all which differ considerably from those of the other EU countries.

Facilities: Through the program "Argo", the EU supported not only the training of border management experts, but also the construction of operative centers for the securing of the border.

Germany was especially involved in the events leading up to the "large round of enlargement" of ten central and eastern European countries in 2004. Between 1992 and 2004, the federal government supported Poland in strengthening its border security with a total of 6 million euro.

Application for EU Membership

According to the Treaty on European Union, every European country that holds the values of the EU may submit a membership application (Art. 49). To be accepted by the EU, an "accession candidate" must implement all applicable EU regulations and measures (acquis communautaire). Border policies have been included in the acquis communautaire since 1999. This means an accession candidate may not accede to the EU before it can first prove that its external borders are secured according to the current EU standards in addition to all other requirements that must be fulfilled.

Border regime with neighbors without prospects of accession: European Neighboring Policies and Mobility Partnerships

Firstly, there are also European countries that do not (yet) have any prospect of accession (for example Belarus, the Ukraine, or the Republic of Moldova) and then there are the southern neighboring states of the EU--the Mediterranean countries . The EU cannot return service for these countries in the form of an accession prospect, so instead offers these partners a "privileged relationship".

These "privileged relationships" were initially established in the so-called European Neighborhood Policy . This means that the EU grants financial support to these countries in order to enable them to:

  1. Set up democratic structures and good governance,

  2. Reform laws and establish capacities in the administration, and

  3. Implement measures for the reduction of poverty.

Furthermore, the EU makes agreements with these states to facilitate the issuances of visas for their citizens and to deepen trade relations with them. In return, these neighboring countries intensify controls at their own external borders and commit to taking back third country nationals who have been expelled from the EU (readmission agreements).

Surveillance of the Entire Mediterranean Region: EUROSUR

For the time being, the last stage of the geographic expansion of border surveillance is the EU’s plan to monitor its external borders in the Mediterranean Sea with satellites from space. The surveillance system is called Eurosur and is managed by Frontex. Since December 2013 it has been operable in EU states with external borders shared with Eastern Europe or on the Mediterranean Sea. In the other countries (Germany, among others) it will begin operation a year later.

Eurosur is a pan-European border surveillance system that, according to the EU, pursues three objectives:

  1. Reduce the number of illegal entries into the EU,

  2. Reduce the number of migrants who drown on their passage over the sea, and

  3. Increase the internal security of the EU by preventing serious crime at the external borders of the Schengen area.

Frontex will use Eurosur to collect data from the satellite surveillance of EU borders as well as ship reporting systems such as the Automatic Identification System (AIS) and the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) as well as from both manned and unmanned drones. Every EU country is supposed to establish a national coordination center to gain an overview of the situation at its own external borders. Frontex takes all the national overviews and data to then create a European Overview which contains information on "incidents concerning irregular migration, transnational crime and crisis situations". Moreover, Frontex puts together a "common pre-frontier intelligence picture". The "pre-frontier" area refers to the geographical area on the other side of the external borders of the EU Member States; an area that is not included in a national border surveillance system. The estimated costs for Eurosur for the period 2014-2020 run at 339 million euro. Eurosur is a manifestation of the aforementioned trend in immigration controls towards “intelligence-led” risk analysis. The EU will use Eurosur to evaluate all movements of people in order to generate risk overviews from the data.

This text is part of the policy brief on Interner Link: "Frontex and the EU Border Regime".

Fussnoten

Fußnoten

  1. Österreichische Ratspräsidentschaft [Austrian Presidency] (1998).

  2. bpb (2011).

  3. The Council decides on admission to the Schengen territory based on each individual accession treaty. As of the editorial deadline in September 2013, when the new EU Member States would in fact be in a position to abolish their border controls was still completely open.

  4. Regulation No. 539/2001.

  5. Council Decision 2008/633/JI.

  6. Directive 2011/95/EU on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection, for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible for subsidiary protection, and for the content of the protection granted.

  7. Dublin-Übereinkommen [Dublin Convention] (1997, p. 1).

  8. A "safe" country in this context is every country classified by the EU as "safe". "Safe" means that there is no threat to life or freedom on the basis of "race", religion, nationality, belonging to a specific social group or on the political conviction of the asylum seeker; that the principle of non-refoulement according to the Geneva Convention on Refugees is protected and that an asylum seeker has the possibility to apply to be recognized as a refugee. "Country of origin" is that state from which the non-EU citizen comes, whose citizenship he possesses. "Third countries" are non-EU countries through whose territory a non-EU citizen enters the EU, most often a neighboring country.

  9. Poland and Hungary: Aid for Reconstructing of the Economics (PHARE)

  10. Europäische Kommission [European Commission] (2007).

  11. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Malta and Cyprus.

  12. Speech by the Parliament’s State Secretary Fritz Rudolf Körper on 24 April 2004 at the Conference for International Cooperation in Zielona Góra in a press report from the Ministry of the Interior, 6 May 2004; Körper (2004).

  13. Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian areas, Lebanon, Syria, Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.

  14. European Neighborhood Policy: Externer Link: http://ec.europa.eu/world/enp/partners/index_de.htm (accessed 9-11-2013)

  15. European Commission (2013).

  16. EUROSUR: new tools to save migrants' lives at sea and fight cross-border crime, European Commission - MEMO/13/578 19/06/2013, Externer Link: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-13-578_en.htm (accessed 7-31-2013)

  17. Europäische Kommission [European Commission] (2008).

  18. Europäische Kommission [European Commission] (2011a, p. 20); Monroy (2013).

  19. Europäische Kommission [European Commission] (2011a, p. 15).

  20. Europäische Kommission [European Commission] (2011a, p. 10).

  21. Europäische Kommission [European Commission] (2011b, p. 10).

  22. Monroy (2012).

Lizenz

Dieser Text ist unter der Creative Commons Lizenz "CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 DE - Namensnennung - Nicht-kommerziell - Keine Bearbeitung 3.0 Deutschland" veröffentlicht. Autor/-in: Mechthild Baumann für bpb.de

Sie dürfen den Text unter Nennung der Lizenz CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 DE und des/der Autors/-in teilen.
Urheberrechtliche Angaben zu Bildern / Grafiken / Videos finden sich direkt bei den Abbildungen.
Sie wollen einen Inhalt von bpb.de nutzen?

Dr. Mechthild Baumann is director of studies at the European Academy Berlin and head of the Institute for Migration and Security Studies (IMSS).
Email: E-Mail Link: mechthild.baumann@imss-berlin.de