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Motives

Kurzdossiers "Paradise Left Behind" – Begleitmaterial zum Film "Es geht um differenzierte Bilder." – Ein Gespräch über Paradise Left Behind Die ägäischen Inseln: von Räumen des Transits zu Räumen der Immobilisierung 'Schengen', 'Dublin' und die Ambivalenzen der EU-Migrationspolitik. Eine kurze Geschichte Paradise Left Behind Migration und Wirtschaft Die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Zuwanderung Wie sich Migration auf die Herkunftsländer auswirkt Migrantische Ökonomien in Deutschland Fachkräfteengpässe und Arbeitsmigration nach Deutschland Migration und Handwerk – kurze Geschichte einer langen Verbindung Migration und Handwerk: Fachkräftemangel und integratives Potenzial Zugehörigkeit und Zusammenhalt in der Migrationsgesellschaft Was ist Heimat? Warum es so viel leichter ist über Nudelsalat zu reden als über Rassismus Die blinden Flecken antirassistischer Diskurse Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Was hält eine Gesellschaft zusammen? Konfliktbearbeitung ist der Klebstoff der Demokratie Sozialer Zusammenhalt und das Gefühl, fremd im eigenen Land zu sein Die Gruppe der Ostdeutschen als Teil postmigrantischer Integrationsfragen Kommunale Migrations- und Flüchtlingspolitik Der "local turn" in der Migrations- und Asylpolitik Kommunen und ihre Rolle bei der Flüchtlingsaufnahme Kommunale Aufnahme von Flüchtlingen Interview: Migrations- und integrationspolitische Debatten im Deutschen Städtetag Kommunale Integrationspolitik in Deutschland: Teilhabe vor Ort ermöglichen Zufluchtsstädte im amerikanischen Einwanderungsföderalismus Migration in städtischen und ländlichen Räumen Geflüchtete in ländlichen Räumen Perspektive Geflüchteter auf das Leben auf dem Land Landlust oder Landfrust? Fleischindustrie Migrantische Arbeitskräfte in der malaysischen Palmölindustrie (Il)legal? Migrant_innen in der spanischen Landwirtschaft Das Wachstum der Städte durch Migration Migration und Männlichkeit Männlichkeit im Migrationskontext Muslimische Männlichkeit Väterlichkeiten Intersektionale Diskriminierung Sozialisation junger Muslime Migration – Kriminalität – Männlichkeit Migration und Sicherheit Einführung Migration und menschliche Sicherheit Foreign Fighters "Gefährder" Smart Borders Grenzkontrollen: Einblicke in die grenzpolizeiliche Praxis Die Polizei in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft Interview Radikalisierung in der Migrationsgesellschaft Schlepper: Dekonstruktion eines Mythos "Racial Profiling", institutioneller Rassismus und Interventionsmöglichkeiten Migration und Klimawandel Umwelt- und Klimamigration: Begriffe und Definitionen Zur Prognose des Umfangs klimabedingter Migrationen Der Zusammenhang zwischen Klimawandel und Migration Indikator für Verwundbarkeit oder Resilienz? Klimawandel, Migration und Geschlechterverhältnisse Rechtliche Schutzmöglichkeiten für "Klimaflüchtlinge" Interview mit Ulf Neupert Frauen in der Migration Migration qualifizierter Frauen in der EU Selbstorganisation geflüchteter Frauen* "Gastarbeiterinnen" in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Ein Überblick in Zahlen Migration und Geschlechterrollen Frauen auf der Flucht Interview Zahlenwerk: Frauen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland Integrationskurse Geschlechtsbezogene Verfolgung – Rechtlicher Schutz Geflüchtete Frauen in Deutschland Kinder- und Jugendmigration Zahlenwerk Kindertransporte Die "Schwabenkinder" Kinder- und Jugendmigration aus GB Menschenrechte von Kindermigranten Third Culture Kids Kindersoldat_Innen Adoption und Kindermigration Kinderhandel Lebensborn e.V. Grenzzäune und -mauern Mauern und Zäune Integrationspolitik Integrationsmonitoring Integrationstheorien Interview mit Andreas Zick Integration in superdiverse Nachbarschaften Migration und Entwicklung Entwicklung und Migration, Umsiedlung und Klimawandel Migration und Entwicklung – eine neue Perspektive? Stand der Forschung Rücküberweisungen Diaspora als Impulsgeberin für Entwicklung Landgrabbing Interview mit Roman Herre Strukturumbrüche und Transformation Diaspora Was ist eine Diaspora? Exil, Diaspora, Transmigration Diaspora: Leben im Spannungsfeld Türkeistämmige in Deutschland Postsowjetische Migranten Polnische Diaspora Vietnamesische Diaspora Kurdische Diaspora Diaspora als Akteur der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Russlanddeutsche und andere postsozialistische Migranten Wer sind die Russlanddeutschen? Aussiedler Politische Partizipation von Russlanddeutschen Russlanddeutsches Verbandswesen Religiosität unter Russlanddeutschen Interview mit Peter Dück Russlanddeutsche in Russland Russlanddeutsche transnational Jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge und Russlanddeutsche Transnationalismus als Beheimatungsstrategie Aushandlungen der Zugehörigkeit russlanddeutscher Jugendlicher Mediennutzung der russischen Diaspora in Deutschland 'Russische' Supermärkte und Restaurants in Deutschland Perspektiven auf die Integration von Geflüchteten in Deutschland Arbeitsmarktperspektiven von Geflüchteten Interview mit Gesa Hune Meinung: Geflüchtete fördern - oder es kann teuer werden Effekte der Fluchtmigration - Interview mit Prof. Dr. Herbert Brücker "Die müssen die Sprache lernen" Fremd- bzw. Zweitspracherwerb von Geflüchteten Die Arbeitsmarktintegration Geflüchteter in der Vergangenheit "Wohnst Du schon – oder wirst Du noch untergebracht?" Inklusion in das Schulsystem Ein Jahr Integrationsgesetz Interview mit Prof. Dr. Julia von Blumenthal Über die Zusammenhänge von Religion und Integration Interview: Digitale Bildungsangebote als Chance für Integration Innerafrikanische Migrationen Konsequenzen der Auslagerung der EU-Grenzen Kindermigration in Burkina Faso Flucht und Vertreibung Migranten als Akteure der Globalisierung Migrations- und Fluchtpfade Marokko Libyen Abschiebungen nach Afrika Leben nach der Abschiebung Flüchtlingslager Begriff und Geschichte des Lagers Orte der dauerhaften Vorläufigkeit: Flüchtlingslager im globalen Süden "Das Leben im Flüchtlingslager wird zur Normalität" Urbanisierungsprozesse Kleine Geschichte der Flüchtlingslager Lager in der Weimarer Republik Schlotwiese Uelzen-Bohldamm Friedland Zirndorf Marienfelde Das Jahr 2016: Ein Rückblick Globale Flüchtlingskrise hält weiter an Diskussion um kriminelle Geflüchtete Europa Literatur Resettlement Was ist Resettlement? Historische Entwicklung Resettlement durch UNHCR Resettlement im Vergleich zu anderen Aufnahmeprogrammen Aufnahme und Integration EU und Resettlement Deutschland Zukunft des Resettlements Literatur Akteure im (inter-)nationalen (Flucht-)Migrationsregime Akteure in Migrationsregimen und das Aushandeln von Migration Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge Die Europäische Grenzschutzagentur Frontex Die Asylagentur der Europäischen Union: neue Agentur, alte Herausforderungen UNHCR UNRWA – das UN-Hilfswerk für Palästina-Flüchtlinge im Nahen Osten Die Internationale Organisation für Migration (IOM) "Migration ist ein globales Thema, auf das es auch globale Antworten geben sollte." Flucht und Asyl: Grundlagen Abschiebung in der Geschichte Deutschlands Wie ist das Asylrecht entstanden? Das Asylverfahren in Deutschland Schutzanspruch im deutschen Asylverfahren? Sichere Herkunftsländer Das Konzept "sichere Herkunftsstaaten" Definition für Duldung und verbundene Rechte Flüchtlingsaufnahme und ihre Folgen Fluchtziel Deutschland Freiwillige Rückkehr Unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete Abschiebung – Ausweisung – Dublin-Überstellung Begriff und Figur des Flüchtlings in historischer Perspektive Zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement Ehrenamtliches Engagement von Geflüchteten Interview mit J. Olaf Kleist Engagement in der Migrationsgesellschaft Politische Proteste von Geflüchteten Proteste gegen Abschiebungen Zivilgesellschaft und Integration Städte der Solidarität – ein Interview Beim Kirchenasyl geht es um den Schutz des Einzelnen. Ein Gespräch. Zivilgesellschaftliche Initiativen für sichere Fluchtwege – ein Überblick Migrantenorganisationen – vielfältige Akteurinnen gesamtgesellschaftlicher Integration (Flucht-)Migration und Gesundheit Medizinische Versorgung Interview David Zimmermann Definition von Migration Gesundheitszustand von Migranten Barrieren/ Prävention Erklärungsmodelle Schlussfolgerungen Literatur Das Jahr 2015: Ein Rückblick Fluchtmigration: Hintergründe Verwaltungs- und Infrastrukturkrise EU: Reaktionen auf die Fluchtzuwanderung Flüchtlingszahlen weltweit Internationale Studierende Einleitung Bildungsmigration Internationale Studierende Internationale Studierende in Deutschland Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt Literatur Migration und Pflege Einführung Altern in der Migrationsgesellschaft Interview mit Helma Lutz Deutsche Asylpolitik und EU-Flüchtlingsschutz Einleitung Flüchtlingsrecht Asylrecht, Flüchtlingspolitik, humanitäre Zuwanderung Flucht und Asyl als europäisiertes Politikfeld Asyl und Asylpolitik Ausblick Literatur Integration in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft Einleitung Die postmigrantische Gesellschaft Paradigmenwandel Brauchen wir den Integrationsbegriff noch? Integration als Metanarrativ Notwendigkeit eines neuen Leitbildes Literatur Lifestyle Migration Was ist Lifestyle Migration? Briten in Spanien Einen neuen Lebensstil entdecken Folgen des Residenztourismus Zusammenfassung Literatur Wahlrecht und Partizipation von Migranten Einleitung Politische Rechte und Kommunalwahlrecht Wahlrecht für Drittstaatsangehörige Einbürgerung Aktuelle Entwicklungen Schlussbemerkungen Literatur Frontex und das Grenzregime der EU Einleitung Frontex – Fragen und Antworten Die Entwicklung des europäischen Grenzregimes Externalisierung Technologisierung Grenzwirtschaft/border economies Auf der anderen Seite des Grenzzauns Ist Einwanderung ein Risiko? Literatur Demografischer Wandel und Migration Einleitung Demografischer Übergang Deutschland und Europa Internationale Wanderung Integration und Reproduktionsverhalten Wanderungspolitik Regionale Muster Literatur Glossar English Version: Policy Briefs "Having a nationality is not a given, it is a privilege" Sanctuary and Anti-Sanctuary Immigration Law in the United States Migrant Smugglers Urbanizing Skilled Female Migrants in the EU Self-Organization of Women* Refugees Impact of Migration Revisited Child and Youth Migration Human Rights Protections Migration from the United Kingdom Adoption and Child Migration Third Culture Kids Trafficking in Children Actors in National and International (Flight)Migration Regimes UNHCR UNRWA International Organization for Migration The International Organization for Migration (IOM) German Asylum Policy and EU Refugee Protection Introduction Refugee Law Asylum Law, Refugee Policy, Humanitarian Migration Flight and Asylum Current Developments Current and Future Challenges References Integration in a Post-Migrant Society Introduction Post-Migrant Society Paradigm Shift Do We Still Need the Concept of Integration? Integration as a Metanarrative Need for a New Concept References Lifestyle Migration What Is Lifestyle Migration? British in Spain Realizing a New Style of Life Outcomes of Lifestyle Migration Conclusion References Voting rights and political participation Introduction Political and Municipal Voting Rights Voting Rights for Nationals of Non-EU States Naturalization Recent Developments Conclusions References Frontex and the EU Border Regime Introduction Frontex — Questions and Answers The Development of a European Border Regime Externalization Technologization Border Economies On the Other Side of the Border Fence Is Migration a Risk? References Demographic Change and Migration in Europe Introduction Demographic Transition Germany and Europe International Migration Reproductive Behavior Migration Policy Regional Patterns Glossary Further Reading Global Migration in the Future Introduction Increase of the World Population Growth of Cities Environmental Changes Conclusion: Political Migration References Germans Abroad Introduction Germans Abroad Expatriates in Hong Kong and Thailand Human Security Concerns of German Expatriates Conclusions References Migrant Organizations What Are Migrant Organizations? Number and Structure Their Role in Social Participation Multidimensionality and the Dynamic Character Interaction with their Environments Between the Countries of Origin and Arrival Conclusion References EU Internal Migration EU Internal Migration East-West Migration after the EU Enlargement Ireland United Kingdom Spain Portugal Greece Italy Germany Assessment of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Introduction Evolution of the Accreditation Debate The Importance of Accreditation Basic Principles Thus Far of the Accreditation of Qualifications Acquired Abroad Actors in the Accreditation Practice Reasons for Establishing a New Legal Framework The Professional Qualifications Assessment Act What Is Being Criticized? The Accreditation System in Transition Conclusion References From Home country to Home country? Context Motives Immigration and Integration in Turkey Identification Emigration or Return? References Integration in Figures Approaches Development Six Approaches Conclusion References Climate Change Introduction Estimates Affected areas Environmental migration Conclusion References Dual citizenship Discourse Classic objections Current debate Rule of law Conclusion References Female Labour Migration The labour market Dominant perceptions Skilled female migration Issues Conclusion References How Healthy are Migrants? Definition The Health Status Prevention/Barriers Migration and Health Conclusions References Networks Spain Migrant networks Effects of networks Romanian networks Conclusion References Integration Policy Introduction Demographic situation Economic conditions Labour market The case in Stuttgart Integration measures Evaluation Outlook References Irregular Migration Introduction The phenomenon Political approaches Controlling Sanctions Proposed directive Conclusions References Integration Courses Introduction The Netherlands France Germany United Kingdom Conclusions References Recruitment of Healthcare Professionals Introduction The Situation Health Worker Migration Costs and Benefits Perspectives and Conclusion References Triggering Skilled Migration Introduction Talking about mobility Legal framework Coming to Germany Mobility of scientists Other factors Conclusions References Remittances Introduction The Term Remittance Figures and Trends Effects Conclusion References EU Expansion and Free Movement Introduction Transitional Arrangements Economic Theory The Scale The Results Continued Restrictions Conclusion References The German "Green Card" Introduction Background Green Card regulation Success? Conclusion References Does Germany Need Labour Migration? Introduction Labour shortages Labourmarket Conclusion Labourmigration References Dutch Integration Model The "Dutch model"? The end? Intention and reality A new view Where next? References Impressum

Motives

Vera Hanewinkel

/ 13 Minuten zu lesen

In the study conducted by the Liljeberg and the INFO institutes, no explicit questions were asked concerning the participants’ reasons for planning a return to Turkey. The interviewees were simply asked to indicate their opinion of the following statement: "In Turkey I would have good possibilities for obtaining a well-paid job." The findings of the study, which are broken down according to level of education/level of training, show that especially those individuals who have at least completed the university entrance qualification or Abitur or have obtained a university degree agree with this statement. Fifty-two percent of those in this group answered yes to this statement and thus see good professional opportunities for themselves in Turkey.

Offices of a media corporation in Istanbul, Turkey. (© picture-alliance/dpa)

This result according to which people of Turkish descent with higher education qualifications show a more marked willingness to relocate than less(er) qualified people correlates with data from studies on the general link between education and mobility behavior. According to this, people with an academic degree are more mobile than the comparison group of those who lack a university degree. With respect to emigrating German citizens, Sauer/Ette have shown that they represent a positively selected group: 49 percent have a university degree as compared with 29 percent in the non-mobile German population. The migration behavior of people of Turkish origin in Germany thus matches in its trend that of people without an immigrant background and does not, as a result, stand out at first sight, particularly since cross-border mobility is already a part of their family history and hence also of their own biography. The question therefore arises as to the motives for leaving Germany and the choice of Turkey as a migration destination. While the Liljeberg/INFO study only examines the reasons for emigration indirectly and, in doing so, mainly addresses the aspect of a well-paid job in Turkey, the TASD study emphasizes especially those factors in the country of origin, Germany, which encourage emigration.

As reasons for emigration the TASD study mainly emphasizes "the lack of a sense of home in Germany," "professional reasons," and "economic reasons." Subsumed under the last two reasons are, among others, assumptions of the interviewees concerning better career prospects and better prospects for rapid promotion in Turkey. According to the authors, the results of the study thus raise the question of the discrimination of people of Turkish descent in the German labor market. This idea takes up the issues posed by studies on the discrimination of job seekers of Turkish origin in Germany. Kaas/Manger (2010) found that applicants with Turkish-sounding names, despite having German as their mother tongue and despite their being German citizens, had poorer chances of being invited to job interviews than those with German names. Studies by the OECD (2007/2010) reached the conclusion that academics from immigrant families in Germany are more often affected by unemployment than academics without an immigrant history. These findings were explained by reference to ethnic discrimination in the labor market. The actual scale of this discrimination can, however, only be gauged with difficulty, since it is veiled by significant structural disadvantages experienced by the second generation of immigrants because of their lower levels of education, which result in limited access to the labor market. Overall low rates of employment and hence limited access to the labor market can be seen especially among women of Turkish origin. It is fair to assume that (Turkish) women immigrants are exposed to double discrimination, since they are disadvantaged in the labor market both because of their origins (ethnic discrimination) and because of their gender. This could also explain the findings of the TASD study, according to which the women interviewees indicated a greater willingness to emigrate than male participants in the study. In addition, graduates of Turkish descent, who usually come from working-class families – that is, non-academic backgrounds – do not have access to networks enabling them to enter into academic employment sectors, which can be seen as an additional reason for their discrimination in the German labor market.

Findings of Sievers et al. indicate that the performance levels achieved by people of Turkish origin in Germany striving to climb the educational ladder do not always receive due recognition. The authors suggest that a lack of recognition of both the person as such and of their achievements may account for their emigration from Germany. By recognition they understand the "experience of belonging and respect." According to Honneth’s and Stojanov’s argumentation, such recognition is "essential for a person’s social existence and their integration into society." This insight is also reflected in demands for a "culture of recognition" or for a "welcoming culture" that is inherent to, for example, concepts of the "intercultural opening" (of administrative bodies, etc.) – a currently much discussed concept in Germany to better integrate people of foreign descent into the labor market.

Economic Reasons for Emigrating


Findings from qualitative studies by Aydın/Pusch (not yet concluded) and Hanewinkel (2010, unpublished) on the emigration of highly qualified people of Turkish origin do not confirm the TASD study’s statement according to which unfavorable occupational prospects in Germany constitute a critical factor behind the interviewees’ decision to emigrate. Rather, the majority of the interviewees were well integrated into the German labor market before their emigration to Turkey. Nonetheless, professional as well as economic (career) considerations did play an important role in the decision to emigrate. This is especially emphasized by Aydın/Pusch. Among the economic reasons for emigrating are aspects such as the improved prospects for promotion in the target country, a more attractive job, or an improvement in the person’s financial situation. Theoretically, these reasons for emigrating are taken up above all in the neo-classical push-pull models of migration. The focus of this approach is on a profit-maximizing individual (homo oeconomicus) who, making use of rational points of view and weighing the economic pros and cons of two countries, decides in favor of emigration, provided that this promises an improvement in the individual’s own financial situation. These models have been criticized in that they fail to take into account individual (emotional) motives for emigrating as well the impact of social networks (family, relatives, friends and acquaintances, etc.) on the decision to emigrate.

In the case of highly qualified individuals of Turkish origin, it can be seen that geographic mobility not infrequently is aimed at professional and social advancement. The increasing presence of German companies in Turkey enables emigration through job placement in the in-house labor market. Academics of Turkish descent are wanted for key positions in the Turkish branches of these firms because of their socialization in Turkish and German society as well as because of their knowledge of both languages.

The continued high level of economic growth in Turkey in recent years also appears attractive. Following an economic downturn during the economic crisis of 2008–2009, the country quickly recovered. In 2010 already, the Turkish economy again experienced significant growth amounting to 8.9 percent. The upward trend continued. In the first six months of 2011, the Turkish economy with an average increase of 10.2 percent achieved the highest rate of growth worldwide , resulting in Turkey being called a "new China." By contrast, the German economy showed substantially less dynamics. In 2011 it recorded growth amounting to a relatively low 2.6 percent.

Western Turkey in particular is the big winner in the country’s economic development. In this way, a substantial structural divide has developed between the economically booming western part of Turkey and the agricultural east of Turkey. The search for improved living and working conditions draws large segments of the rural population into the cities. For years now, Istanbul in particular has been one of the principal regions of destination for these rural-urban migrations.

Western Turkey is also the main destination of highly qualified people of Turkish origin emigrating from Germany. The majority end up in cities such as Izmir or Istanbul, which are considered modern, cosmopolitan, and progressive and promise Western lifestyles and the prospect of a European standard of living. Female emigrants in particular prefer these destinations. Highly qualified women of Turkish descent, as Hanewinkel (2010) has found out, also hope, by relocating the center of their lives to Turkey, to obtain better opportunities for advancement, since more female staff can be found in management positions in Turkey than in Germany.

  • "So I was absolutely sure that with the qualifications I have I would go further in Turkey than in Germany. Here there are more women at the top than in Germany. I don’t know if everyone knows this but it is really a very important reason for me...something one simply has to take into account."

This judgment confirms the findings of a study from 2010 done by the international business consulting firm Hay Group. According to this, in Germany there are fewer women represented both in lower (percentage of women: approx. 20 percent) and in top management positions (percentage of women: approx. 7 percent) than in Turkey (lower management positions: approx. 30 percent; top management positions: approx. 12 percent). The opportunities for women are especially good in the Turkish banking sector: at the middle management level, 75 percent of the positions are held by women. These figures stand in marked contrast to the general rate of employment among women in Turkey, which at a mere 24 percent in the OECD comparison (approx. 58 percent) is extremely low.

Qualifications acquired in Germany are given due recognition in Turkey. Highly qualified interviewees of Turkish origin in Istanbul indicated that a degree obtained at a German university is highly regarded in Turkey. In the same way, they profited from their knowledge of foreign languages acquired there and from their work experiences in a German or international firm.

Whereas Sievers et al., Aydın/Pusch as well as the TASD study for their part stress the importance of economic reasons in the decision to emigrate, the findings of Hanewinkel (2010) concerning female emigrants of Turkish origin point to the fact that these reasons play a somewhat subordinate role in the decision to emigrate. Her interviewees indicated that they had come to Turkey primarily for emotional reasons (see below). The desire to try out for once what it feels like to live in Turkey becomes an essential part of one’s own ideas of self-actualization:

  • "Turkey was ALWAYS in the background, in other words, that at some point I want to return, or just want to try out if it works. In other words, not because I absolutely want to return to Turkey but rather because I asked myself whether I would feel comfortable in Istanbul. [...] But like I said, for many years I always had it at the back of my mind, that is, like a kind of back door which I always held open for myself."

This wish can only be realized and translated into action, however, under the condition that one is occupationally integrated into the Turkish labor market. Internships during one’s studies – often completed in the Turkish branch of a German firm – introduce the individual to the Turkish labor market. The field of study chosen is in the case of some interviewees directly aimed at the (presumed) needs of the Turkish economy.

Thus, while the reason for emigrating may be an emotional one, the translation of the migration project into action often takes an economic form. At the same time, it should be noted that decisions to emigrate are usually not taken for a single reason alone but rather that different motives accumulate, which contributes to making the study of migration decisions complex.

Although financial factors may play an entirely subordinate role before emigration and do not necessarily tip the scales in favor of the decision to emigrate, they take on increasing significance after emigration according to Hanewinkel’s findings, since the interviewees do not wish to forego the living standard they are accustomed to in Germany. In the short term and directly related to the change in country of residence, financial losses are indeed accepted. In the long term, however, all interviewees aspire to a living standard similar to or higher than that they had in Germany. This can only succeed when the emigrants successfully position themselves in the Turkish labor market and find employment appropriate to the qualifications they acquired in Germany, with corresponding levels of compensation. Especially in cities such as Istanbul in which, according to surveys, currently the cost of living in part exceeds that in big German cities , the consequence is that the accumulation of financial resources also has a decisive impact on the length of stay in Turkey. The findings of Hanewinkel (2010) suggest that a return to Germany or the move to another country then becomes likely when definite long-lasting losses in the living standard emerge. On the whole then, emigration to Turkey can be interpreted as an open-ended process.

Emotional Reasons for Emigrating


Among the non-financial reasons for emigrating are varied aspects of personal "plans for self-actualization," which cannot be discussed here in detail. As a result, only a few points of emphasis can be indicated here, which are intended to show the range of these motives. The impulse behind the emigration of highly qualified people of Turkish descent is often provided by relationships with family and relatives (networks) in Turkey, which have been cultivated since childhood through family vacations in Turkey. In this way, the feeling also evolves that one is already familiar with life in Turkey. This is also strengthened in part through study visits to Turkey (semester abroad). With this, findings of more recent migration research are confirmed according to which networks, that is, social contacts in the target country as well as previous experiences abroad, for example in the form of study visits, further the decision to emigrate.

The feeling of already being familiar with life in Turkey also evolves because of the fact that many emigrants do not consider Turkey to be a foreign country but instead feel as at home in Turkey as in Germany.. In contrast to the TASD study, which singles out the "lack of a sense of home in Germany" as one of the main reasons for emigrating, the studies of Aydın/Pusch, Hanewinkel, and Sievers et al. point to a double orientation of highly qualified emigrants of Turkish origin. According to them, the interviewees do not regard either Germany or Turkey as their home country but instead consider both countries to be such. Through social networks and the media but also through physical movement itself (vacations, study visits, etc.), relationships are cultivated in both countries. Their connection with Turkey is also reinforced through their parents, who in many cases came to Germany as "guest workers." The majority of the female emigrants of Turkish descent interviewed by Hanewinkel report being marked in their childhood and youth by the desire of their parents to return to Turkey. According to them, this desire became noticeable because the family symbolically always lived "on the go":

  • "At home we only watched Turkish television. We only read Turkish newspapers [...]. All my parents’ plans had to do with Turkey. In Germany we led a very spartan life. We never bought new furniture, for example. Always used furniture, because we wanted to leave. Things were that way for 30 years. For 30 years we wanted to leave and didn’t buy any furniture."

For one interviewee the purchase of one’s own home symbolizes the admission that the "dream of returning" has "collapsed." As the eldest daughter, she sees herself as bearing special responsibility for transforming her parents’ dream into reality, a dream which over time has also become her own.

Whether and to what extent the remigration of former "guest workers," which often takes place in retirement age, has an impact on the emigration of their descendants to Turkey and to what extent the emigration of the second generation of immigrants may also contribute to the return of their parents to the home country, remains unclear. Hanewinkel’s studies suggest that an impact in both directions is conceivable. One of her interviewees relocated the center of of her life to Turkey, since her parents had returned there after a stay of many years in Germany. Another interviewee described how her own emigration to Turkey prompted her parents to carry out their long-held plans to return to Turkey. Since their children live in Germany and in Turkey, they now commute back and forth between these two countries.

Alongside family ties in Turkey, a partnership or marriage with a person living in Turkey can also lead to emigration from Germany, provided that the relationship because of the employment of the partner in Turkey, for example, appears to be more easily achieved there than in Germany.

The appeal of Istanbul with its varied lifestyles is a further emotional reason for the emigration of highly qualified people of Turkish origin to Turkey. Many-faceted cultural and entertainment offerings, the "cultural" diversity of the population, but also the mood of new economic beginnings in the Bosporus metropolis, exert an attraction. The primary focus among emigrants is not necessarily on the desire for a life in their parents’ home country Turkey, but expressly on the own desire to live in Istanbul:

  • "Istanbul has always been a dream city for me. [...] So it was more the city, that is, Turkey not now necessarily the focus, it was first Istanbul and THEN Turkey maybe, in other words, Turkey in brackets."

This text is part of the policy brief on Interner Link: "The Emigration of Highly Qualified German Citizens of Turkish Descent to Turkey".

Fussnoten

Fußnoten

  1. Liljeberg/INFO (2011, p. 33).

  2. ^Cf. also Rebeggiani (2011).

  3. Ette/Sauer (2011). The authors nevertheless point out that more highly qualified Germans return from abroad than emigrants who lack an academic degree (Ette/Sauer 2010a, p. 8). Therefore, academics are overall more mobile than people who lack a university degree.

  4. Sezer/Dağlar (2009, p. 17).

  5. OECD (2005, p. 52 f.).

  6. Cf. OECD (2005, p. 22).

  7. Sezer/Dağlar (2009, p. 7).

  8. Sievers et al. (2010, p. 65).

  9. Sievers et al. (2010, p. 71).

  10. Honneth/Stojanov (2006).

  11. Cf. Pusch/Aydın (2011), Hanewinkel (2010).

  12. http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/Tuerkei/Wirtschaft_node.html (accessed: 12-28-2011).

  13. http://www.focus.de/finanzen/news/konjunktur/wirtschaftswachstum-tuerkei-ist-das-neue-china_aid_664402.html (accessed: 12-28-2011).

  14. http://www.focus.de/finanzen/finanz-news/deutschland-wirtschaftswachstum-geht-weiter-0-5-prozent-im-letzten-quartal_aid_684474.html (accessed: 12-28-2011).

  15. Sezer/Dağlar (2009, p. 21).

  16. Interview extract, Hanewinkel (2010).

  17. http://www.presseportal.de/pm/66526/1580155/hay_group (accessed: 12-28-2011).

  18. http://www.euractiv.de/druck-version/artikel/bankensektor-mit-topchancen-fr-trkinnen-003806 (accessed: 02-15-2012).

  19. Böhm et al. (2011, p. 1) and http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/Tuerkei/Wirtschaft_node.html (accessed: 12-28-2011).

  20. Hanewinkel (2010).

  21. Interview extract, Hanewinkel (2010).

  22. Hanewinkel (2010).

  23. Cost of Living Survey 2011 by the Mercer consulting agency: http://www.mercer.com/press-releases/1420615 (accessed: 1-4-2012): in a worldwide comparison of cities, Istanbul ranks 70th (in the previous year: 44th) in the list of the world’s most expensive cities. Frankfurt am Main managed to rank as the highest placed German city at 73rd and thus ranks behind the Bosporus metropolis.

  24. For example, in 2007 two special surveys for the longitudinal study Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) on Germans’ willingness to emigrate vs. their actual emigration demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of the interviewees with serious thoughts of emigrating/plans to emigrate regularly cultivate contacts in the potential target country for their emigration. Previous experiences with foreign stays, for example during one’s studies, increase the willingness to emigrate and contribute to the development of social networks outside Germany (Diehl et al. 2008).

  25. Interview extract, Hanewinkel (2010).

  26. Sievers et al.(2010), Hanewinkel (2010).

  27. Aydın/Pusch (2011), Hanewinkel (2010), Sievers et al. (2010).

  28. Interview extract, Hanewinkel (2010).

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Vera Hanewinkel is research assistant at the Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies (IMIS) of the University of Osnabrueck, Germany. E-mail: vera.hanewinkel@uni-osnabrueck.de